Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3547

Search results for: sewer network planning

3547 Decision Making under Strict Uncertainty: Case Study in Sewer Network Planning

Authors: Zhen Wu, David Lupien St-Pierre, Georges Abdul-Nour

Abstract:

In decision making under strict uncertainty, decision makers have to choose a decision without any information about the states of nature. The classic criteria of Laplace, Wald, Savage, Hurwicz and Starr are introduced and compared in a case study of sewer network planning. Furthermore, results from different criteria are discussed and analyzed. Moreover, this paper discusses the idea that decision making under strict uncertainty (DMUSU) can be viewed as a two-player game and thus be solved by a solution concept in game theory: Nash equilibrium.

Keywords: Decision criteria, decision making, sewer network planning, strict uncertainty.

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3546 Monitoring CO2 and H2S Emission in Live Austrian and UK Concrete Sewer Pipes

Authors: Anna Romanova, Morteza A. Alani

Abstract:

Corrosion of concrete sewer pipes induced by sulfuric acid is an acknowledged problem and a ticking time-bomb to sewer operators. Whilst the chemical reaction of the corrosion process is well-understood, the indirect roles of other parameters in the corrosion process which are found in sewer environment are not highly reflected on. This paper reports on a field studies undertaken in Austria and United Kingdom, where the parameters of temperature, pH, H2S and CO2 were monitored over a period of time. The study establishes that (i) effluent temperature and pH have similar daily pattern and peak times, when examined in minutes scale; (ii) H2S and CO2 have an identical hourly pattern; (iii) H2S instant or shifted relation to effluent temperature is governed by the root mean square value of CO2.

Keywords: Concrete corrosion, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, sewer pipe, sulfuric acid.

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3545 Hydrodynamic Characteristics of a New Sewer Overflow Screening Device: CFD Modeling & Analytical Study

Authors: M. A. Aziz, M. A. Imteaz, J. Naser, D. I. Phillips

Abstract:

Some of the major concerns regarding sewer overflows to receiving water bodies include serious environmental, aesthetic and public health problems. A noble self-cleansing sewer overflow screening device having a sewer overflow chamber, a rectangular tank and a slotted ogee weir to capture the gross pollutants has been investigated. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques are used to simulate the flow phenomena with two different inlet orientations; parallel and perpendicular to the weir direction. CFD simulation results are compared with analytical results. Numerical results show that the flow is not uniform (across the width of the inclined surface) near the top of the inclined surface. The flow becomes uniform near the bottom of the inclined surface, with significant increase of shear stress. The simulation results promises for an effective and efficient self-cleansing sewer overflow screening device by comparing hydrodynamic results.

Keywords: Hydrodynamic Characteristics, Ogee Spillway, Screening, Sewer Overflow Device.

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3544 Quantitative Study for Exchange of Gases from Open Sewer Channel to Atmosphere

Authors: Asif Mansoor, Nasiruddin Khan, Noreen Jamil

Abstract:

In this communication a quantitative modeling approach is applied to construct model for the exchange of gases from open sewer channel to the atmosphere. The data for the exchange of gases of the open sewer channel for the year January 1979 to December 2006 is utilized for the construction of the model. The study reveals that stream flow of the open sewer channel exchanges the toxic gases continuously with time varying scale. We find that the quantitative modeling approach is more parsimonious model for these exchanges. The usual diagnostic tests are applied for the model adequacy. This model is beneficial for planner and managerial bodies for the improvement of implemented policies to overcome future environmental problems.

Keywords: Open sewer channel, Industrial waste, Municipalwaste, Gases exchange, Atmosphere, Stochastic models, Diagnosticschecks.

