Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 787

Search results for: spent fuel pool.

787 The Model Establishment and Analysis of TRACE/FRAPTRAN for Chinshan Nuclear Power Plant Spent Fuel Pool

Authors: J. R. Wang, H. T. Lin, Y. S. Tseng, W. Y. Li, H. C. Chen, S. W. Chen, C. Shih

Abstract:

TRACE is developed by U.S. NRC for the nuclear power plants (NPPs) safety analysis. We focus on the establishment and application of TRACE/FRAPTRAN/SNAP models for Chinshan NPP (BWR/4) spent fuel pool in this research. The geometry is 12.17 m × 7.87 m × 11.61 m for the spent fuel pool. In this study, there are three TRACE/SNAP models: one-channel, two-channel, and multi-channel TRACE/SNAP model. Additionally, the cooling system failure of the spent fuel pool was simulated and analyzed by using the above models. According to the analysis results, the peak cladding temperature response was more accurate in the multi-channel TRACE/SNAP model. The results depicted that the uncovered of the fuels occurred at 2.7 day after the cooling system failed. In order to estimate the detailed fuel rods performance, FRAPTRAN code was used in this research. According to the results of FRAPTRAN, the highest cladding temperature located on the node 21 of the fuel rod (the highest node at node 23) and the cladding burst roughly after 3.7 day.

Keywords: TRACE, FRAPTRAN, SNAP, spent fuel pool.

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786 Estimation of the Spent Fuel Pool Water Temperature at a Loss-of-Pool-Cooling Accident

Authors: Chan Hee Park, Arim Lee, Jung Min Lee, Joo Hyun Moon

Abstract:

Accident in spent fuel pool (SFP) of Fukushima Daiichi Unit 4 showed the importance of continuous monitoring of the key environmental parameters such as water temperature, water level, and radiation level in the SFP at accident conditions. Because the SFP water temperature is one of the key parameters indicating SFP conditions, its behavior at accident conditions shall be understood to prepare appropriate measures. This study estimated temporal change in the SFP water temperature at Kori Unit 1 with 587 MWe for 1 hour after initiation of a loss-of-pool-cooling accident. For the estimation, ANSYS CFX 13.0 code was used. The estimation showed that the increasing rate of the water temperature was 3.90C per hour and the SFP water temperature could reach 1000C in 25.6 hours after the initiation of loss-of-pool-cooling accident.

Keywords: Spent fuel pool, water temperature, Kori Unit 1, a loss-of-pool-cooling accident.

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785 Two-Dimensional Modeling of Spent Nuclear Fuel Using FLUENT

Authors: Imane Khalil, Quinn Pratt

Abstract:

In a nuclear reactor, an array of fuel rods containing stacked uranium dioxide pellets clad with zircalloy is the heat source for a thermodynamic cycle of energy conversion from heat to electricity. After fuel is used in a nuclear reactor, the assemblies are stored underwater in a spent nuclear fuel pool at the nuclear power plant while heat generation and radioactive decay rates decrease before it is placed in packages for dry storage or transportation. A computational model of a Boiling Water Reactor spent fuel assembly is modeled using FLUENT, the computational fluid dynamics package. Heat transfer simulations were performed on the two-dimensional 9x9 spent fuel assembly to predict the maximum cladding temperature for different input to the FLUENT model. Uncertainty quantification is used to predict the heat transfer and the maximum temperature profile inside the assembly.

Keywords: Spent nuclear fuel, conduction, heat transfer, uncertainty quantification.

