Search results for: source rock.
1509 Depositional Environment and Source Potential of Devonian Source Rock, Ghadames Basin, Southern Tunisia
Authors: S. Mahmoudi, A. Belhaj Mohamed, M. Saidi, F. Rezgui
Depositional environment and source potential of the different organic-rich levels of Devonian age (up to 990m thick) from the onshore EC-1 well (Southern Tunisia) were investigated based on the analysis of more than 130 cutting samples by different geochemical techniques (Rock-Eval pyrolysis, GC-MS). The obtained results including Rock Eval Pyrolysis data and biomarker distribution (terpanes, steranes and aromatics) have been used to describe the depositional environment and to assess the thermal maturity of the Devonian organic matter. These results show that the Emsian deposits exhibit poor to fair TOC contents. The associated organic matter is composed of mixed kerogen (type II/III), as indicated by the predominance of C29 steranes over C27 and C28 homologous, that was deposited in a slightly reduced environment favoring organic matter preservation. Thermal maturity assessed from Tmax, TNR and MPI-1 values shows a mature stage of organic matter. The Middle Devonian (Eifelian) shales are rich in type II organic matter that was deposited in an open marine depositional environment. The TOC values are high and vary between 2 and 7% indicating good to excellent source rock. The relatively high HI values (reaching 547 mg HC/g TOC) and the low values of t19/t23 tricyclic terpane ratio (< 0.2) confirm the marine origin of the organic matter (type II). During the Upper Devonian, the organic matter was deposited under variable redox conditions, oxic to suboxic which is clearly indicated by the low C35/C34 hopanes ratio, immature to marginally mature with the vitrinite reflectance ranging from 0.5 to 0.7 Ro and Tmax value of 426°C-436 °C and the TOC values range between 0.8% to 4%.
Keywords: Depositional environment, Devonian, Source rock.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2355
1508 Prediction of in situ Permeability for Limestone Rock Using Rock Quality Designation Index
Authors: Ahmed T. Farid, Muhammed Rizwan
Geotechnical study for evaluating soil or rock permeability is a highly important parameter. Permeability values for rock formations are more difficult for determination than soil formation as it is an effect of the rock quality and its fracture values. In this research, the prediction of in situ permeability of limestone rock formations was predicted. The limestone rock permeability was evaluated using Lugeon tests (in-situ packer permeability). Different sites which spread all over the Riyadh region of Saudi Arabia were chosen to conduct our study of predicting the in-situ permeability of limestone rock. Correlations were deducted between the values of in-situ permeability of the limestone rock with the value of the rock quality designation (RQD) calculated during the execution of the boreholes of the study areas. The study was performed for different ranges of RQD values measured during drilling of the sites boreholes. The developed correlations are recommended for the onsite determination of the in-situ permeability of limestone rock only. For the other sedimentary formations of rock, more studies are needed for predicting the actual correlations related to each type.
Keywords: Packer, permeability, rock, quality.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1319
1507 Valorization and Conservation of Rock Paintings and Engravings of Kabylia Region, Algeria
Authors: S. Ait Ali Yahia
In Algeria, the most impressive and most known prehistoric art is the painted or engraved rock art which is present with abundance in several regions. The existence of rock art in Great Kabylia region has been known for over sixty years. The main purpose of this research is to show the dangers facing these rock paintings and engravings and what are the arrangements for their protection and recovery. As every vestige destroyed is a part of the world's memory which disappears, some steps have to be taken in order to protect these historical and archaeological heritages.
Keywords: Kabylia, preservation, rock paintings and engravings, valorization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1212
1506 Impact of Scale on Rock Strength
Authors: Roland Pusch, Richard Weston
The scale dependence of the strength of virtually homogeneous rock is usually considered to be insignificant but the spectrum of discontinuities plays a very important role for the strength of differently sized rock elements and also controls the rock creep strain. Large-scale load tests comprised recording of the creep strain rate that was found to be strongly retarded and negligible for stresses lower than about 1/3 of the failure load. For higher stresses creep took place according to a log time law representing secondary creep that ultimately changed to tertiary creep and failure.