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3543 DCGA Based-Transmission Network Expansion Planning Considering Network Adequacy

Authors: H. Shayeghi, M. Mahdavi, H. Haddadian

Abstract:

Transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) is an important component of power system planning that its task is to minimize the network construction and operational cost while satisfying the demand increasing, imposed technical and economic conditions. Up till now, various methods have been presented to solve the static transmission network expansion planning (STNEP) problem. But in all of these methods, the lines adequacy rate has not been studied after the planning horizon, i.e. when the expanded network misses its adequacy and needs to be expanded again. In this paper, in order to take transmission lines condition after expansion in to account from the line loading view point, the adequacy of transmission network is considered for solution of STNEP problem. To obtain optimal network arrangement, a decimal codification genetic algorithm (DCGA) is being used for minimizing the network construction and operational cost. The effectiveness of the proposed idea is tested on the Garver's six-bus network. The results evaluation reveals that the annual worth of network adequacy has a considerable effect on the network arrangement. In addition, the obtained network, based on the DCGA, has lower investment cost and higher adequacy rate. Thus, the network satisfies the requirements of delivering electric power more safely and reliably to load centers.

Keywords: STNEP Problem, Network Adequacy, DCGA.

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3542 Combined Sewer Overflow forecasting with Feed-forward Back-propagation Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Achela K. Fernando, Xiujuan Zhang, Peter F. Kinley

Abstract:

A feed-forward, back-propagation Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model has been used to forecast the occurrences of wastewater overflows in a combined sewerage reticulation system. This approach was tested to evaluate its applicability as a method alternative to the common practice of developing a complete conceptual, mathematical hydrological-hydraulic model for the sewerage system to enable such forecasts. The ANN approach obviates the need for a-priori understanding and representation of the underlying hydrological hydraulic phenomena in mathematical terms but enables learning the characteristics of a sewer overflow from the historical data. The performance of the standard feed-forward, back-propagation of error algorithm was enhanced by a modified data normalizing technique that enabled the ANN model to extrapolate into the territory that was unseen by the training data. The algorithm and the data normalizing method are presented along with the ANN model output results that indicate a good accuracy in the forecasted sewer overflow rates. However, it was revealed that the accurate forecasting of the overflow rates are heavily dependent on the availability of a real-time flow monitoring at the overflow structure to provide antecedent flow rate data. The ability of the ANN to forecast the overflow rates without the antecedent flow rates (as is the case with traditional conceptual reticulation models) was found to be quite poor.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, Back-propagationlearning, Combined sewer overflows, Forecasting.

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3541 Influence and Interaction of Temperature, H2S and pH on Concrete Sewer Pipe Corrosion

Authors: Anna Romanova, Mojtaba Mahmoodian, Morteza A. Alani

Abstract:

Concrete sewer pipes are known to suffer from a process of hydrogen sulfide gas induced sulfuric acid corrosion. This leads to premature pipe degradation, performance failure and collapses which in turn may lead to property and health damage. The above work reports on a field study undertaken in working sewer manholes where the parameters of effluent temperature and pH as well as ambient temperature and concentration of hydrogen sulfide were continuously measured over a period of two months. Early results suggest that effluent pH has no direct effect on hydrogen sulfide build up; on average the effluent temperature is 3.5°C greater than the ambient temperature inside the manhole and also it was observed that hydrogen sulfate concentration increases with increasing temperature.

Keywords: Concrete corrosion, hydrogen sulphide gas, temperature, sewer pipe.

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3540 Optimization of Transmission Lines Loading in TNEP Using Decimal Codification Based GA

Authors: H. Shayeghi, M. Mahdavi

Abstract:

Transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) is a basic part of power system planning that determines where, when and how many new transmission lines should be added to the network. Up till now, various methods have been presented to solve the static transmission network expansion planning (STNEP) problem. But in all of these methods, lines adequacy rate has not been considered at the end of planning horizon, i.e., expanded network misses adequacy after some times and needs to be expanded again. In this paper, expansion planning has been implemented by merging lines loading parameter in the STNEP and inserting investment cost into the fitness function constraints using genetic algorithm. Expanded network will possess a maximum adequacy to provide load demand and also the transmission lines overloaded later. Finally, adequacy index could be defined and used to compare some designs that have different investment costs and adequacy rates. In this paper, the proposed idea has been tested on the Garvers network. The results show that the network will possess maximum efficiency economically.

Keywords: Adequacy Optimization, Transmission Expansion Planning, DCGA.