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784 The Model Establishment and Analysis of TRACE/MELCOR for Kuosheng Nuclear Power Plant Spent Fuel Pool

Authors: W. S. Hsu, Y. Chiang, Y. S. Tseng, J. R. Wang, C. Shih, S. W. Chen

Abstract:

Kuosheng nuclear power plant (NPP) is a BWR/6 plant in Taiwan. There is more concern for the safety of NPPs in Taiwan after Japan Fukushima NPP disaster occurred. Hence, in order to estimate the safety of Kuosheng NPP spent fuel pool (SFP), by using TRACE, MELCOR, and SNAP codes, the safety analysis of Kuosheng NPP SFP was performed. There were two main steps in this research. First, the Kuosheng NPP SFP models were established. Second, the transient analysis of Kuosheng SFP was done by TRACE and MELCOR under the cooling system failure condition (Fukushima-like condition). The results showed that the calculations of MELCOR and TRACE were very similar in this case, and the fuel uncover happened roughly at 4th day after the failure of cooling system. The above results indicated that Kuosheng NPP SFP may be unsafe in the case of long-term SBO situation. In addition, future calculations were needed to be done by the other codes like FRAPTRAN for the cladding calculations.

Keywords: TRACE, MELCOR, SNAP, spent fuel pool.

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783 Experimental Investigation of Heat Transfer on Vertical Two-Phased Closed Thermosyphon

Authors: M. Hadi Kusuma, Nandy Putra, Anhar Riza Antariksawan, Ficky Augusta Imawan

Abstract:

Heat pipe is considered to be applied as a passive system to remove residual heat that generated from reactor core when incident occur or from spent fuel storage pool. The objectives are to characterized the heat transfer phenomena, performance of heat pipe, and as a model for large heat pipe will be applied as passive cooling system on nuclear spent fuel pool storage. In this experimental wickless heat pipe or two-phase closed thermosyphon (TPCT) is used. Variation of heat flux are 611.24 Watt/m2 - 3291.29 Watt/m2. Variation of filling ratio are 45 - 70%. Variation of initial pressure are -62 to -74 cm Hg. Demineralized water is used as working fluid in the TPCT. The results showed that increasing of heat load leads to an increase of evaporation of the working fluid. The optimum filling ratio obtained for 60% of TPCT evaporator volume, and initial pressure variation gave different TPCT wall temperature characteristic. TPCT showed best performance with 60% filling ratio and can be consider to be applied as passive residual heat removal system or passive cooling system on spent fuel storage pool.

Keywords: Two-phase closed thermo syphon, heat pipe, passive cooling, spent fuel storage pool.

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782 Thermo-chemical Characteristics of Powder Fabricated by Oxidation of Spent PWR Fuel

Authors: Geun-Il Park, Jae-Won Lee, Dou-Youn Lee, Jung-Won Lee, Kwang-Wook Kim, Kee-Chan Song

Abstract:

Thermochemcial characteristics of powder fabricated using oxidation treatment of spent PWR fuel and SIMFUEL were evaluated for recycling of spent fuel such as DUPIC process. Especially, the influence of spent fuel burn-ups on the powder fabrication characteristics was experimentally evaluated, ranging from 27,300 to 65,000 MWd/tU. Densities of powder manufactured from an oxidation, OREOX and the milling processes at the same process conditions were compared as a function of the fuel burn-ups respectively. Also, based on chemical analysis results, homogeneity of fissile elements in oxidized powder was confirmed.

Keywords: Spent PWR fuel, DUPIC, Oxidation, OREOX, Powder, Chemical analysis

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781 The Mitigation Strategy Analysis of Kuosheng Nuclear Power Plant Spent Fuel Pool Using MELCOR2.1/SNAP

Authors: Y. Chiang, J. R. Wang, J. H. Yang, Y. S. Tseng, C. Shih, S. W. Chen

Abstract:

Kuosheng nuclear power plant (NPP) is a BWR/6 plant in Taiwan. There is more concern for the safety of Spent Fuel Pools (SFPs) in Taiwan after Fukushima event. In order to estimate the safety of Kuosheng NPP SFP, by using MELCOR2.1 and SNAP, the safety analysis of Kuosheng NPP SFP was performed combined with the mitigation strategy of NEI 06-12 report. There were several steps in this research. First, the Kuosheng NPP SFP models were established by MELCOR2.1/SNAP. Second, the Station Blackout (SBO) analysis of Kuosheng SFP was done by TRACE and MELCOR under the cooling system failure condition. The results showed that the calculations of MELCOR and TRACE were very similar in this case. Second, the mitigation strategy analysis was done with the MELCOR model by following the NEI 06-12 report. The results showed the effectiveness of NEI 06-12 strategy in Kuosheng NPP SFP. Finally, a sensitivity study of SFP quenching was done to check the differences of different water injection time and the phenomena during the quenching. The results showed that if the cladding temperature was over 1600 K, the water injection may have chance to cause the accident more severe with more hydrogen generation. It was because of the oxidation heat and the “Breakaway” effect of the zirconium-water reaction. An animation model built by SNAP was also shown in this study.