Keywords: Impact of scale, rock strength.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1596
1505 Geochemical Study of Natural Bitumen, Condensate and Gas Seeps from Sousse Area, Central Tunisia
Authors: A. Belhaj Mohamed, M. Saidi, N. Boucherb, N. Ourtani, A. Soltani, I. Bouazizi, M. Ben Jrad
Natural hydrocarbon seepage has helped petroleum exploration as a direct indicator of gas and/or oil subsurface accumulations. Surface macro-seeps are generally an indication of a fault in an active Petroleum Seepage System belonging to a Total Petroleum System. This paper describes a case study in which multiple analytical techniques were used to identify and characterize trace petroleum-related hydrocarbons and other volatile organic compounds in groundwater samples collected from Sousse aquifer (Central Tunisia). The analytical techniques used for analyses of water samples included gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS), capillary GC with flame-ionization detection, Compound Specific Isotope Analysis, Rock Eval Pyrolysis. The objective of the study was to confirm the presence of gasoline and other petroleum products or other volatile organic pollutants in those samples in order to assess the respective implication of each of the potentially responsible parties to the contamination of the aquifer. In addition, the degree of contamination at different depths in the aquifer was also of interest. The oil and gas seeps have been investigated using biomarker and stable carbon isotope analyses to perform oil-oil and oil-source rock correlations. The seepage gases are characterized by high CH4 content, very low δ13CCH4 values (-71,9 ‰) and high C1/C1–5 ratios (0.95–1.0), light deuterium–hydrogen isotope ratios (- 198 ‰) and light δ13CC2 and δ13CCO2 values (-23,8‰ and-23,8‰ respectively) indicating a thermogenic origin with the contribution of the biogenic gas. An organic geochemistry study was carried out on the more ten oil seep samples. This study includes light hydrocarbon and biomarkers analyses (hopanes, steranes, n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and aromatic steroids) using GC and GC-MS. The studied samples show at least two distinct families, suggesting two different types of crude oil origins: the first oil seeps appears to be highly mature, showing evidence of chemical and/or biological degradation and was derived from a clay-rich source rock deposited in suboxic conditions. It has been sourced mainly by the lower Fahdene (Albian) source rocks. The second oil seeps was derived from a carbonate-rich source rock deposited in anoxic conditions, well correlated with the Bahloul (Cenomanian-Turonian) source rock.
Keywords: Biomarkers, oil and gas seeps, organic geochemistry, source rock.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3109
1504 Rock Paintings with Libyan Inscriptions of Grande Kabylia, Algeria
Authors: Samia Ait Ali Yahia
The rock paintings of Grande Kabylia contain a good number of Libyan inscriptions. Of the 54 sites discovered, 23 have inscriptions painted in red ocher. We find them in rock shelters, on blocks of sandstone in the northern part of Kabylia. Our job is to collect as many cave paintings as possible with Libyan inscriptions. Then we will make an analysis on the epigraphic level, the different forms of the characters and their frequencies. The other purpose of this research is to bring out the different characters used in these paintings and compare them with those of the Libyan steles of Grande Kabylia.
Keywords: Grande Kabylia, Libyan inscriptions, Libyan stele, rock paintings.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 469
1503 Elasto-Plastic Behavior of Rock during Temperature Drop
Authors: N. Reppas, Y. L. Gui, B. Wetenhall, C. T. Davie, J. Ma
A theoretical constitutive model describing the stress-strain behavior of rock subjected to different confining pressures is presented. A bounding surface plastic model with hardening effects is proposed which includes the effect of temperature drop. The bounding surface is based on a mapping rule and the temperature effect on rock is controlled by Poisson’s ratio. Validation of the results against available experimental data is also presented. The relation of deviatoric stress and axial strain is illustrated at different temperatures to analyze the effect of temperature decrease in terms of stiffness of the material.