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3539 Genetic Algorithm Based Wavelength Division Multiplexing Networks Planning

Authors: S.Baskar, P.S.Ramkumar, R.Kesavan

Abstract:

This paper presents a new heuristic algorithm useful for long-term planning of survivable WDM networks. A multi-period model is formulated that combines network topology design and capacity expansion. The ability to determine network expansion schedules of this type becomes increasingly important to the telecommunications industry and to its customers. The solution technique consists of a Genetic Algorithm that allows generating several network alternatives for each time period simultaneously and shortest-path techniques to deduce from these alternatives a least-cost network expansion plan over all time periods. The multi-period planning approach is illustrated on a realistic network example. Extensive simulations on a wide range of problem instances are carried out to assess the cost savings that can be expected by choosing a multi-period planning approach instead of an iterative network expansion design method.

Keywords: Wavelength Division Multiplexing, Genetic Algorithm, Network topology, Multi-period reliable network planning

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3538 Quality Function Deployment Application in Sewer Pipeline Assessment

Authors: Khalid Kaddoura, Tarek Zayed

Abstract:

Infrastructure assets are essential in urban cities; their purpose is to facilitate the public needs. As a result, their conditions and states shall always be monitored to avoid any sudden malfunction. Sewer systems, one of the assets, are an essential part of the underground infrastructure as they transfer sewer medium to designated areas. However, their conditions are subject to deterioration due to ageing. Therefore, it is of great significance to assess the conditions of pipelines to avoid sudden collapses. Current practices of sewer pipeline assessment rely on industrial protocols that consider distinct defects and grades to conclude the limited average or peak score of the assessed assets. This research aims to enhance the evaluation by integrating the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and the Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) methods in assessing the condition of sewer pipelines. The methodology shall study the cause and effect relationship of the systems’ defects to deduce the relative influence weights of each defect. Subsequently, the overall grade is calculated by aggregating the WHAT’s and HOW’s of the House of Quality (HOQ) using the computed relative weights. Thus, this study shall enhance the evaluation of the assets to conclude informative rehabilitation and maintenance plans for decision makers.

Keywords: Condition assessment, DEMATEL, QFD, sewer pipelines.

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3537 Discrete Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm Used for TNEP Considering Network Adequacy Restriction

Authors: H. Shayeghi, M. Mahdavi, A. Kazemi

Abstract:

Transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) is a basic part of power system planning that determines where, when and how many new transmission lines should be added to the network. Up till now, various methods have been presented to solve the static transmission network expansion planning (STNEP) problem. But in all of these methods, transmission expansion planning considering network adequacy restriction has not been investigated. Thus, in this paper, STNEP problem is being studied considering network adequacy restriction using discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO) algorithm. The goal of this paper is obtaining a configuration for network expansion with lowest expansion cost and a specific adequacy. The proposed idea has been tested on the Garvers network and compared with the decimal codification genetic algorithm (DCGA). The results show that the network will possess maximum efficiency economically. Also, it is shown that precision and convergence speed of the proposed DPSO based method for the solution of the STNEP problem is more than DCGA approach.

Keywords: DPSO algorithm, Adequacy restriction, STNEP.

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3536 Bed Evolution under One-Episode Flushing in a Truck Sewer in Paris, France

Authors: Gashin Shahsavari, Gilles Arnaud-Fassetta, Roberto Bertilotti, Alberto Campisano, Fabien Riou

Abstract:

Sewer deposits have been identified as a major cause of dysfunctions in combined sewer systems regarding sewer management, which induces different negative consequents resulting in poor hydraulic conveyance, environmental damages as well as worker’s health. In order to overcome the problematics of sedimentation, flushing has been considered as the most operative and cost-effective way to minimize the sediments impacts and prevent such challenges. Flushing, by prompting turbulent wave effects, can modify the bed form depending on the hydraulic properties and geometrical characteristics of the conduit. So far, the dynamics of the bed-load during high-flow events in combined sewer systems as a complex environment is not well understood, mostly due to lack of measuring devices capable to work in the “hostile” in combined sewer system correctly. In this regards, a one-episode flushing issue from an opening gate valve with weir function was carried out in a trunk sewer in Paris to understand its cleansing efficiency on the sediments (thickness: 0-30 cm). During more than 1h of flushing within 5 m distance in downstream of this flushing device, a maximum flowrate and a maximum level of water have been recorded at 5 m in downstream of the gate as 4.1 m3/s and 2.1 m respectively. This paper is aimed to evaluate the efficiency of this type of gate for around 1.1 km (from the point -50 m to +1050 m in downstream from the gate) by (i) determining bed grain-size distribution and sediments evolution through the sewer channel, as well as their organic matter content, and (ii) identifying sections that exhibit more changes in their texture after the flush. For the first one, two series of sampling were taken from the sewer length and then analyzed in laboratory, one before flushing and second after, at same points among the sewer channel. Hence, a non-intrusive sampling instrument has undertaken to extract the sediments smaller than the fine gravels. The comparison between sediments texture after the flush operation and the initial state, revealed the most modified zones by the flush effect, regarding the sewer invert slope and hydraulic parameters in the zone up to 400 m from the gate. At this distance, despite the increase of sediment grain-size rages, D50 (median grainsize) varies between 0.6 mm and 1.1 mm compared to 0.8 mm and 10 mm before and after flushing, respectively. Overall, regarding the sewer channel invert slope, results indicate that grains smaller than sands (< 2 mm) are more transported to downstream along about 400 m from the gate: in average 69% before against 38% after the flush with more dispersion of grain-sizes distributions. Furthermore, high effect of the channel bed irregularities on the bed material evolution has been observed after the flush.

Keywords: Bed-material load evolution, combined sewer systems, flushing efficiency, sediment transport.

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3535 A Logic Based Framework for Planning for Mobile Agents

Authors: Rajdeep Niyogi

Abstract:

The objective of the paper is twofold. First, to develop a formal framework for planning for mobile agents. A logical language based on a temporal logic is proposed that can express a type of tasks which often arise in network management. Second, to design a planning algorithm for such tasks. The aim of this paper is to study the importance of finding plans for mobile agents. Although there has been a lot of research in mobile agents, not much work has been done to incorporate planning ideas for such agents. This paper makes an attempt in this direction. A theoretical study of finding plans for mobile agents is undertaken. A planning algorithm (based on the paradigm of mobile computing) is proposed and its space, time, and communication complexity is analyzed. The algorithm is illustrated by working out an example in detail.

Keywords: Acting, computer network, mobile agent, mobile computing, planning, temporal logic.

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3534 Mobile Robot Path Planning in a 2-Dimentional Mesh

Authors: Doraid Dalalah

Abstract:

A topologically oriented neural network is very efficient for real-time path planning for a mobile robot in changing environments. When using a recurrent neural network for this purpose and with the combination of the partial differential equation of heat transfer and the distributed potential concept of the network, the problem of obstacle avoidance of trajectory planning for a moving robot can be efficiently solved. The related dimensional network represents the state variables and the topology of the robot's working space. In this paper two approaches to problem solution are proposed. The first approach relies on the potential distribution of attraction distributed around the moving target, acting as a unique local extreme in the net, with the gradient of the state variables directing the current flow toward the source of the potential heat. The second approach considers two attractive and repulsive potential sources to decrease the time of potential distribution. Computer simulations have been carried out to interrogate the performance of the proposed approaches.

Keywords: Mobile robot, Path Planning, Mesh, Potential field.

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3533 Planning the Building Evacuation Routes by a Spatial Network

Authors: Hsin-Yun Lee

Abstract:

The previous proposed evacuation routing approaches usually divide the space into multiple interlinked zones. However, it may be harder to clearly and objectively define the margins of each zone. This paper proposes an approach that connects locations of necessary guidance into a spatial network. In doing so, evacuation routes can be constructed based on the links between starting points, turning nodes, and terminal points. This approach more conforms to the real-life evacuation behavior. The feasibility of the proposed approach is evaluated through a case of one floor in a hospital building. Results indicate that the proposed approach provides valuable suggestions for evacuation planning.

Keywords: Evacuation, spatial network, simulation.

