Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 39

Search results for: slot waveguides

39 Light Confinement in Low Index Nanometer Areas

Authors: N. Aravantinos-Zafiris, M. M. Sigalas

Abstract:

In this work we numerically examine structures which could confine light in nanometer areas. A system consisting of two silicon disks with in plane separation of a few tens of nanometers has been studied first. The normalized unitless effective mode volume, Veff, has been calculated for the two lowest whispering gallery mode resonances. The effective mode volume is reduced significantly as the gap between the disks decreases. In addition, the effect of the substrate is also studied. In that case, Veff of approximately the same value as the non-substrate case for a similar two disk system can be obtained by using disks almost twice as thick. We also numerically examine a structure consisting of a circular slot waveguide which is formed into a silicon disk resonator. We show that the proposed structure could have high Q resonances thus raising the belief that it is a very promising candidate for optical interconnects applications. The study includes several numerical calculations for all the geometric parameters of the structure. It also includes numerical simulations of the coupling between a waveguide and the proposed disk resonator leading to a very promising conclusion about its applicability.

Keywords: Disk resonators, field enhancement, optical interconnect, slot waveguides.

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38 Multiband CPW-Fed Slot Antenna with L-slot Bowtie Tuning Stub

Authors: Prapoch Jirasakulporn

Abstract:

This paper presents a multiband CPW-fed slot antenna with L-slot bowtie tuning stub. The proposed antenna has been designed for PCS 1900, UMTS, WLAN 802.11 a/b/g and bluetooth applications, with a cost-effective FR4 substrate. The proposed antenna still radiate as omni-directional in azimuth plane and sufficient bandwidth for all above mentions. The proposed antenna works as dual-wideband, bandwidth at low frequency band and high frequency are about 45.49 % and 22.39 % respectively. The experimental results of the constructed prototype are presented and also compared with simulation results using a commercial software tool.

Keywords: multiband antenna, slot antenna, CPW-fed, L-slotbowtie stub

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37 Factors Affecting Slot Machine Performance in an Electronic Gaming Machine Facility

Authors: Etienne Provencal, David L. St-Pierre

Abstract:

A facility exploiting only electronic gambling machines (EGMs) opened in 2007 in Quebec City, Canada under the name of Salons de Jeux du Québec (SdjQ). This facility is one of the first worldwide to rely on that business model. This paper models the performance of such EGMs. The interest from a managerial point of view is to identify the variables that can be controlled or influenced so that a comprehensive model can help improve the overall performance of the business. The EGM individual performance model contains eight different variables under study (Game Title, Progressive jackpot, Bonus Round, Minimum Coin-in, Maximum Coin-in, Denomination, Slant Top and Position). Using data from Quebec City’s SdjQ, a linear regression analysis explains 90.80% of the EGM performance. Moreover, results show a behavior slightly different than that of a casino. The addition of GameTitle as a factor to predict the EGM performance is one of the main contributions of this paper. The choice of the game (GameTitle) is very important. Games having better position do not have significantly better performance than games located elsewhere on the gaming floor. Progressive jackpots have a positive and significant effect on the individual performance of EGMs. The impact of BonusRound on the dependent variable is significant but negative. The effect of Denomination is significant but weakly negative. As expected, the Language of an EGMS does not impact its individual performance. This paper highlights some possible improvements by indicating which features are performing well. Recommendations are given to increase the performance of the EGMs performance.

Keywords: EGM, linear regression, model prediction, slot operations.

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36 A Numerical Study on Heat Transfer in Laminar Pulsed Slot Jets Impinging on a Surface

Authors: D. Kim

Abstract:

Numerical simulations are performed for laminar continuous and pulsed jets impinging on a surface in order to investigate the effects of pulsing frequency on the heat transfer characteristics. The time-averaged Nusselt number of pulsed jets is larger in the impinging jet region as compared to the continuous jet, while it is smaller in the outer wall jet region. At the stagnation point, the mean and RMS Nusselt numbers become larger and smaller, respectively, as the pulsing frequency increases. Unsteady behaviors of vortical fluid motions and temperature field are also investigated to understand the underlying mechanisms of heat transfer enhancement.

Keywords: Pulsed slot jet, impingement, pulsing frequency, heat transfer enhancement.

