Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1027

Search results for: solid separation

1027 Solid-Liquid-Polymer Mixed Matrix Membrane Using Liquid Additive Adsorbed on Activated Carbon Dispersed in Polymeric Membrane for CO2/CH4 Separation

Authors: P. Chultheera, T. Rirksomboon, S. Kulprathipanja, C. Liu, W. Chinsirikul, N. Kerddonfag

Abstract:

Gas separation by selective transport through polymeric membranes is one of the rapid growing branches of membrane technology. However, the tradeoff between the permeability and selectivity is one of the critical challenges encountered by pure polymer membranes, which in turn limits their large-scale application. To enhance gas separation performances, mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) have been developed. In this study, MMMs were prepared by a solution-coating method and tested for CO2/CH4 separation through permeability and selectivity using a membrane testing unit at room temperature and a pressure of 100 psig. The fabricated MMMs were composed of silicone rubber dispersed with the activated carbon individually absorbed with polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a liquid additive. PEG emulsified silicone rubber MMMs showed superior gas separation on cellulose acetate membrane with both high permeability and selectivity compared with silicone rubber membrane and alone support membrane. However, the MMMs performed limited stability resulting from the undesirable PEG leakage. To stabilize the MMMs, PEG was then incorporated into activated carbon by adsorption. It was found that the incorporation of solid and liquid was effective to improve the separation performance of MMMs.

Keywords: Mixed matrix membrane, membrane, CO2/CH4 separation, activated carbon.

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1026 Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Lubricant Adsorption and Thermal Depletion Instability

Authors: Bei Li, Qiu B. Chen, Chee H. Wong

Abstract:

In this work, we incorporated a quartic bond potential into a coarse-grained bead-spring model to study lubricant adsorption on a solid surface as well as depletion instability. The surface tension density and the number density profiles were examined to verify the solid-liquid and liquid-vapor interfaces during heat treatment. It was found that both the liquid-vapor interfacial thickness and the solid-vapor separation increase with the temperatureT* when T*is below the phase transition temperature Tc *. At high temperatures (T*>Tc *), the solid-vapor separation decreases gradually as the temperature increases. In addition, we evaluated the lubricant weight and bond loss profiles at different temperatures. It was observed that the lubricant desorption is favored over decomposition and is the main cause of the lubricant failure at the head disk interface in our simulations.

Keywords: Depletion instability, Lubricant film, Thermal adsorption, Molecular dynamics (MD).

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1025 The Effect of Cyclone Shape and Dust Collector on Gas-Solid Flow and Performance

Authors: Kyoungwoo Park, Chol-Ho Hong, Ji-Won Han, Byeong-Sam Kim, Cha-Sik Park, Oh Kyung Kwon

Abstract:

Numerical analysis of flow characteristics and separation efficiency in a high-efficiency cyclone has been performed. Several models based on the experimental observation for a design purpose were proposed. However, the model is only estimated the cyclone's performance under the limited environments; it is difficult to obtain a general model for all types of cyclones. The purpose of this study is to find out the flow characteristics and separation efficiency numerically. The Reynolds stress model (RSM) was employed instead of a standard k-ε or a k-ω model which was suitable for isotropic turbulence and it could predict the pressure drop and the Rankine vortex very well. For small particles, there were three significant components (entrance of vortex finder, cone, and dust collector) for the particle separation. In the present work, the particle re-entraining phenomenon from the dust collector to the cyclone body was observed after considerable time. This re-entrainment degraded the separation efficiency and was one of the significant factors for the separation efficiency of the cyclone.

Keywords: CFD, High-efficiency cyclone, Pressure drop, Rankine vortex, Reynolds stress model (RSM), Separation efficiency.

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1024 Separation Characteristics of Dissolved Gases from Water Concurrently Variable Mixed with Exhalations for the Hollow Fiber Membrane

Authors: Pil Woo Heo

Abstract:

Water contains dissolved oxygen that a fish needs to breathe. It is important to increase the amounts of separation of dissolved oxygen from water for diverse applications using the separation system. In this paper, a separation system of dissolved gases from water concurrently variable mixed with the exhalations using a compressor is proposed. This system takes use of exhalations to increase the amounts of separation of dissolved oxygen from water. A compressor with variable off-time and on-time is used to control the exhalations mixed with inlet water. Exhalations contain some portion of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and nitrogen. Separation of dissolved gases containing dissolved oxygen is enhanced by using exhalations. The amounts of separation and the compositions of carbon dioxide and oxygen are measured. Higher amounts of separation can make the size of the separation device smaller, and then, application areas are diversified.