Keywords: MELCOR, SNAP, spent fuel pool, quenching.

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780 Determination of Temperature and Velocity Fields in a Corridor at a Central Interim Spent Fuel Storage Facility Using Numerical Simulation

Authors: V. Salajka, J. Kala, P. Hradil

Abstract:

The presented article deals with the description of a numerical model of a corridor at a Central Interim Spent Fuel Storage Facility (hereinafter CISFSF). The model takes into account the effect of air flows on the temperature of stored waste. The computational model was implemented in the ANSYS/CFX programming environment in the form of a CFD task solution, which was compared with an approximate analytical calculation. The article includes a categorization of the individual alternatives for the ventilation of such underground systems. The aim was to evaluate a ventilation system for a CISFSF with regard to its stability and capacity to provide sufficient ventilation for the removal of heat produced by stored casks with spent nuclear fuel.

Keywords: Temperature fields, Spent Fuel, Interim storage facility, CFD.

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779 Refining Waste Spent Hydroprocessing Catalyst and Their Metal Recovery

Authors: Meena Marafi, Mohan S. Rana

Abstract:

Catalysts play an important role in producing valuable fuel products in petroleum refining; but, due to feedstock’s impurities catalyst gets deactivated with carbon and metal deposition. The disposal of spent catalyst falls under the category of hazardous industrial waste that requires strict agreement with environmental regulations. The spent hydroprocessing catalyst contains Mo, V and Ni at high concentrations that have been found to be economically significant for recovery. Metal recovery process includes deoiling, decoking, grinding, dissolving and treatment with complexing leaching agent such as ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA). The process conditions have been optimized as a function of time, temperature and EDTA concentration in presence of ultrasonic agitation. The results indicated that optimum condition established through this approach could recover 97%, 94% and 95% of the extracted Mo, V and Ni, respectively, while 95% EDTA was recovered after acid treatment.

Keywords: Spent catalyst, deactivation, hydrotreating, spent catalyst.

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778 Spent Caustic Bioregeneration by using Thiobacillus denitrificans Bacteria

Authors: Sayed Reza Hashemi, Amir Heidarinasab

Abstract:

Spent Sulfidic Caustic was biologically treated and regenerated for reusing by Thiobacillus denitrificans bacteria, sulfide content oxidized and RSNa reduced dramatically.PH in this test was 11.8 and no neutralization has been done on spent caustic, so spent caustic as the most difficult of industrial wastes to dispose could be regenerate and reuse instead of disposing to sea or deep wells

Keywords: Spent Caustic, Thiobacillus denitrificans, Bioregeneration

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777 Economic Returns of Using Brewery`s Spent Grain in Animal Feed

Authors: U. Ben-Hamed, H. Seddighi, K. Thomas

Abstract:

UK breweries generate extensive by products in the form of spent grain, slurry and yeast. Much of the spent grain is produced by large breweries and processed in bulk for animal feed. Spent brewery grains contain up to 20% protein dry weight and up to 60% fiber and are useful additions to animal feed. Bulk processing is economic and allows spent grain to be sold so providing an income to the brewery. A proportion of spent grain, however, is produced by small local breweries and is more variably distributed to farms or other users using intermittent collection methods. Such use is much less economic and may incur losses if not carefully assessed for transport costs. This study reports an economic returns of using wet brewery spent grain (WBSG) in animal feed using the Co-product Optimizer Decision Evaluator model (Cattle CODE) developed by the University of Nebraska to predict performance and economic returns when byproducts are fed to finishing cattle. The results indicated that distance from brewery to farm had a significantly greater effect on the economics of use of small brewery spent grain and that alternative uses than cattle feed may be important to develop.