Keywords: Bounding surface, cooling of rock, plasticity model, rock deformation, elasto-plastic behavior.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 651
1502 Physical and Mechanical Phenomena Associated with Rock Failure in Brazilian Disc Specimens
Authors: Hamid Reza Nejati, Amin Nazerigivi, Ahmad Reza Sayadi
Abstract:Failure mechanism of rocks is one of the fundamental aspects to study rock engineering stability. Rock is a material that contains flaws, initial damage, micro-cracks, etc. Failure of rock structure is largely due to tensile stress and was influenced by various parameters. In the present study, the effect of brittleness and loading rate on the physical and mechanical phenomena produced in rock during loading sequences is considered. For this purpose, Acoustic Emission (AE) technique is used to monitor fracturing process of three rock types (onyx marble, sandstone and soft limestone) with different brittleness and sandstone samples under different loading rate. The results of experimental tests revealed that brittleness and loading rate have a significant effect on the mode and number of induced fracture in rocks. An increase in rock brittleness increases the frequency of induced cracks, and the number of tensile fracture decreases when loading rate increases.
Keywords: Brittleness, loading rate, acoustic emission, tensile fracture, shear fracture.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 875
1501 Rock Textures Classification Based on Textural and Spectral Features
Authors: Tossaporn Kachanubal, Somkait Udomhunsakul
Abstract:In this paper, we proposed a method to classify each type of natural rock texture. Our goal is to classify 26 classes of rock textures. First, we extract five features of each class by using principle component analysis combining with the use of applied spatial frequency measurement. Next, the effective node number of neural network was tested. We used the most effective neural network in classification process. The results from this system yield quite high in recognition rate. It is shown that high recognition rate can be achieved in separation of 26 stone classes.
Keywords: Texture classification, SFM, neural network, rock texture classification.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1904
1500 Field and Petrographic Relationships between the Charnockitic and Associated Granitic Rock, Akure Area, Southwestern Nigeria
Authors: Ademeso, Odunyemi Anthony
The charnockitic and associated granitic rocks of Akure area were studied for their field and petrographic relationship's. The outcrops locations were plotted in Surfer 8. The granitic rock exhibits a porphyritic texture and outcrops in the north-eastern side of the study area while the charnockitics outcrop in the central/western part. An essentially dark coloured and fine grained intrusive exhibiting xenoliths and xenocrysts (plagioclase phenocrysts) of the granite outcrops between the granitic and charnockitic rocks. Mineralogically, the central rock combines the content of the other two indicating that it is most likely a product of their hybridization. The charnockitic magma is believed to have intruded and assimilated the granite substantially thereby contaminating itself and consequently emplacing the hybrid. The presented model of emplacement elucidates the hybridization proposal. Conclusively, the charnockitics are believed to be (a) younger than the granite, (b) of Pan-African age and (c) of igneous origin.
Keywords: Charnockitic rock, Hybrid rock, ImageJ, XenocrystProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2887
1499 Shaft Friction of Bored Pile Socketed in Weathered Limestone in Qatar
Authors: Thanawat Chuleekiat
Abstract:Socketing of bored piles in rock is always seen as a matter of debate on construction sites between consultants and contractors. The socketing depth normally depends on the type of rock, depth at which the rock is available below the pile cap and load carrying capacity of the pile. In this paper, the review of field load test data of drilled shaft socketed in weathered limestone conducted using conventional static pile load test and dynamic pile load test was made to evaluate a unit shaft friction for the bored piles socketed in weathered limestone (weak rock). The borehole drilling data were also reviewed in conjunction with the pile test result. In addition, the back-calculated unit shaft friction was reviewed against various empirical methods for bored piles socketed in weak rock. The paper concludes with an estimated ultimate unit shaft friction from the case study in Qatar for preliminary design.