Keywords: Concurrently, variable mixed, exhalations, separation, hollow fiber.

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1023 Study of Cahn-Hilliard Equation to Simulate Phase Separation

Authors: Nara Guimarães, Marcelo Aquino Martorano, Douglas Gouvêa

Abstract:

An investigation into Cahn-Hilliard equation was carried out through numerical simulation to identify a possible phase separation for one and two dimensional domains. It was observed that this equation can reproduce important mass fluxes necessary for phase separation within the miscibility gap and for coalescence of particles.

Keywords: Cahn-Hilliard equation, miscibility gap, phase separation.

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1022 Immobilized Liquid Membrane for Propylene- Propane Separation

Authors: Maryam TakhtRavanchi, Tahereh Kaghazchi, Ali Kargari

Abstract:

Separation of propylene-propane mixture using immobilized liquid membrane was investigated. The effect of transmembrane pressure and carrier concentration on membrane separation performance was studied. It was observed that for 30:70 (vol. %) propylene-propane mixture, at pressure of 120kPa and carrier concentration of 20wt. %, a separation factor of 474 was obtained.

Keywords: Facilitated Transport, Immobilized Liquid Membrane, Propylene-Propane Separation, Silver Nitrate.

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1021 Application of Formal Methods for Designing a Separation Kernel for Embedded Systems

Authors: Kei Kawamorita, Ryouta Kasahara, Yuuki Mochizuki, Kenichiro Noguchi

Abstract:

A separation-kernel-based operating system (OS) has been designed for use in secure embedded systems by applying formal methods to the design of the separation-kernel part. The separation kernel is a small OS kernel that provides an abstract distributed environment on a single CPU. The design of the separation kernel was verified using two formal methods, the B method and the Spin model checker. A newly designed semi-formal method, the extended state transition method, was also applied. An OS comprising the separation-kernel part and additional OS services on top of the separation kernel was prototyped on the Intel IA-32 architecture. Developing and testing of a prototype embedded application, a point-of-sale application, on the prototype OS demonstrated that the proposed architecture and the use of formal methods to design its kernel part are effective for achieving a secure embedded system having a high-assurance separation kernel.

Keywords: B method, embedded systems, extended state transition, formal methods, separation kernel, Spin.

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1020 Design of Laboratory Pilot Reactor for Filtering and Separation of Water – oil Emulsions

Authors: Irena Markovska, Nikolai Zaicev, Bogdan Bogdanov, Dimitar Georgiev, Yancho Hristov

Abstract:

The present paper deals with problems related to the possibilities to use fractal systems to solve some important scientific and practical problems connected with filtering and separation of aqueous phases from organic ones. For this purpose a special separator have been designed. The reactor was filled with a porous material with fractal dimension, which is an integral part of the set for filtration and separation of emulsions. As a model emulsion hexadecan mixture with water in equal quantities (1:1) was used. We examined the hydrodynamics of the separation of the emulsion at different rates of submission of the entrance of the reactor.

Keywords: pilot reactor, fractal systems, separation, emulsions

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1019 Blind Source Separation Using Modified Gaussian FastICA

Authors: V. K. Ananthashayana, Jyothirmayi M.

Abstract:

This paper addresses the problem of source separation in images. We propose a FastICA algorithm employing a modified Gaussian contrast function for the Blind Source Separation. Experimental result shows that the proposed Modified Gaussian FastICA is effectively used for Blind Source Separation to obtain better quality images. In this paper, a comparative study has been made with other popular existing algorithms. The peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and improved signal to noise ratio (ISNR) are used as metrics for evaluating the quality of images. The ICA metric Amari error is also used to measure the quality of separation.

Keywords: Amari error, Blind Source Separation, Contrast function, Gaussian function, Independent Component Analysis.