Keywords: Animal Feed, Brewery Spent Grains, cattle CODE, Economic returns.

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776 Comparison of Bioleaching of Metals from Spent Petroleum Catalyst Using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans

Authors: Haragobinda Srichandan, Ashish Pathak, Dong Jin Kim, Seoung-Won Lee

Abstract:

The present investigation deals with bioleaching of spent petroleum catalyst using At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans. The spent catalyst used in the present study was pretreated with acetone to remove the oily hydrocarbons. FESEM and XPS analysis indicated the presence of metals in sulfide and oxide forms in spent catalyst. Both At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans were found to be highly effective in producing the acid. Bioleaching with At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans led to higher recovery of metals compare to control. During bioleaching similar recoveries of metals were obtained using At. ferrooxidans and At. thiooxidans. This might be due to the presence of metals as soluble oxides and sulphides in the spent catalyst. At the end of bioleaching, about 87-90% Ni, 34% Al, 65-73% Mo and 92-97% V were leached using above bacteria. It is elucidated that bioleaching with At. thiooxidans is comparatively more advantageous due to lower cost of sulphur.  

Keywords: Spent catalyst, At. ferrooxidans, Bioleaching, Metal recovery.

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775 A Comparative Study of Metal Extraction from Spent Catalyst Using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

Authors: Haragobinda Srichandan, Sradhanjali Singh, Dong Jin Kim, Seoung-Won Lee

Abstract:

The recovery of metal values and safe disposal of spent catalyst is gaining interest due to both its hazardous nature and increased regulation associated with disposal methods. Prior to the recovery of the valuable metals, removal of entrained deposits limit the diffusion of lixiviate resulting in low recovery of metals must be taken into consideration. Therefore, petroleum refinery spent catalyst was subjected to acetone washing and roasting at 500oC. The treated samples were investigated for metals bioleaching using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans in batch reactors and the leaching efficiencies were compared. It was found out that acetone washed spent catalysts results in better metal recovery compare to roasted spent. About 83% Ni, 20% Al, 50% Mo and 73% V were leached using the acetone washed spent catalyst. In both the cases, Ni, V and Mo was high compared to Al.

Keywords: Acetone wash, At. ferrooxidans, Bioleaching, Calcined, Metal recovery.

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774 Sloshing-Induced Overflow Assessment of the Seismically-Isolated Nuclear Tanks

Authors: Kihyon Kwon, Hyun T. Park, Gil Y. Chung, Sang-Hoon Lee

Abstract:

This paper focuses on assessing sloshing-induced overflow of the seismically-isolated nuclear tanks based on Fluid-Structure Interaction (FSI) analysis. Typically, fluid motion in the seismically-isolated nuclear tank systems may be rather amplified and even overflowed under earthquake. Sloshing-induced overflow in those structures has to be reliably assessed and predicted since it can often cause critical damages to humans and environments. FSI analysis is herein performed to compute the total cumulative overflowed water volume more accurately, by coupling ANSYS with CFX for structural and fluid analyses, respectively. The approach is illustrated on a nuclear liquid storage tank, Spent Fuel Pool (SFP), forgiven conditions under consideration: different liquid levels, Peak Ground Accelerations (PGAs), and post earthquakes. 

Keywords: FSI analysis, seismically-isolated nuclear tank system, sloshing-induced overflow.

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773 Optimization of Fuel Consumption of a Bus used in City Line with Regulation of Driving Characteristics

Authors: Muammer Ozkan, Orkun Ozener, Irfan Yavasliol

Abstract:

The fuel cost of the motor vehicle operating on its common route is an important part of the operating cost. Therefore, the importance of the fuel saving is increasing day by day. One of the parameters which improve fuel saving is the regulation of driving characteristics. The number and duration of stop is increased by the heavy traffic load. It is possible to improve the fuel saving with regulation of traffic flow and driving characteristics. The researches show that the regulation of the traffic flow decreases fuel consumption, but it is not enough to improve fuel saving without the regulation of driving characteristics. This study analyses the fuel consumption of two trips of city bus operating on its common route and determines the effect of traffic density and driving characteristics on fuel consumption. Finally it offers some suggestions about regulation of driving characteristics to improve the fuel saving. Fuel saving is determined according to the results obtained from simulation program. When experimental and simulation results are compared, it has been found that the fuel saving was reached up the to 40 percent ratios.