Keywords: Piled foundation, weathered limestone, shaft friction, rock socket, pile load test.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 929
1498 Rock Thickness Measurement by Using Self-Excited Acoustical System
Authors: JanuszKwaśniewski, IreneuszDominik, KrzysztofLalik
The knowledge about rock layers thickness,especially above drilled mining pavements is crucial for workers safety. The measuring systems used nowadays are generally imperfect and there is a strong demand for improvement. The application of a new type of a measurement system called Self-excited Acoustical System is presentedin the paper. The system was applied until now to monitor stress changes in metal and concrete constructions. The change in measurement methodology resulted in possibility of measuring the thickness of the rocks above the tunnels as well as thickness of a singular rocklayer. The idea is to find two resonance frequencies of the self-exited system,which consists of a vibration exciter and vibration receiver placed at a distance, which are coupled with a proper power amplifier, and which operate in a closed loop with a positive feedback. The resonance with the higher amplitude determines thickness of the whole rock, whereas the lower amplitude resonance indicates thickness of a singular layer. The results of the laboratory tests conducted on a group of different rock materials are also presented.
Keywords: Autooscillator, non-destructive testing, rock thickness measurement.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1922
1497 Investigating the Nail Walls Performance in Jointed Rock Medium
Authors: Ibrahim Naeimifar, Omid Naeemifar
Abstract:Evaluation of the excavation-induced ground movements is an important design aspect of support systems in urban areas. Geological and geotechnical conditions of an excavation area have significant effects on excavation-induced ground movements and the related damage. This paper is aimed at studying the performance of excavation walls supported by nails in jointed rock medium. The performance of nailed walls is investigated based on evaluating the excavation-induced ground movements. For this purpose, a set of calibrated 2D finite element models are developed by taking into account the nail-rock-structure interactions, the anisotropic properties of jointed rock, and the staged construction process. The results of this paper highlight effects of different parameters such as joint inclinations, anisotropy of rocks and nail inclinations on deformation parameters of excavation wall supported by nails.
Keywords: Finite element, jointed rock, nailing, performance.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1601
1496 Improvement of the Q-System Using the Rock Engineering System: A Case Study of Water Conveyor Tunnel of Azad Dam
Authors: S. Golmohammadi, M. Noorian Bidgoli
Because the status and mechanical parameters of discontinuities in the rock mass are included in the calculations, various methods of rock engineering classification are often used as a starting point for the design of different types of structures. The Q-system is one of the most frequently used methods for stability analysis and determination of support systems of underground structures in rock, including tunnel. In this method, six main parameters of the rock mass, namely, the Rock Quality Designation (RQD), joint set number (Jn), joint roughness number (Jr), joint alteration number (Ja), joint water parameter (Jw) and Stress Reduction Factor (SRF) are required. In this regard, in order to achieve a reasonable and optimal design, identifying the effective parameters for the stability of the mentioned structures is one of the most important goals and the most necessary actions in rock engineering. Therefore, it is necessary to study the relationships between the parameters of a system and how they interact with each other and, ultimately, the whole system. In this research, it has been attempted to determine the most effective parameters (key parameters) from the six parameters of rock mass in the Q-system using the Rock Engineering System (RES) method to improve the relationships between the parameters in the calculation of the Q value. The RES system is, in fact, a method by which one can determine the degree of cause and effect of a system's parameters by making an interaction matrix. In this research, the geomechanical data collected from the water conveyor tunnel of Azad Dam were used to make the interaction matrix of the Q-system. For this purpose, instead of using the conventional methods that are always accompanied by defects such as uncertainty, the Q-system interaction matrix is coded using a technique that is actually a statistical analysis of the data and determining the correlation coefficient between them. So, the effect of each parameter on the system is evaluated with greater certainty. The results of this study show that the formed interaction matrix provides a reasonable estimate of the effective parameters in the Q-system. Among the six parameters of the Q-system, the SRF and Jr parameters have the maximum and minimum impact on the system, respectively, and also the RQD and Jw parameters have the maximum and minimum impact on the system, respectively. Therefore, by developing this method, we can obtain a more accurate relation to the rock mass classification by weighting the required parameters in the Q-system.