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1018 Separation of Dissolved Gases from Water for a Portable Underwater Breathing

Authors: Pil Woo Heo, In Sub Park

Abstract:

Water contains oxygen which may make a human breathe under water like a fish. Centrifugal separator can separate dissolved gases from water. Carrier solution can increase the separation of dissolved oxygen from water. But, to develop an breathing device for a human under water, the enhancement of separation of dissolved gases including oxygen and portable devices which have dc battery based device and proper size are needed. In this study, we set up experimental device for analyzing separation characteristics of dissolved gases including oxygen from water using a battery based portable vacuum pump. We characterized vacuum state, flow rate of separation of dissolved gases and oxygen concentration which were influenced by the manufactured vacuum pump.

Keywords: Portable, breathing, water, separation, battery.

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1017 Graphene/ZnO/Polymer Nanocomposite Thin Film for Separation of Oil-Water Mixture

Authors: Suboohi Shervani, Jingjing Ling, Jiabin Liu, Tahir Husain

Abstract:

Offshore oil-spill has become the most emerging problem in the world. In the current paper, a graphene/ZnO/polymer nanocomposite thin film is coated on stainless steel mesh via layer by layer deposition method. The structural characterization of materials is determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and separation efficiency have been measured via gas chromatography – flame ionization detector (GC-FID). TPHs are reduced to 2 ppm and separation efficiency of the nanocomposite coated mesh is reached ≥ 99% for the final sample. The nanocomposite coated mesh acts as a promising candidate for the separation of oil- water mixture.

Keywords: Oil-spill, graphene, oil-water separation, nanocomposite.

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1016 Triboelectric Separation of Binary Plastic Mixture

Authors: M. Saeki

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the performance of a triboelectric separator of plastic mixtures used for recycling. The separator consists of four cylindrical electrodes. The principle behind the separation technique is based on the difference in the Coulomb force acting on the plastic particles after triboelectric charging. The separation of mixtures of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and polystyrene (PS) using this method was studied. The effects of the triboelectric charging time and applied voltage on the separation efficiency were investigated. The experimental results confirm that it is possible to obtain a high purity and recovery rate for the initial compositions considered in this study.

Keywords: Coulomb force, recycling, triboelectric separator, waste plastics.

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1015 Development of High Performance Clarification System for FBR Dissolver Liquor

Authors: M.Takeuchi, T.Kitagaki, Y.Noguchi, T. Washiya

Abstract:

A high performance clarification system has been discussed for advanced aqueous reprocessing of FBR spent fuel. Dissolver residue gives the cause of troubles on the plant operation of reprocessing. In this study, the new clarification system based on the hybrid of centrifuge and filtration was proposed to get the high separation ability of the component of whole insoluble sludge. The clarification tests of simulated solid species were carried out to evaluate the clarification performance using small-scale test apparatus of centrifuge and filter unit. The density effect of solid species on the collection efficiency was mainly evaluated in the centrifugal clarification test. In the filtration test using ceramic filter with pore size of 0.2μm, on the other hand, permeability and filtration rate were evaluated in addition to the filtration efficiency. As results, it was evaluated that the collection efficiency of solid species on the new clarification system was estimated as nearly 100%. In conclusion, the high clarification performance of dissolver liquor can be achieved by the hybrid of the centrifuge and filtration system.

Keywords: Centrifuge, Clarification, FBR dissolver liquor, Filtration

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1014 DNS of a Laminar Separation Bubble

Authors: N. K. Singh, S. Sarkar

Abstract:

Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is used to study the evolution of a boundary layer that was laminar initially followed by separation and then reattachment owing to generation of turbulence. This creates a closed region of recirculation, known as the laminar-separation bubble. The present simulation emulates the flow environment encountered in a modern LP turbine blade, where a laminar separation bubble may occur on the suction surface. The unsteady, incompressible three-dimensional (3-D) Navier-Stokes (NS) equations have been solved over a flat plate in the Cartesian coordinates. The adverse pressure gradient, which causes the flow to separate, is created by a boundary condition. The separated shear layer undergoes transition through appearance of ╬ø vortices, stretching of these create longitudinal streaks. Breakdown of the streaks into small and irregular structures makes the flow turbulent downstream.

Keywords: Adverse pressure gradient, direct numerical simulation, laminar separation bubble.