Keywords: Fuel Consumption, Fuel Economy, Driving Characteristics, Optimization

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772 Effect of Nanofluids on the Saturated Pool Film Boiling

Authors: Dogan Ciloglu, Abdurrahim Bolukbasi, Kemal Comakli

Abstract:

In this study, the effect of nanofluids on the pool film boiling was experimentally investigated at saturated condition under atmospheric pressure. For this purpose, four different water-based nanofluids (Al2O3, SiO2, TiO2 and CuO) with 0.1% particle volume fraction were prepared. To investigate the boiling heat transfer, a cylindrical rod with high temperature was used. The rod heated up to high temperatures was immersed into nanofluids. The center temperature of rod during the cooling process was recorded by using a K-type thermocouple. The quenching curves showed that the pool boiling heat transfer was strongly dependent on the nanoparticle materials. During the repetitive quenching tests, the cooling time decreased and thus, the film boiling vanished. Consequently, the primary reason of this was the change of the surface characteristics due to the nanoparticles deposition on the rod-s surface.

Keywords: Heat transfer, nanofluid, nanoparticles, pool film boiling

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771 Low NOx Combustion Technology for Minimizing NOx

Authors: Sewon Kim, Changyeop Lee, Minjun Kwon

Abstract:

A noble low NOx combustion technology, based on partial oxidation combustion concept in a fuel rich combustion zone, is successfully applied in this research. The burner is designed such that a portion of fuel is heated and pre-vaporized in the furnace then injected into a fuel rich combustion zone so that a partial oxidation reaction occurs. The effects of equivalence ratio, thermal load, and fuel distribution ratio on the emissions of NOx and CO are experimentally investigated. This newly developed combustion technology showed very low NOx emission level, about 12 ppm, when light oil is used as a fuel.

Keywords: Burner, low NOx, liquid fuel, partial oxidation, fuel rich.

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770 FEM Simulations to Study the Effects of Laser Power and Scan Speed on Molten Pool Size in Additive Manufacturing

Authors: Yee-Ting Lee, Jyun-Rong Zhuang, Wen-Hsin Hsieh, An-Shik Yang

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing (AM) is increasingly crucial in biomedical and aerospace industries. As a recently developed AM technique, selective laser melting (SLM) has become a commercial method for various manufacturing processes. However, the molten pool configuration during SLM of metal powders is a decisive issue for the product quality. It is very important to investigate the heat transfer characteristics during the laser heating process. In this work, the finite element method (FEM) software ANSYS® (work bench module 16.0) was used to predict the unsteady temperature distribution for resolving molten pool dimensions with consideration of temperature-dependent thermal physical properties of TiAl6V4 at different laser powers and scanning speeds. The simulated results of the temperature distributions illustrated that the ratio of laser power to scanning speed can greatly influence the size of molten pool of titanium alloy powder for SLM development.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing, finite element method, molten pool dimensions, selective laser melting.

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769 CFD Simulation for Flow Behavior in Boiling Water Reactor Vessel and Upper Pool under Decommissioning Condition

Authors: Y. T. Ku, S. W. Chen, J. R. Wang, C. Shih, Y. F. Chang

Abstract:

In order to respond the policy decision of non-nuclear homes, Tai Power Company (TPC) will provide the decommissioning project of Kuosheng Nuclear power plant (KSNPP) to meet the regulatory requirement in near future. In this study, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methodology has been employed to develop a flow prediction model for boiling water reactor (BWR) with upper pool under decommissioning stage. The model can be utilized to investigate the flow behavior as the vessel combined with upper pool and continuity cooling system. At normal operating condition, different parameters are obtained for the full fluid area, including velocity, mass flow, and mixing phenomenon in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) and upper pool. Through the efforts of the study, an integrated simulation model will be developed for flow field analysis of decommissioning KSNPP under normal operating condition. It can be expected that a basis result for future analysis application of TPC can be provide from this study.