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35 Effects of Geometry of Disk Openers on Seed Slot Properties

Authors: E. Seidi

Abstract:

Offset Double-Disk Opener (DDO) is a popular furrow opener in conservation tillage. It has some limitations such as negative suction to penetrate in the soil, hair pinning and mixing seed and fertilizer in the slot. Because of importance of separation of seed and fertilizer in the slot, by adding two horizontal mini disks to DDO a modified opener was made (MDO) which placed the fertilizer between and under two rows of seed. To consider performance of novel opener an indoor comparison test between DDO and MDO was performed at soil bin. The experiment was conducted with three working speeds (3, 6 and 8 km h-1), two bulk densities of soil (1.1 and 1.4 Mg m-3) and two levels of residues (1 and 2 ton ha-1). The experimental design consisted in a (3×2×2) complete randomized factorial with three replicates for each test. Moisture of seed furrow, separation of seed and fertilizer, hair pinning and resultant forces acting on the openers were used as assessing indexes. There was no significant difference between soil moisture content in slots created by DDO and MDO at 0-4 cm depth, but at 4-8 cm the in the slot created by MDO moisture content was higher about 9%. Horizontal force for both openers increased with increasing speed and soil bulk density. Vertical force for DDO was negative so it needed additional weight for penetrating in the soil, but vertical force for MDO was positive and, which can solve the challenge of penetration in the soil in DDO. In soft soil with heavy residues some trash was pushed by DDO into seed furrow (hair pinning) but at MDO seed were placed at clean groove. Lateral and vertical separation of seed and fertilizer was performed effectively by MDO (4.5 and 5 cm, respectively) while DDO put seed and fertilizer close to each other. Overall, the Modified Offset Double-disks (MDO) had better performance. So by adapting this opener with no-tillage drillers it would possible to have higher yield in conservation tillage where the most appropriate opener is disk type.

Keywords: Seed Slot, opener's geometry, physical properties.

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34 Sustainable Design of Impinging Premixed Slot Jets

Authors: T.T. Wong, C.W. Leung, M.C. Wong

Abstract:

Cooktop burners are widely used nowadays. In cooktop burner design, nozzle efficiency and greenhouse gas(GHG) emissions mainly depend on heat transfer from the premixed flame to the impinging surface. This is a complicated issue depending on the individual and combined effects of various input combustion variables. Optimal operating conditions for sustainable burner design were rarely addressed, especially in the case of multiple slot-jet burners. Through evaluating the optimal combination of combustion conditions for a premixed slot-jet array, this paper develops a practical approach for the sustainable design of gas cooktop burners. Efficiency, CO and NOx emissions in respect of an array of slot jets using premixed flames were analysed. Response surface experimental design were applied to three controllable factors of the combustion process, viz. Reynolds number, equivalence ratio and jet-to-vessel distance. Desirability Function Approach(DFA) is the analytic technique used for the simultaneous optimization of the efficiency and emission responses.

Keywords: optimization, premixed slot jets

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33 A Compact Wearable Slot Antenna for LTE and WLAN Applications

Authors: Haider K. Raad

Abstract:

In this paper, a compact wide-band, ultra-thin and flexible slot antenna intended for wearable applications is presented. The presented antenna is designed to provide Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) and Long Term Evolution (LTE) connectivity. The presented design exhibits a relatively wide bandwidth (1600-3500 MHz below -6 dB impedance bandwidth limit). The antenna is positioned on a 33 mm x 30 mm flexible substrate with a thickness of 50 µm. Antenna properties, such as the far-field radiation patterns, scattering parameter S11 are provided. The presented compact, thin and flexible design along with excellent radiation characteristics are deemed suitable for integration into flexible and wearable devices.

Keywords: Wearable Electronics, Slot Antenna, LTE, WLAN.

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32 Analysis of Effects of Magnetic Slot Wedges on Characteristics of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine

Authors: B. Ladghem Chikouche

Abstract:

The influence of slot wedges permeability on the electromagnetic performance of three-phase permanent magnet synchronous machine is investigated in this paper. It is shown that the back-EMF waveform, electromagnetic torque and electromagnetic torque ripple are all significantly affected by slot wedges permeability. The paper presents an accurate analytical subdomain model and confirmed by finite-element analyses.