Keywords: Q-system, Rock Engineering System, statistical analysis, rock mass, tunnel.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 29
1495 The Application of Distributed Optical Strain Sensing to Measure Rock Bolt Deformation Subject to Bedding Shear
Authors: Thomas P. Roper, Brad Forbes, Jurij Karlovšek
Shear displacement along bedding defects is a well-recognised behaviour when tunnelling and mining in stratified rock. This deformation can affect the durability and integrity of installed rock bolts. In-situ monitoring of rock bolt deformation under bedding shear cannot be accurately derived from traditional strain gauge bolts as sensors are too large and spaced too far apart to accurately assess concentrated displacement along discrete defects. A possible solution to this is the use of fiber optic technologies developed for precision monitoring. Distributed Optic Sensor (DOS) embedded rock bolts were installed in a tunnel project with the aim of measuring the bolt deformation profile under significant shear displacements. This technology successfully measured the 3D strain distribution along the bolts when subjected to bedding shear and resolved the axial and lateral strain constituents in order to determine the deformational geometry of the bolts. The results are compared well with the current visual method for monitoring shear displacement using borescope holes, considering this method as suitable.
Keywords: Distributed optical strain sensing, geotechnical monitoring, rock bolt stain measurement, bedding shear displacement.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 747
1494 Locating Critical Failure Surface in Rock Slope Stability with Hybrid Model Based on Artificial Immune System and Cellular Learning Automata (CLA-AIS)
Authors: Ramin Javadzadeh, Emad Javadzadeh
Locating the critical slip surface with the minimum factor of safety for a rock slope is a difficult problem. In recent years, some modern global optimization methods have been developed with success in treating various types of problems, but very few of such methods have been applied to rock mechanical problems. In this paper, use of hybrid model based on artificial immune system and cellular learning automata is proposed. The results show that the algorithm is an effective and efficient optimization method with a high level of confidence rate.
Keywords: CLA-AIS, failure surface, optimization methods, rock slope.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1889
1493 Simulating the Interaction between Groundwater and Brittle Failure in Open Pit Slopes
Authors: Janisse Vivas, Doug Stead, Davide Elmo, Charles Hunt
Abstract:This paper presents the results of a study on the influence of varying percentages of rock bridges along a basal surface defining a biplanar failure mode. A pseudo-coupled-hydromechanical brittle fracture analysis is adopted using the state-of-the-art code Slope Model. Model results show that rock bridge failure is strongly influenced by the incorporation of groundwater pressures. The models show that groundwater pressure can promote total failure of a 5% rock bridge along the basal surface. Once the percentage of the rock bridges increases to 10 and 15%, although, the rock bridges are broken, full interconnection of the surface defining the basal surface of the biplanar mode does not occur. Increased damage is caused when the rock bridge is located at the daylighting end of the basal surface in proximity to the blast damage zone. As expected, some cracking damage is experienced in the blast damage zone, where properties representing a good quality controlled damage blast technique were assumed. Model results indicate the potential increase of permeability towards the blast damage zone.
Keywords: Slope model, lattice spring, blasting damage zone.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1953
1492 Investigation on the Stability of Rock Slopes Subjected to Tension Cracks via Limit Analysis
Based on the kinematic approach of limit analysis, a full set of upper bound solutions for the stability of homogeneous rock slopes subjected to tension cracks are obtained. The generalized Hoek-Brown failure criterion is employed to describe the non-linear strength envelope of rocks. In this paper, critical failure mechanisms are determined for cracks of known depth but unspecified location, cracks of known location but unknown depth, and cracks of unspecified location and depth. It is shown that there is a nearly up to 50% drop in terms of the stability factors for the rock slopes intersected by a tension crack compared with intact ones. Tables and charts of solutions in dimensionless forms are presented for ease of use by practitioners.
Keywords: Hoek-Brown failure criterion, limit analysis, rock slope, tension cracks.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2349
1491 Determination of Seismic Wave of Consolidated Granite Rock in Penang Island: UltrasonicTesting Method Vs Seismic Refraction Method
Authors: Mohd Hafiz Musa, Zulfadhli Hasan Adli, M . N . Khairul Arifin
Abstract:In seismic survey, the information regarding the velocity of compression wave (Vp) as well as shear wave (Vs) are very useful especially during the seismic interpretation. Previous studies showed that both Vp and Vs determined by above methods are totally different with respect to each other but offered good approximation. In this study, both Vp and Vs of consolidated granite rock were studied by using ultrasonic testing method and seismic refraction method. In ultrasonic testing, two different condition of rock are used which is dry and wet. The differences between Vp and Vs getting by using ultrasonic testing and seismic refraction were investigated and studied. The effect of water content in granite rock towards the value of Vp and Vs during ultrasonic testing are also measured. Within this work, the tolerance of the differences between the velocity of seismic wave getting from ultrasonic testing and the velocity of seismic wave getting from seismic refraction are also measured and investigated.