Keywords: CFD, BWR, decommissioning, upper pool.

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768 Fungal Leaching of Hazardous Heavy Metals from a Spent Hydrotreating Catalyst

Authors: R. Mafi Gholami, S. M. Borghei, S. M. Mousavi

Abstract:

In this study, the ability of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium simplicissimum to extract heavy metals from a spent refinery catalyst was investigated. For the first step, a spent processing catalyst from one of the oil refineries in Iran was physically and chemically characterized. Aspergillus niger and Penicillium simplicissimum were used to mobilize Al/Co/Mo/Ni from hazardous spent catalysts. The fungi were adapted to the mixture of metals at 100-800 mg L-1 with increments in concentration of 100 mg L-1. Bioleaching experiments were carried out in batch cultures. To investigate the production of organic acids in sucrose medium, analyses of the culture medium by HPLC were performed at specific time intervals after inoculation. The results obtained from Inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) showed that after the one-step bioleaching process using Aspergillus niger, maximum removal efficiencies of 27%, 66%, 62% and 38% were achieved for Al, Co, Mo and Ni, respectively. However, the highest removal efficiencies using Penicillium simplicissimum were of 32%, 67%, 65% and 38% for Al, Co, Mo and Ni, respectively

Keywords: Aspergillus niger, Bioleaching, Heavy metals, Penicillium simplicissimum, Spent catalyst

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767 Direct Numerical Simulation of Subcooled Nucleate Pool Boiling

Authors: Sreeyuth Lal, Yohei Sato, Bojan Niceno

Abstract:

With the long-term objective of Critical Heat Flux (CHF) prediction, a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) framework for simulation of subcooled and saturated nucleate pool boiling is developed. One case of saturated, and three cases of subcooled boiling at different subcooling levels are simulated. Grid refinement study is also reported. Both boiling and condensation phenomena can be computed simultaneously in the proposed numerical framework. Computed bubble detachment diameters of the saturated nucleate pool boiling cases agree well with the experiment. The flow structures around the growing bubble are presented and the accompanying physics is described. The relation between heat flux evolution from the heated wall and the bubble growth is studied, along with investigations of temperature distribution and flow field evolutions.

Keywords: CFD, interface tracking method, phase change model, subcooled nucleate pool boiling.

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766 Experimental and Numerical Simulation of Fire in a Scaled Underground Station

Authors: Nuri Yucel, Muhammed Ilter Berberoglu, Salih Karaaslan, Nureddin Dinler

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to investigate fire behaviors, experimentally and numerically, in a scaled version of an underground station. The effect of ventilation velocity on the fire is examined. Fire experiments are simulated by burning 10 ml isopropyl alcohol fuel in a fire pool with dimensions 5cm x 10cm x 4 mm at the center of 1/100 scaled underground station model. A commercial CFD program FLUENT was used in numerical simulations. For air flow simulations, k-ω SST turbulence model and for combustion simulation, non-premixed combustion model are used. This study showed that, the ventilation velocity is increased from 1 m/s to 3 m/s the maximum temperature in the station is found to be less for ventilation velocity of 1 m/s. The reason for these experimental result lies on the relative dominance of oxygen supply effect on cooling effect. Without piston effect, maximum temperature occurs above the fuel pool. However, when the ventilation velocity increased the flame was tilted in the direction of ventilation and the location of maximum temperature moves along the flow direction. The velocities measured experimentally in the station at different locations are well matched by the CFD simulation results. The prediction of general flow pattern is satisfactory with the smoke visualization tests. The backlayering in velocity is well predicted by CFD simulation. However, all over the station, the CFD simulations predicted higher temperatures compared to experimental measurements.

Keywords: Fire, underground station, flame propagation, CFDsimulation, k-ω SST turbulence model, non-premixed combustionmodel.