Keywords: Exact analytical calculation, finite-element method, magnetic field distribution, permanent magnet machines performance, stator slot wedges permeability.

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31 Low Cost Real-Time Communication Braille Hand-Glove for Visually Impaired Using Slot Sensors and Vibration Motors

Authors: Mukul Bandodkar, Virat Chourasia

Abstract:

Visually impaired people find it extremely difficult to acquire basic and vital information necessary for their living. Therefore, they are at a very high risk of being socially excluded as a result of poor access to information. In recent years, several attempts have been made in improving the communication methods for visually impaired people which involve tactile sensation such as finger Braille, manual alphabets and the print on palm method and several other electronic devices. But, there are some problems which arise in such methods such as lack of privacy and lack of compatibility to computer environment. This paper describes a low cost Braille hand glove for blind people using slot sensors and vibration motors with the help of which they can read and write emails, text messages and read e-books. This glove allows the person to type characters based on different Braille combination using six slot sensors. The vibration in six different positions of the glove which matches to the Braille code allows them to read characters.

Keywords: Braille, Braille Hand-Glove, Slot sensors, Vibration motors.

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30 A Low Profile Dual Polarized Slot Coupled Patch Antenna

Authors: Mingde Du, Dong Han

Abstract:

A low profile, dual polarized, slot coupled patch antenna is designed and developed in this paper. The antenna has a measured bandwidth of 17.2% for return loss > 15 dB and pair ports isolation >23 dB. The gain of the antenna is over 10 dBi and the half power beam widths (HPBW) of the antenna are 80±3o in the horizontal plane and 39±2o in the vertical plane. The cross polarization discrimination (XPD) is less than 20 dB in HPBW. Within the operating band, the performances of good impedance match, high ports isolation, low cross polarization, and stable radiation patterns are achieved.

Keywords: Dual polarized, patch antenna, slot coupled, base station antenna.

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29 High Gain Broadband Plasmonic Slot Nano-Antenna

Authors: H. S. Haroyan, V. R. Tadevosyan

Abstract:

High gain broadband plasmonic slot nano-antenna has been considered. The theory of plasmonic slot nano-antenna (PSNA) has been developed. The analytical model takes into account also the electrical field inside the metal due to imperfectness of metal in optical range, as well as numerical investigation based on finite element method (FEM) has been realized. It should be mentioned that Yagi-Uda configuration improves directivity in the plane of structure. In contrast, in this paper the possibility of directivity improvement of proposed PSNA in perpendicular plane of structure by using reflection metallic surface placed under the slot in fixed distance has been demonstrated. It is well known that a directivity improvement brings to the antenna gain increasing. This method of diagram improving is also well known from RF antenna design theory. Moreover the improvement of directivity in the perpendicular plane gives more flexibility in such application as improving the light and atom, ion, molecule interactions by using such type of plasmonic slot antenna. By the analogy of dipole type optical antennas the widening of working wavelengths has been realized by using bowtie geometry of slots, which made the antenna broadband.

Keywords: Broadband antenna, high gain, slot nano-antenna, plasmonics.

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28 Modeling and Simulations of Surface Plasmon Waveguide Structures

Authors: Moussa Hamdan, Abdulati Abdullah

Abstract:

This paper presents an investigation of the fabrication of the optical devices in terms of their characteristics based on the use of the electromagnetic waves. Planar waveguides are used to examine the field modes (bound modes) and the parameters required for this structure. The modifications are conducted on surface plasmons based waveguides. Simple symmetric dielectric slab structure is used and analyzed in terms of transverse electric mode (TE-Mode) and transverse magnetic mode (TM-Mode. The paper presents mathematical and numerical solutions for solving simple symmetric plasmons and provides simulations of surface plasmons for field confinement. Asymmetric TM-mode calculations for dielectric surface plasmons are also provided.

Keywords: Surface plasmons, optical waveguides, semiconductor lasers, refractive index, slab dialectical.