Keywords: Compressional wave, Granite, Shear Wave, VelocityProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1772
1490 Source Direction Detection based on Stationary Electronic Nose System
Authors: Jie Cai, David C. Levy
Abstract:Electronic nose (array of chemical sensors) are widely used in food industry and pollution control. Also it could be used to locate or detect the direction of the source of emission odors. Usually this task is performed by electronic nose (ENose) cooperated with mobile vehicles, but when a source is instantaneous or surrounding is hard for vehicles to reach, problem occurs. Thus a method for stationary ENose to detect the direction of the source and locate the source will be required. A novel method which uses the ratio between the responses of different sensors as a discriminant to determine the direction of source in natural wind surroundings is presented in this paper. The result shows that the method is accurate and easily to be implemented. This method could be also used in movably, as an optimized algorithm for robot tracking source location.
Keywords: Electronic nose, Nature wind situation, Source direction detection.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1230
1489 Evaluation of Geomechanical and Geometrical Parameters’ Effects on Hydro-Mechanical Estimation of Water Inflow into Underground Excavations
Authors: M. Mazraehli, F. Mehrabani, S. Zare
In general, mechanical and hydraulic processes are not independent of each other in jointed rock masses. Therefore, the study on hydro-mechanical coupling of geomaterials should be a center of attention in rock mechanics. Rocks in their nature contain discontinuities whose presence extremely influences mechanical and hydraulic characteristics of the medium. Assuming this effect, experimental investigations on intact rock cannot help to identify jointed rock mass behavior. Hence, numerical methods are being used for this purpose. In this paper, water inflow into a tunnel under significant water table has been estimated using hydro-mechanical discrete element method (HM-DEM). Besides, effects of geomechanical and geometrical parameters including constitutive model, friction angle, joint spacing, dip of joint sets, and stress factor on the estimated inflow rate have been studied. Results demonstrate that inflow rates are not identical for different constitutive models. Also, inflow rate reduces with increased spacing and stress factor.
Keywords: Distinct element method, fluid flow, hydro-mechanical coupling, jointed rock mass, underground excavations.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 663
1488 Simulation and Statistical Analysis of Motion Behavior of a Single Rockfall
Authors: Iau-Teh Wang, Chin-Yu Lee
Abstract:The impact force of a rockfall is mainly determined by its moving behavior and velocity, which are contingent on the rock shape, slope gradient, height, and surface roughness of the moving path. It is essential to precisely calculate the moving path of the rockfall in order to effectively minimize and prevent damages caused by the rockfall. By applying the Colorado Rockfall Simulation Program (CRSP) program as the analysis tool, this research studies the influence of three shapes of rock (spherical, cylindrical and discoidal) and surface roughness on the moving path of a single rockfall. As revealed in the analysis, in addition to the slope gradient, the geometry of the falling rock and joint roughness coefficient ( JRC ) of the slope are the main factors affecting the moving behavior of a rockfall. On a single flat slope, both the rock-s bounce height and moving velocity increase as the surface gradient increases, with a critical gradient value of 1:m = 1 . Bouncing behavior and faster moving velocity occur more easily when the rock geometry is more oval. A flat piece tends to cause sliding behavior and is easily influenced by the change of surface undulation. When JRC <1.4 the moving velocity decreases and the bounce height increases as JRC increases. If the gradient is fixed, when JRC is greater, the bounce height will be higher, while the moving velocity will experience a downward trend. Therefore, the best protecting point and facilities can be chosen if the moving paths of rockfalls are precisely estimated.