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1013 Expert System for Sintering Process Control based on the Information about solid-fuel Flow Composition

Authors: Yendiyarov Sergei, Zobnin Boris, Petrushenko Sergei

Abstract:

Usually, the solid-fuel flow of an iron ore sinter plant consists of different types of the solid-fuels, which differ from each other. Information about the composition of the solid-fuel flow usually comes every 8-24 hours. It can be clearly seen that this information cannot be used to control the sintering process in real time. Due to this, we propose an expert system which uses indirect measurements from the process in order to obtain the composition of the solid-fuel flow by solving an optimization task. Then this information can be used to control the sintering process. The proposed technique can be successfully used to improve sinter quality and reduce the amount of solid-fuel used by the process.

Keywords: sintering process, particle swarm optimization, optimal control, expert system, solid-fuel

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1012 Numerical Study of Microscale Gas Flow-Separation Using Explicit Finite Volume Method

Authors: A. Chaudhuri, C. Guha, T. K. Dutta

Abstract:

Pressure driven microscale gas flow-separation has been investigated by solving the compressible Navier-Stokes (NS) system of equations. A two dimensional explicit finite volume (FV) compressible flow solver has been developed using modified advection upwind splitting methods (AUSM+) with no-slip/first order Maxwell-s velocity slip conditions to predict the flowseparation behavior in microdimensions. The effects of scale-factor of the flow geometry and gas species on the microscale gas flowseparation have been studied in this work. The intensity of flowseparation gets reduced with the decrease in scale of the flow geometry. In reduced dimension, flow-separation may not at all be present under similar flow conditions compared to the larger flow geometry. The flow-separation patterns greatly depend on the properties of the medium under similar flow conditions.

Keywords: AUSM+, FVM, Flow-separation, Microflow.

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1011 Separation of Chlorinated Plastics and Immobilization of Heavy Metals in Hazardous Automotive Shredder Residue

Authors: Srinivasa Reddy Mallampati, Chi-Hyeon Lee, Nguyen Thi Thanh Truc, Byeong-Kyu Lee

Abstract:

In the present study, feasibility of the selective surface hydrophilization of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) by microwave treatment was evaluated to facilitate the separation from automotive shredder residue (ASR), by the froth flotation. The combination of 60 sec microwave treatment with PAC, a sharp and significant decrease about 16.5° contact angle of PVC was observed in ASR plastic compared with other plastics. The microwave treatment with the addition of PAC resulted in a synergetic effect for the froth flotation, which may be a result of the 90% selective separation of PVC from ASR plastics, with 82% purity. While, simple mixing with a nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 dispersion mixture immobilized 95-100% of heavy metals in ASR soil/residues. The quantity of heavy metals leached from thermal residues after treatment by nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 was lower than the Korean standard regulatory limit for hazardous waste landfills. Microwave treatment can be a simple and effective method for PVC separation from ASR plastics.

Keywords: Automotive shredder residue, microwave treatment, chlorinated plastics, separation, heavy metals, Immobilization, separation.

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1010 Separation Characteristics of Dissolved Gases from Water Using a Polypropylene Hollow Fiber Membrane Module with High Surface Area

Authors: Pil Woo Heo, In Sub Park

Abstract:

A polypropylene hollow fiber membrane module is used for separating dissolved gases which contain dissolved oxygen from water. These dissolved gases can be used for underwater breathing. To be used for a human, the minimum amount of oxygen is essential. To increase separation of dissolved gases, much water and high surface area of hollow fibers are requested. For efficient separation system, performance of single membrane module with high surface area needs to be investigated.

In this study, we set up experimental devices for analyzing separation characteristics of dissolved gases including oxygen from water using a polypropylene hollow fiber membrane module. Separation of dissolved gases from water is investigated with variations of water flow rates. Composition of dissolved gases is also measured using GC. These results expect to be used in developing the portable separation system.

Keywords: High surface area, breathing, vacuum, composition.