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27 Numerical Analysis and Design of Dielectric to Plasmonic Waveguides Couplers

Authors: Emanuela Paranhos Lima, Vitaly Félix Rodríguez Esquerre

Abstract:

In this work, efficient directional coupler composed of dielectric waveguides and metallic film has been analyzed in details by simulations using finite element method (FEM). The structure consists of a step-index fiber with dielectric core, silica cladding, and a metal nanowire parallel to the core. The results show that an efficient conversion of optical dielectric modes to long range plasmonic is possible. Low insertion losses in conjunction with short coupling length and a broadband operation can be achieved under certain conditions. This kind of couplers has potential applications for the design of photonic integrated circuits for signal routing between dielectric/plasmonic waveguides, sensing, lithography, and optical storage systems. A high efficient focusing of light in a very small region can be obtained.

Keywords: Directional coupler, finite element method, metallic nanowire, plasmonic, surface plasmon polariton.

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26 Equations of Pulse Propagation in Three-Layer Structure of As2S3 Chalcogenide Plasmonic Nano-Waveguides

Authors: Leila Motamed-Jahromi, Mohsen Hatami, Alireza Keshavarz

Abstract:

This research aims at obtaining the equations of pulse propagation in nonlinear plasmonic waveguides created with As2S3 chalcogenide materials. Via utilizing Helmholtz equation and first-order perturbation theory, two components of electric field are determined within frequency domain. Afterwards, the equations are formulated in time domain. The obtained equations include two coupled differential equations that considers nonlinear dispersion.

Keywords: Nonlinear optics, propagation equation, plasmonic waveguide.

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25 Planar Plasmonic Terahertz Waveguides for Sensor Applications

Authors: Maidul Islam, Dibakar Roy Chowdhury, Gagan Kumar

Abstract:

We investigate sensing capabilities of a planar plasmonic THz waveguide. The waveguide is comprised of one dimensional array of periodically arranged sub wavelength scale corrugations in the form of rectangular dimples in order to ensure the plasmonic response. The THz waveguide transmission is observed for polyimide (as thin film) substance filling the dimples. The refractive index of the polyimide film is varied to examine various sensing parameters such as frequency shift, sensitivity and Figure of Merit (FoM) of the fundamental plasmonic resonance supported by the waveguide. In efforts to improve sensing characteristics, we also examine sensing capabilities of a plasmonic waveguide having V shaped corrugations and compare results with that of rectangular dimples. The proposed study could be significant in developing new terahertz sensors with improved sensitivity utilizing the plasmonic waveguides.

Keywords: Terahertz, plasmonic, sensor, sub-wavelength structures.

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24 Photonic Crystals for Novel Applications in Integrated-Optic Communication Systems and Devices

Authors: Vijay Janyani, Neetu Joshi, Jigyasa Pagaria, Parul Pathak

Abstract:

Photonic Crystal (PhC) based devices are being increasingly used in multifunctional, compact devices in integrated optical communication systems. They provide excellent controllability of light, yet maintaining the small size required for miniaturization. In this paper, the band gap properties of PhCs and their typical applications in optical waveguiding are considered. Novel PhC based applications such as nonlinear switching and tapers are considered and simulation results are shown using the accurate time-domain numerical method based on Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) scheme. The suitability of these devices for novel applications is discussed and evaluated.

Keywords: Band gap engineering, Nonlinear switching, Photonic crystals, PhC tapers, waveguides.

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23 Linear-Operator Formalism in the Analysis of Omega Planar Layered Waveguides

Authors: António L. Topa

Abstract:

A complete spectral representation for the electromagnetic field of planar multilayered waveguides inhomogeneously filled with omega media is presented. The problem of guided electromagnetic propagation is reduced to an eigenvalue equation related to a 2 ´ 2 matrix differential operator. Using the concept of adjoint waveguide, general bi-orthogonality relations for the hybrid modes (either from the discrete or from the continuous spectrum) are derived. For the special case of homogeneous layers the linear operator formalism is reduced to a simple 2 ´ 2 coupling matrix eigenvalue problem. Finally, as an example of application, the surface and the radiation modes of a grounded omega slab waveguide are analyzed.

Keywords: Metamaterials, linear operators, omega media, layered waveguide, orthogonality relations

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22 Temporal Extension to OWL Ontologies

Authors: Sudeep Marwaha, Punam Bedi

Abstract:

Ontologies play an important role in semantic web applications and are often developed by different groups and continues to evolve over time. The knowledge in ontologies changes very rapidly that make the applications outdated if they continue to use old versions or unstable if they jump to new versions. Temporal frames using frame versioning and slot versioning are used to take care of dynamic nature of the ontologies. The paper proposes new tags and restructured OWL format enabling the applications to work with the old or new version of ontologies. Gene Ontology, a very dynamic ontology, has been used as a case study to explain the OWL Ontology with Temporal Tags.