Keywords: rock shape, surface roughness, moving path.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1823
1487 A Second Law Assessment of Organic Rankine Cycle Depending on Source Temperature
Authors: Kyoung Hoon Kim
Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) has potential in reducing fossil fuels and relaxing environmental problems. In this work performance analysis of ORC is conducted based on the second law of thermodynamics for recovery of low temperature heat source from 100oC to 140oC using R134a as the working fluid. Effects of system parameters such as turbine inlet pressure or source temperature are theoretically investigated on the exergy destructions (anergies) at various components of the system as well as net work production or exergy efficiency. Results show that the net work or exergy efficiency has a peak with respect to the turbine inlet pressure when the source temperature is low, however, increases monotonically with increasing turbine inlet pressure when the source temperature is high.
Keywords: Organic Rankine cycle (ORC), low temperature heat source, exergy, source temperature.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1728
1486 Defects in Open Source Software: The Role of Online Forums
Authors: Faheem Ahmed, Piers Campbell, Ahmad Jaffar, Luiz Capretz
Abstract:Free and open source software is gaining popularity at an unprecedented rate of growth. Organizations despite some concerns about the quality have been using them for various purposes. One of the biggest concerns about free and open source software is post release software defects and their fixing. Many believe that there is no appropriate support available to fix the bugs. On the contrary some believe that due to the active involvement of internet user in online forums, they become a major source of communicating the identification and fixing of defects in open source software. The research model of this empirical investigation establishes and studies the relationship between open source software defects and online public forums. The results of this empirical study provide evidence about the realities of software defects myths of open source software. We used a dataset consist of 616 open source software projects covering a broad range of categories to study the research model of this investigation. The results of this investigation show that online forums play a significant role identifying and fixing the defects in open source software.
Keywords: About Open source software, software engineering, software defect management, empirical software engineering.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1656
1485 Array Data Transformation for Source Code Obfuscation
Authors: S. Praveen, P. Sojan Lal
Abstract:Obfuscation is a low cost software protection methodology to avoid reverse engineering and re engineering of applications. Source code obfuscation aims in obscuring the source code to hide the functionality of the codes. This paper proposes an Array data transformation in order to obfuscate the source code which uses arrays. The applications using the proposed data structures force the programmer to obscure the logic manually. It makes the developed obscured codes hard to reverse engineer and also protects the functionality of the codes.
Keywords: Reverse Engineering, Source Code Obfuscation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1897
1484 Rock Slope Stabilization and Protection for Roads and Multi-Storey Structures in Jabal Omar, Saudi Arabia
Authors: Ibrahim Abdel Gadir Malik, Dafalla Siddig Dafalla, Abdelazim Ibrahim
Jabal Omar is located in the western side of Makkah city in Saudi Arabia. The proposed Jabal Omar Development project includes several multi-storey buildings, roads, bridges and below ground structures founded at various depths. In this study, geological mapping and site inspection which covered pre-selected areas were carried out within the easily accessed parts. Geological features; including rock types, structures, degree of weathering, and geotechnical hazards were observed and analyzed with specified software and also were documented in form of photographs. The presence of joints and fractures in the area made the rock blocks small and weak. The site is full of jointing; it was observed that, the northern side consists of 3 to 4 jointing systems with 2 random fractures associated with dykes. The southern part is affected by 2 to 3 jointing systems with minor fault and shear zones. From the field measurements and observations, it was concluded that, the Jabal Omar intruded by andesitic and basaltic dykes of different thickness and orientation. These dykes made the outcrop weak, highly deformed and made the rock masses sensitive to weathering.