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1009 An ICA Algorithm for Separation of Convolutive Mixture of Speech Signals

Authors: Rajkishore Prasad, Hiroshi Saruwatari, Kiyohiro Shikano

Abstract:

This paper describes Independent Component Analysis (ICA) based fixed-point algorithm for the blind separation of the convolutive mixture of speech, picked-up by a linear microphone array. The proposed algorithm extracts independent sources by non- Gaussianizing the Time-Frequency Series of Speech (TFSS) in a deflationary way. The degree of non-Gaussianization is measured by negentropy. The relative performances of algorithm under random initialization and Null beamformer (NBF) based initialization are studied. It has been found that an NBF based initial value gives speedy convergence as well as better separation performance

Keywords: Blind signal separation, independent component analysis, negentropy, convolutive mixture.

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1008 Numerical Simulation of Deoilin Hydrocyclones

Authors: Reza Maddahian, Bijan Farhanieh, Simin Dokht Saemi

Abstract:

In this research the separation efficiency of deoiling hydrocyclone is evaluated using three-dimensional simulation of multiphase flow based on Eulerian-Eulerian finite volume method. The mixture approach of Reynolds Stress Model is also employed to capture the features of turbulent multiphase swirling flow. The obtained separation efficiency of Colman's design is compared with available experimental data and showed that the separation curve of deoiling hydrocyclones can be predicted using numerical simulation.

Keywords: Deoiling hydrocyclone, Eulerian-Eulerian Model, Numerical simulation, Separation efficiency, Reynolds Stress Model

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1007 Experimental Investigation on Solid Concentration in Gas-Solid Circulating Fluidized Bed for Methanol-to-Olefins Process

Authors: Biao Wang, Tao Li, Qi-Wen Sun, Wei-Yong Ying, Ding-Ye Fang

Abstract:

Methanol-to-olefins coupled with transformation of coal or natural gas to methanol gives an interesting and promising way to produce ethylene and propylene. To investigate solid concentration in gas-solid fluidized bed for methanol-to-olefins process catalyzed by SAPO-34, a cold model experiment system is established in this paper. The system comprises a gas distributor in a 300mm internal diameter and 5000mm height acrylic column, the fiber optic probe system and series of cyclones. The experiments are carried out at ambient conditions and under different superficial gas velocity ranging from 0.3930m/s to 0.7860m/s and different initial bed height ranging from 600mm to 1200mm. The effects of radial distance, axial distance, superficial gas velocity, initial bed height on solid concentration in the bed are discussed. The effects of distributor shape and porosity on solid concentration are also discussed. The time-averaged solid concentration profiles under different conditions are obtained.

Keywords: Branched pipe distributor, distributor porosity, gas-solid fluidized bed, solid concentration.

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1006 Wasteless Solid-Phase Method for Conversion of Iron Ores Contaminated with Silicon and Phosphorus Compounds

Authors: А. V. Panko, Е. V. Ablets, I. G. Kovzun, М. А. Ilyashov

Abstract:

Based upon generalized analysis of modern know-how in the sphere of processing, concentration and purification of iron-ore raw materials (IORM), in particular, the most widespread ferrioxide-silicate materials (FOSM), containing impurities of phosphorus and other elements compounds, noted special role of nanotechnological initiatives in improvement of such processes. Considered ideas of role of nanoparticles in processes of FOSM carbonization with subsequent direct reduction of ferric oxides contained in them to metal phase, as well as in processes of alkali treatment and separation of powered iron from phosphorus compounds. Using the obtained results the wasteless method of solid-phase processing, concentration and purification of IORM and FOSM from compounds of phosphorus, silicon and other impurities was developed and it excels known methods of direct iron reduction from iron ores and metallurgical slimes.

Keywords: Iron ores, solid-phase reduction, nanoparticles in reduction and purification of iron from silicon and phosphorus, wasteless method of ores processing.

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1005 Separation of Vitamin B2 and B12 byImpregnate HPTLC Plates with Boric Acid

Authors: Homayon Ahmad Panahi, Hossein Sid Kalal, Atyeh Rahimi

Abstract:

A high performance thin layer chromatography system (HPTLC) for the separation of vitamin B2 and B12 has been developed. The separation was successfully using a solvent system of methanol, water, ammonia 7.3.1 (V/V) as mobile phase on HPTLC plates impregnated with boric acid. The effect of other mobile phases on the separation of vitamins was also examined. The method is based on different behavior of investigated compounds in impregnated TLC plates with different amount of boric acid. The Rf values of vitamin B2 and B12 are considered on non impregnated and impregnated silica gel HPTLC plate with boric acid. The effect of boric acid in the mobile phase and on HPTLC plates on the RF values of the vitamins has also been studied.