Keywords: Frame and slot Versioning, OWL, OntologyVersioning, Semantic Web.

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21 Versioning OWL Ontologies using Temporal Tags

Authors: Punam Bedi, Sudeep Marwaha

Abstract:

Ontologies play an important role in semantic web applications and are often developed by different groups and continues to evolve over time. The knowledge in ontologies changes very rapidly that make the applications outdated if they continue to use old versions or unstable if they jump to new versions. Temporal frames using frame versioning and slot versioning are used to take care of dynamic nature of the ontologies. The paper proposes new tags and restructured OWL format enabling the applications to work with the old or new version of ontologies. Gene Ontology, a very dynamic ontology, has been used as a case study to explain the OWL Ontology with Temporal Tags.

Keywords: Frame and slot Versioning, OWL, OntologyVersioning, Semantic Web.

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20 Parametric Study of Confined Turbulent Impinging Slot Jets upon a Flat Plate

Authors: A. M. Tahsini, S. Tadayon Mousavi

Abstract:

In the present paper, a numerical investigation has been carried out to classify and clarify the effects of paramount parameters on turbulent impinging slot jets. The effects of nozzle-s exit turbulent intensity, distance between nozzle and impinging plate are studied at Reynolds number 5000 and 20000. In addition, the effect of Mach number that is varied between 0.3-0.8 at a constant Reynolds number 133000 is investigated to elucidate the effect of compressibility in impinging jet upon a flat plate. The wall that is located at the same level with nozzle-s exit confines the flow. A compressible finite volume solver is implemented for simulation the flow behavior. One equation Spalart-Allmaras turbulent model is used to simulate turbulent flow at this study. Assessment of the Spalart-Allmaras turbulent model at high nozzle to plate distance, and giving enough insights to characterize the effect of Mach number at high Reynolds number for the complex impinging jet flow are the remarkable results of this study.

Keywords: Impinging jet, Numerical simulation, Turbulence.

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19 Compact Slotted Broadband Antenna for Wireless Applications

Authors: M. M. Sharma, Swati Gupta, Deepak Bhatnagar, R. P. Yadav

Abstract:

This paper presents the theoretical investigation of a slotted patch antenna. The main objective of proposed work is to obtain a large bandwidth antenna with reduced size. The antenna has a compact size of 21.1mm x 20.25mm x 8.5mm. Two designs with minor variation are studied which provide wide impedance bandwidths of 24.056% and 25.63% respectively with the use of parasitic elements when excited by a probe feed. The advantages of this configuration are its compact size and the wide range of frequencies covered. A parametric study is also conducted to investigate the characteristics of the antenna under different conditions. The measured return loss and radiation pattern indicate the suitability of this design for WLAN applications, namely, Wi- Max, 802.11a/b/g and ISM bands.

Keywords: Inset feed, microstrip antenna, parasitic patch, shorting wall, slot, wi-max.

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18 Improved Plasmonic Demultiplexer Based on Tapered and Rectangular Slot MIM Waveguide

Authors: Aso Rahimzadegan, Seyyed Poorya Hosseini, Kamran Qaderi

Abstract:

In this paper, we have proposed two novel plasmonic demultiplexing structures based on metal-insulator-metal surfaces which, beside their compact size, have a very good transmission spectrum. The impact of the key internal parameters on the transmission spectrum is numerically analyzed by using the twodimensional (2D) finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The proposed structures could be used to develop ultra-compact photonic wavelength demultiplexing devices for large-scale photonic integration.

Keywords: Photonic integrated devices, Plasmonics, Metalinsulator- metal (MIM) waveguide, Demultiplexers.