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765 Online Measurement of Fuel Stack Elongation

Authors: Sung Ho Ahn, Jintae Hong, Chang Young Joung, Tae Ho Yang, Sung Ho Heo, Seo Yun Jang

Abstract:

The performances of nuclear fuels and materials are qualified at an irradiation system in research reactors operating under the commercial nuclear power plant conditions. Fuel centerline temperature, coolant temperature, neutron flux, deformations of fuel stack and swelling are important parameters needed to analyze the nuclear fuel performances. The dimensional stability of nuclear fuels is a key parameter measuring the fuel densification and swelling. In this study, the fuel stack elongation is measured using a LVDT. A mockup LVDT instrumented fuel rod is developed. The performances of mockup LVDT instrumented fuel rod is evaluated by experiments.

Keywords: Axial deformation, elongation measurement, in-pile instrumentation, LVDT.

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764 Qualitative and Quantitative Characterization of Generated Waste in Nouri Petrochemical Complex, Assaluyeh, Iran

Authors: L. Heidari, M. Jalili Ghazizade

Abstract:

In recent years, different petrochemical complexes have been established to produce aromatic compounds. Among them, Nouri Petrochemical Complex (NPC) is the largest producer of aromatic raw materials in the world, and is located in south of Iran. Environmental concerns have been raised in this region due to generation of different types of solid waste generated in the process of aromatics production, and subsequently, industrial waste characterization has been thoroughly considered. The aim of this study is qualitative and quantitative characterization of industrial waste generated in the aromatics production process and determination of the best method for industrial waste management. For this purpose, all generated industrial waste during the production process was determined using a checklist. Four main industrial wastes were identified as follows: spent industrial soil, spent catalyst, spent molecular sieves and spent N-formyl morpholine (NFM) solvent. The amount of heavy metals and organic compounds in these wastes were further measured in order to identify the nature and toxicity of such a dangerous compound. Then industrial wastes were classified based on lab analysis results as well as using different international lists of hazardous waste identification such as EPA, UNEP and Basel Convention. Finally, the best method of waste disposal is selected based on environmental, economic and technical aspects. 

Keywords: Spent industrial soil, spent molecular sieve, spent normal ¬formyl -morpholine solvent.

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763 Effect of Fuel Lean Reburning Process on NOx Reduction and CO Emission

Authors: Changyeop Lee, Sewon Kim

Abstract:

Reburning is a useful technology in reducing nitric oxide through injection of a secondary hydrocarbon fuel. In this paper, an experimental study has been conducted to evaluate the effect of fuel lean reburning on NOx/CO reduction in LNG flame. Experiments were performed in flames stabilized by a co-flow swirl burner, which was mounted at the bottom of the furnace. Tests were conducted using LNG gas as the reburn fuel as well as the main fuel. The effects of reburn fuel fraction and injection manner of the reburn fuel were studied when the fuel lean reburning system was applied. The paper reports data on flue gas emissions and temperature distribution in the furnace for a wide range of experimental conditions. At steady state, temperature distribution and emission formation in the furnace have been measured and compared. This paper makes clear that in order to decrease both NOx and CO concentrations in the exhaust when the pulsated fuel lean reburning system was adapted, it is important that the control of some factors such as frequency and duty ratio. Also it shows the fuel lean reburning is also effective method to reduce NOx as much as reburning.

Keywords: Fuel lean reburn, NOx, CO, LNG flame.

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762 Thermo Mechanical Design and Analysis of PEM Fuel cell Plate

Authors: Saravana Kannan Thangavelu

Abstract:

Fuel and oxidant gas delivery plate, or fuel cell plate, is a key component of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell. To manufacture low-cost and high performance fuel cell plates, advanced computer modeling and finite element structure analysis are used as virtual prototyping tools for the optimization of the plates at the early design stage. The present study examines thermal stress analysis of the fuel cell plates that are produced using a patented, low-cost fuel cell plate production technique based on screen-printing. Design optimization is applied to minimize the maximum stress within the plate, subject to strain constraint with both geometry and material parameters as design variables. The study reveals the characteristics of the printed plates, and provides guidelines for the structure and material design of the fuel cell plate.