Keywords: High performance thin layer chromatography, HPTLC, Vitamin B2, Vitamin B12, Separation.

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1004 Increased Solubility, Dissolution and Physicochemical Studies of Curcumin- Polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30 Solid Dispersions

Authors: Nattha Kaewnopparat, Sanae Kaewnopparat, Amaravadee Jangwang, Daungkhae Maneenaun, Thitima Chuchome, Pharkphoom Panichayupakaranant

Abstract:

Solid dispersions (SD) of curcuminpolyvinylpyrrolidone in the ratio of 1:2, 1:4, 1:5, 1:6, and 1:8 were prepared in an attempt to increase the solubility and dissolution. Solubility, dissolution, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of solid dispersions, physical mixtures (PM) and curcumin were evaluated. Both solubility and dissolution of curcumin solid dispersions were significantly greater than those observed for physical mixtures and intact curcumin. The powder X-ray diffractograms indicated that the amorphous curcumin was obtained from all solid dispersions. It was found that the optimum weight ratio for curcumin:PVP K-30 is 1:6. The 1:6 solid dispersion still in the amorphous from after storage at ambient temperature for 2 years and the dissolution profile did not significantly different from freshly prepared.

Keywords: Curcumin, polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30, solid dispersion, dissolution, physicochemical.

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1003 Identification and Classification of Plastic Resins using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy

Authors: Hamed Masoumi, Seyed Mohsen Safavi, Zahra Khani

Abstract:

In this paper, an automated system is presented for identification and separation of plastic resins based on near infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy. For identification and separation among resins, a "Two-Filter" identification method is proposed that is capable to distinguish among polyethylene terephthalate (PET), high density polyethylene (HDPE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polypropylene (PP) and polystyrene (PS). Through surveying effects of parameters such as surface contamination, sample thickness, label and cap existence, it was obvious that the "Two-Filter" method has a high efficiency in identification of resins. It is shown that accurate identification and separation of five major resins can be obtained through calculating the relative reflectance at two wavelengths in the NIR region.

Keywords: Identification, Near Infrared, Plastic, Separation, Spectroscopy

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1002 Modeling Decentralized Source-Separation Systems for Urban Waste Management

Authors: Bernard J.H. Ng, Apostolos Giannis, Victor Chang, Rainer Stegmann, Jing-Yuan Wang

Abstract:

Decentralized eco-sanitation system is a promising and sustainable mode comparing to the century-old centralized conventional sanitation system. The decentralized concept relies on an environmentally and economically sound management of water, nutrient and energy fluxes. Source-separation systems for urban waste management collect different solid waste and wastewater streams separately to facilitate the recovery of valuable resources from wastewater (energy, nutrients). A resource recovery centre constituted for 20,000 people will act as the functional unit for the treatment of urban waste of a high-density population community, like Singapore. The decentralized system includes urine treatment, faeces and food waste co-digestion, and horticultural waste and organic fraction of municipal solid waste treatment in composting plants. A design model is developed to estimate the input and output in terms of materials and energy. The inputs of urine (yellow water, YW) and faeces (brown water, BW) are calculated by considering the daily mean production of urine and faeces by humans and the water consumption of no-mix vacuum toilet (0.2 and 1 L flushing water for urine and faeces, respectively). The food waste (FW) production is estimated to be 150 g wet weight/person/day. The YW is collected and discharged by gravity into tank. It was found that two days are required for urine hydrolysis and struvite precipitation. The maximum nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) recovery are 150-266 kg/day and 20-70 kg/day, respectively. In contrast, BW and FW are mixed for co-digestion in a thermophilic acidification tank and later a decentralized/centralized methanogenic reactor is used for biogas production. It is determined that 6.16-15.67 m3/h methane is produced which is equivalent to 0.07-0.19 kWh/ca/day. The digestion residues are treated with horticultural waste and organic fraction of municipal waste in co-composting plants.