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17 Microstrip Slot Antenna for Triple Band Application in Wireless Communication

Authors: Biplab Bag

Abstract:

In this paper, the design of a coaxial feed single layer rectangular microstrip patch antenna for three different wireless communication band applications is presented. The proposed antenna is designed by using substrate Roger RT/duroid 5880 having permittivity of about 2.2 and tangent loss of 0.0009. The characteristics of the substrate are designed and to evaluate the performance of modeled antenna using HFSS v.11 EM simulator, from Ansoft. The proposed antenna has small in size and operates at 2.25GHz, 3.76GHz and 5.23GHz suitable for mobile satellite service (MSS) network, WiMAX and WLAN applications. The dimension of the patch and slots are optimized to obtain these desired functional frequency ranges. The simulation results with frequency response, radiation pattern and return loss, VSWR, Input Impedance are presented with appropriate table and graph.

Keywords: Microstrip, Tangent Loss, MSS, WiMAX, WLAN, Radiation Pattern, Return Loss, VSWR.

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16 Improvement of Stator Slot Structure based on Electro-Thermal Analysis in HV Generator

Authors: Diako Azizi, Ahmad Gholami, Vahid Abbasi

Abstract:

High voltage generators are being subject to higher voltage rating and are being designed to operate in harsh conditions. Stator windings are the main component of generators in which Electrical, magnetically and thermal stresses remain major failures for insulation degradation accelerated aging. A large number of generators failed due to stator winding problems, mainly insulation deterioration. Insulation degradation assessment plays vital role in the asset life management. Mostly the stator failure is catastrophic causing significant damage to the plant. Other than generation loss, stator failure involves heavy repair or replacement cost. Electro thermal analysis is the main characteristic for improvement design of stator slot-s insulation. Dielectric parameters such as insulation thickness, spacing, material types, geometry of winding and slot are major design consideration. A very powerful method available to analyze electro thermal performance is Finite Element Method (FEM) which is used in this paper. The analysis of various stator coil and slot configurations are used to design the better dielectric system to reduce electrical and thermal stresses in order to increase the power of generator in the same volume of core. This paper describes the process used to perform classical design and improvement analysis of stator slot-s insulation.

Keywords: Electromagnetic field, field distribution, insulation, winding, finite element method

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15 Analytical Estimation of Rotor Loss Due to Stator Slotting of Synchronous PM Machines

Authors: Adel Bettayeb, Robert Kaczmarek, Jean-Claude Vannier

Abstract:

In this paper, we analyze the rotor eddy currents losses provoqued by the stator slot harmonics developed in the permanent magnets or pole pieces of synchronous machines. An analytical approach is presented to evaluate the effect of slot ripples on rotor field and losses calculation. This analysis is then tested on a model by 2D/3D finite element (FE) calculation. The results show a good agreement on loss calculations when skin effect is negligible and the magnet is considered.

Keywords: Analytical modeling, Eddy-currents, Finite-elementmethods, Power losses, Slot harmonics effect.

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14 UWB Bowtie Slot Antenna for Breast Cancer Detection

Authors: N. Seladji-Hassaine, L. Merad, S.M. Meriah, F.T. Bendimerad

Abstract:

UWB is a very attractive technology for many applications. It provides many advantages such as fine resolution and high power efficiency. Our interest in the current study is the use of UWB radar technique in microwave medical imaging systems, especially for early breast cancer detection. The Federal Communications Commission FCC allowed frequency bandwidth of 3.1 to 10.6 GHz for this purpose. In this paper we suggest an UWB Bowtie slot antenna with enhanced bandwidth. Effects of varying the geometry of the antenna on its performance and bandwidth are studied. The proposed antenna is simulated in CST Microwave Studio. Details of antenna design and simulation results such as return loss and radiation patterns are discussed in this paper. The final antenna structure exhibits good UWB characteristics and has surpassed the bandwidth requirements.

Keywords: Ultra Wide Band (UWB), microwave imaging system, Bowtie antenna, return loss, impedance bandwidth enhancement.

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13 Analysis and Simulation of TM Fields in Waveguides with Arbitrary Cross-Section Shapes by Means of Evolutionary Equations of Time-Domain Electromagnetic Theory

Authors: Ömer Aktaş, Olga A. Suvorova, Oleg Tretyakov

Abstract:

The boundary value problem on non-canonical and arbitrary shaped contour is solved with a numerically effective method called Analytical Regularization Method (ARM) to calculate propagation parameters. As a result of regularization, the equation of first kind is reduced to the infinite system of the linear algebraic equations of the second kind in the space of L2. This equation can be solved numerically for desired accuracy by using truncation method. The parameters as cut-off wavenumber and cut-off frequency are used in waveguide evolutionary equations of electromagnetic theory in time-domain to illustrate the real-valued TM fields with lossy and lossless media.