Keywords: Design optimization, FEA, PEM fuel cell, Thermal stress

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761 A Comparison of Fuel Usage and Harvest Capacity in Self-Propelled Forage Harvesters

Authors: Brian H. Marsh

Abstract:

Self-propelled forage harvesters in the 850 horsepower range were tested over three years for fuel consumption, throughput and quality of chop for corn silage. Cut length had a significant effect on fuel consumption, throughput and some aspects of chop quality. Measure cut length was often different than theoretical length of cut. Where cut length was equivalent fuel consumption and throughput were equivalent across brands. Shortening cut length from 17 to 11mm increases fuel consumption 53 percent measured as Mg of silage harvested per gallon of fuel used and a 42 percent decrease in capacity as tons of fresh material per hour run time.

Keywords: Corn silage, forage harvester, fuel use, length of cut.

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760 Microbial Leaching Process to Recover Valuable Metals from Spent Petroleum Catalyst Using Iron Oxidizing Bacteria

Authors: Debabrata Pradhan, Dong J. Kim, Jong G. Ahn, Seoung W. Lee

Abstract:

Spent petroleum catalyst from Korean petrochemical industry contains trace amount of metals such as Ni, V and Mo. Therefore an attempt was made to recover those trace metal using bioleaching process. Different leaching parameters such as Fe(II) concentration, pulp density, pH, temperature and particle size of spent catalyst particle were studied to evaluate their effects on the leaching efficiency. All the three metal ions like Ni, V and Mo followed dual kinetics, i.e., initial faster followed by slower rate. The percentage of leaching efficiency of Ni and V were higher than Mo. The leaching process followed a diffusion controlled model and the product layer was observed to be impervious due to formation of ammonium jarosite (NH4)Fe3(SO4)2(OH)6. In addition, the lower leaching efficiency of Mo was observed due to a hydrophobic coating of elemental sulfur over Mo matrix in the spent catalyst.

Keywords: Bioleaching, diffusion control, shrinking core, spentpetroleum catalyst.

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759 Irreversibility and Electrochemical Modeling of GT-SOFC Hybrid System and Parametric Analysis on Performance of Fuel Cell

Authors: R. Mahjoub, K. Maghsoudi Mehraban

Abstract:

Since the heart of the hybrid system is the fuel cell and it has vital impact on efficiency and performance of cycle, in this study, the major modeling of electrochemical reaction within the fuel cell is analyzed. Also, solid oxide fuel cell is integrated with the gas turbine and thermodynamic analysis on different elements of hybrid system is applied. Next, in predefined operational points of hybrid cycle, the simulation results are obtained. Then, different source of irreversibility in fuel cell is modeled and influence of different major parameters on different irreversibility is computed and applied. Then, the effect of important parameters such as thickness and surface of electrolyte fuel cell are simulated in fuel cell and its dependency to these parameters is explained. At the end of the paper, different impact of parameters on fuel cell with a gas turbine and current density and voltage of fuel cell are simulated.

Keywords: Electrochemical analysis, Gas turbine, Hybrid system, Irreversibility analysis.

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758 The Fuel Consumption and Non Linear Model Metropolitan and Large City Transportation System

Authors: Mudjiastuti Handajani

Abstract:

The national economy development affects the vehicle ownership which ultimately increases fuel consumption. The rise of the vehicle ownership is dominated by the increasing number of motorcycles. This research aims to analyze and identify the characteristics of fuel consumption, the city transportation system, and to analyze the relationship and the effect of the city transportation system on the fuel consumption. A multivariable analysis is used in this study. The data analysis techniques include: a Multivariate Multivariable Analysis by using the R software. More than 84% of fuel on Java is consumed in metropolitan and large cities. The city transportation system variables that strongly effect the fuel consumption are population, public vehicles, private vehicles and private bus. This method can be developed to control the fuel consumption by considering the urban transport system and city tipology. The effect can reducing subsidy on the fuel consumption, increasing state economic.

Keywords: city, consumption, fuel, transportation

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