Keywords: Decentralization, ecological sanitation, material flow analysis, source-separation

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1001 Dynamic Stall Vortex Formation of OA-209 Airfoil at Low Reynolds Number

Authors: Aung Myo Thu, Sang Eon Jeon, Yung Hwan Byun, Soo Hyung Park

Abstract:

The unsteady flow field around oscillating OA-209 airfoil at a Reynolds number of 3.5×105 were investigated. Three different reduced frequencies were tested in order to see how it affects the hysteresis loop of an airfoil. At a reduced frequency of 0.05 the deep dynamic stall phenomenon was observed. Lift overshooting was observed as a result of dynamic stall vortex (DSV) shedding. Further investigation was carried out to find out the cause of DSV formation and shedding over airfoil. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) and CFD tools were used and it was found out that dynamic stall separation (DSS), which is separated from leading edge separation (LES) and trailing edge separation (TES), triggered the dynamic stall vortex (DSV).

Keywords: Airfoil Flow, CFD, PIV, Dynamic Stall, Flow Separation.

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1000 Separation of CO2 Using MFI-Alumina Nanocomposite Hollow Fiber Ion-Exchanged with Alkali Metal Cation

Authors: A. Alshebani, Y. Swesi, S. Mrayed, F. Altaher, I. Musbah

Abstract:

Cs-type nanocomposite zeolite membrane was successfully synthesized on an alumina ceramic hollow fibre with a mean outer diameter of 1.7 mm; cesium cationic exchange test was carried out inside test module with mean wall thickness of 230 μm and an average crossing pore size smaller than 0.2 μm. Separation factor of n-butane/H2 obtained indicate that a relatively high quality closed to 20. Maxwell-Stefan modeling provides an equivalent thickness lower than 1 µm. To compare the difference an application to CO2/N2 separation has been achieved, reaching separation factors close to (4,18) before and after cation exchange on H-zeolite membrane formed within the pores of a ceramic alumina substrate.

Keywords: MFI membrane, nanocomposite, Ceramic hollow fibre, CO2, Ion-exchange.

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999 Separation of Dissolved Gas for Breathing of a Human against Sudden Waves Using Hollow Fiber Membranes

Authors: Pil Woo Heo, In Sub Park

Abstract:

The separation of dissolved gas including dissolved oxygen can be used in breathing for a human under water. When one is suddenly wrecked or meets a tsunami, one is instantly drowned and cannot breathe under water. To avoid this crisis, when we meet waves, the dissolved gas separated from water by wave is used, while air can be used to breathe when we are about to escape from water. In this thesis, we investigated the separation characteristics of dissolved gas using the pipe type of hollow fiber membrane with polypropylene and the nude type of one with polysulfone. The hollow fiber membranes with good characteristics under water are used to separate the dissolved gas. The hollow fiber membranes with good characteristics in an air are used to transfer air. The combination of membranes with good separation characteristics under water and good transferring one in an air is used to breathe instantly under water to be alive at crisis. These results showed that polypropylene represented better performance than polysulfone under both of air and water conditions.

Keywords: separation, wave, dissolved gas, hollow fiber

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998 Solid Concentration in Circulating Fluidized Bed Reactor for the MTO Process

Authors: Biao Wang, Tao Li, Qi-wen Sun, Wei-yong Ying, Ding-ye Fang

Abstract:

Methanol-to-olefins (MTO) coupled with transformation of coal or natural gas to methanol gives an interesting and promising way to produce ethylene and propylene. To investigate solid concentration in gas-solid fluidized bed for methanol-to-olefins process catalyzed by SAPO-34, a cold model experiment system is established in this paper. The system comprises a gas distributor in a 300mm internal diameter and 5000mm height acrylic column, the fiber optic probe system and series of cyclones. The experiments are carried out at ambient conditions and under different superficial gas velocity ranging from 0.3930m/s to 0.7860m/s and different initial bed height ranging from 600mm to 1200mm. The effects of radial distance, axial distance, superficial gas velocity, initial bed height on solid concentration in the bed are discussed. The effects of distributor shape and porosity on solid concentration are also discussed. The time-averaged solid concentration profiles under different conditions are obtained.

Keywords: Branched pipe distributor, distributor porosity, gas-solid fluidized bed, solid concentration.

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