Keywords: Arbitrary cross section waveguide, analytical regularization method, evolutionary equations of electromagnetic theory of time-domain, TM field.

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12 Active Intra-ONU Scheduling with Cooperative Prediction Mechanism in EPONs

Authors: Chuan-Ching Sue, Shi-Zhou Chen, Ting-Yu Huang

Abstract:

Dynamic bandwidth allocation in EPONs can be generally separated into inter-ONU scheduling and intra-ONU scheduling. In our previous work, the active intra-ONU scheduling (AS) utilizes multiple queue reports (QRs) in each report message to cooperate with the inter-ONU scheduling and makes the granted bandwidth fully utilized without leaving unused slot remainder (USR). This scheme successfully solves the USR problem originating from the inseparability of Ethernet frame. However, without proper setting of threshold value in AS, the number of QRs constrained by the IEEE 802.3ah standard is not enough, especially in the unbalanced traffic environment. This limitation may be solved by enlarging the threshold value. The large threshold implies the large gap between the adjacent QRs, thus resulting in the large difference between the best granted bandwidth and the real granted bandwidth. In this paper, we integrate AS with a cooperative prediction mechanism and distribute multiple QRs to reduce the penalty brought by the prediction error. Furthermore, to improve the QoS and save the usage of queue reports, the highest priority (EF) traffic which comes during the waiting time is granted automatically by OLT and is not considered in the requested bandwidth of ONU. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme has better performance metrics in terms of bandwidth utilization and average delay for different classes of packets.

Keywords: EPON, Inter-ONU and Intra-ONU scheduling, Prediction, Unused slot remainder

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11 Improvement of Stator Slot Structure based on Insulation Stresses Analysis in HV Generator

Authors: Diako Azizi, Ahmad Gholami, Vahid Abbasi

Abstract:

High voltage generators are being subject to higher voltage rating and are being designed to operate in harsh conditions. Stator windings are the main component of generators in which Electrical, magnetical and thermal stresses remain major failures for insulation degradation accelerated aging. A large number of generators failed due to stator winding problems, mainly insulation deterioration. Insulation degradation assessment plays vital role in the asset life management. Mostly the stator failure is catastrophic causing significant damage to the plant. Other than generation loss, stator failure involves heavy repair or replacement cost. Electro thermal analysis is the main characteristic for improvement design of stator slot-s insulation. Dielectric parameters such as insulation thickness, spacing, material types, geometry of winding and slot are major design consideration. A very powerful method available to analyze electro thermal performance is Finite Element Method (FEM) which is used in this paper. The analysis of various stator coil and slot configurations are used to design the better dielectric system to reduce electrical and thermal stresses in order to increase the power of generator in the same volume of core. This paper describes the process used to perform classical design and improvement analysis of stator slot-s insulation.

Keywords: Electrical field, field distribution, insulation, winding, finite element method, electro thermal

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10 Ultra-Wideband Slot Antenna with Notched Band for World Interoperability for Microwave Access

Authors: Rezaul Azim, A. Toaha Mobashsher, M. Tariqul Islam

Abstract:

In this paper a novel ultra-wideband (UWB) slot antenna with band notch characteristics for world interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) is proposed. The designed antenna consists of a rectangular radiating patch and a ground plane with tapered shape slot. To realize a notch band, a curved parasitic element has been etched out along with the radiating patch. It is observed that by adjusting the length, thickness and position of the parasitic element, the proposed antenna can achieved an impedance bandwidth of 8.01GHz (2.84 to 10.85GHz) with a notched band of 3.28-3.85GHz. Compared to the recently reported band notch antennas, the proposed antenna has a simple configuration to realize band notch characteristics in order to mitigate the potential interference between WiMAX and UWB system. Furthermore, a stable radiation pattern and moderate gain except at the notched band makes the proposed antenna suitable for various UWB applications. 

Keywords: Band notch, Filter element, Ultra-wideband (UWB), WiMAX.

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