Keywords: Rock, slope, stabilization, protection, Makkah.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1261
1483 Analysis of Joint Source Channel LDPC Coding for Correlated Sources Transmission over Noisy Channels
Authors: Marwa Ben Abdessalem, Amin Zribi, Ammar Bouallègue
Abstract:In this paper, a Joint Source Channel coding scheme based on LDPC codes is investigated. We consider two concatenated LDPC codes, one allows to compress a correlated source and the second to protect it against channel degradations. The original information can be reconstructed at the receiver by a joint decoder, where the source decoder and the channel decoder run in parallel by transferring extrinsic information. We investigate the performance of the JSC LDPC code in terms of Bit-Error Rate (BER) in the case of transmission over an Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel, and for different source and channel rate parameters. We emphasize how JSC LDPC presents a performance tradeoff depending on the channel state and on the source correlation. We show that, the JSC LDPC is an efficient solution for a relatively low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) channel, especially with highly correlated sources. Finally, a source-channel rate optimization has to be applied to guarantee the best JSC LDPC system performance for a given channel.
Keywords: AWGN channel, belief propagation, joint source channel coding, LDPC codes.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 844
1482 Topological Sensitivity Analysis for Reconstruction of the Inverse Source Problem from Boundary Measurement
Authors: Maatoug Hassine, Mourad Hrizi
Abstract:In this paper, we consider a geometric inverse source problem for the heat equation with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary data. We will reconstruct the exact form of the unknown source term from additional boundary conditions. Our motivation is to detect the location, the size and the shape of source support. We present a one-shot algorithm based on the Kohn-Vogelius formulation and the topological gradient method. The geometric inverse source problem is formulated as a topology optimization one. A topological sensitivity analysis is derived from a source function. Then, we present a non-iterative numerical method for the geometric reconstruction of the source term with unknown support using a level curve of the topological gradient. Finally, we give several examples to show the viability of our presented method.
Keywords: Geometric inverse source problem, heat equation, topological sensitivity, topological optimization, Kohn-Vogelius formulation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 998
1481 Optimal Preventive Maintenance of the Reserve Source in the Industrial Electric Network
Authors: M. Bouguerra, H. Meglouli, I. Habi
Abstract:The great majority of the electric installations belong to the first and second category. In order to ensure a high level of reliability of their electric system feeder, two power supply sources are envisaged, one principal, the other of reserve, generally a cold reserve (electric diesel group). The principal source being under operation, its control can be ideal and sure, however for the reserve source being in stop, a preventive maintenance-s which proceeds on time intervals (periodicity) and for well defined lengths of time are envisaged, so that this source will always available in case of the principal source failure. The choice of the periodicity of preventive maintenance of the source of reserve influences directly the reliability of the electric feeder system. On the basis of the semi-markovians processes, the influence of the periodicity of the preventive maintenance of the source of reserve is studied and is given the optimal periodicity.
Keywords: Semi Markovians processes, reliability, optimization, electric network.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1148
1480 Topping Failure Analysis of Anti-Dip Bedding Rock Slopes Subjected to Crest Loads
Authors: Chaoyi Sun, Congxin Chen, Yun Zheng, Kaizong Xia, Wei Zhang
Crest loads are often encountered in hydropower, highway, open-pit and other engineering rock slopes. Toppling failure is one of the most common deformation failure types of anti-dip bedding rock slopes. Analysis on such failure of anti-dip bedding rock slopes subjected to crest loads has an important influence on engineering practice. Based on the step-by-step analysis approach proposed by Goodman and Bray, a geo-mechanical model was developed, and the related analysis approach was proposed for the toppling failure of anti-dip bedding rock slopes subjected to crest loads. Using the transfer coefficient method, a formulation was derived for calculating the residual thrust of slope toe and the support force required to meet the requirements of the slope stability under crest loads, which provided a scientific reference to design and support for such slopes. Through slope examples, the influence of crest loads on the residual thrust and sliding ratio coefficient was investigated for cases of different block widths and slope cut angles. The results show that there exists a critical block width for such slope. The influence of crest loads on the residual thrust is non-negligible when the block thickness is smaller than the critical value. Moreover, the influence of crest loads on the slope stability increases with the slope cut angle and the sliding ratio coefficient of anti-dip bedding rock slopes increases with the crest loads. Finally, the theoretical solutions and numerical simulations using Universal Distinct Element Code (UDEC) were compared, in which the consistent results show the applicability of both approaches.
Keywords: Anti-dip slopes, crest loads, stability analysis, toppling failure.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 768