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3532 Power Generation from Sewage by a Micro-Hydraulic Turbine

Authors: Tomomi Uchiyama, Tomoko Okayama, Yukio Ide

Abstract:

This study is concerned with the development of a micro-hydraulic turbine for power generation installed in sewer pipes. The runner has a circular hollow around the central (rotating) axis so that solid materials included in water can be easily flow through the runner without blocking the turbine. The laboratory experiments are also conducted. The hollow is very effective to make polyester fibers pass through the turbine. The guide vane is useful to heighten the turbine performance. But it is easily blocked by the fibers, making the turbine lose the function.

Keywords: Generation of electricity, micro-hydraulic turbine, sewage, sewer pipe.

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3531 Transmission Expansion Planning Considering Network Adequacy and Investment Cost Limitation using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: M. Mahdavi, E. Mahdavi

Abstract:

In this research, STNEP is being studied considering network adequacy and limitation of investment cost by decimal codification genetic algorithm (DCGA). The goal is obtaining the maximum of network adequacy with lowest expansion cost for a specific investment. Finally, the proposed idea is applied to the Garvers 6-bus network. The results show that considering the network adequacy for solution of STNEP problem is caused that among of expansion plans for a determined investment, configuration which has relatively lower expansion cost and higher adequacy is proposed by GA based method. Finally, with respect to the curve of adequacy versus expansion cost it can be said that more optimal configurations for expansion of network are obtained with lower investment costs.

Keywords: TNEP, Network Adequacy, Investment Cost, GA

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3530 Social Network Based Decision Support System for Smart U-Parking Planning

Authors: Jun-Ho Park, Kwang-Woo Nam, Seung-Mo Hong, Tae-Heon Moon, Sang-Ho Lee, Youn-Taik Leem

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to build ‘Ubi-Net’, a decision-making support system for systematic establishment in U-City planning. We have experienced various urban problems caused by high-density development and population concentrations in established urban areas. To address these problems, a U-Service contributes to the alleviation of urban problems by providing real-time information to citizens through network connections and related information. However, technology, devices, and information for consumers are required for systematic U-Service planning in towns and cities where there are many difficulties in this regard, and a lack of reference systems. Thus, this study suggests methods to support the establishment of sustainable planning by providing comprehensive information including IT technology, devices, news, and social networking services (SNS) to U-City planners through intelligent searches. In this study, we targeted Smart U-Parking Planning to solve parking problems in an ‘old’ city. Through this study, we sought to contribute to supporting advances in U-Space and the alleviation of urban problems.

Keywords: Design and decision support system, smart U-parking planning, social network analysis.

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3529 Concrete Sewer Pipe Corrosion Induced by Sulphuric Acid Environment

Authors: Anna Romanova, Mojtaba Mahmoodian, Upul Chandrasekara, Morteza A. Alani

Abstract:

Corrosion of concrete sewer pipes induced by sulphuric acid attack is a recognised problem worldwide, which is not only an attribute of countries with hot climate conditions as thought before. The significance of this problem is by far only realised when the pipe collapses causing surface flooding and other severe consequences. To change the existing post-reactive attitude of managing companies, easy to use and robust models are required to be developed which currently lack reliable data to be correctly calibrated. This paper focuses on laboratory experiments of establishing concrete pipe corrosion rate by submerging samples in to 0.5pH sulphuric acid solution for 56 days under 10ºC, 20ºC and 30ºC temperature regimes. The result showed that at very early stage of the corrosion process the samples gained overall mass, at 30ºC the corrosion progressed quicker than for other temperature regimes, however with time the corrosion level for 10ºC and 20ºC regimes tended towards those at 30ºC. Overall, at these conditions the corrosion rates of 10 mm/year, 13,5 mm/year and 17 mm/year were observed.

Keywords: Sewer pipes, concrete corrosion, sulphuric acid, concrete coupons, corrosion rate.

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3528 A Planning Model for Evacuation in Building

Authors: Hsin-Yun Lee, Hao-Hsi Tseng

Abstract:

Previous studies mass evacuation route network does not fully reflect the step-by-step behavior and evacuees make routing decisions. Therefore, they do not work as expected when applied to the evacuation route planning is valid. This article describes where evacuees may have to make a direction to select all areas were identified as guiding points to improve evacuation routes network. This improved route network can be used as a basis for the layout can be used to guide the signs indicate that provides the required evacuation direction. This article also describes that combines simulation and artificial bee colony algorithm to provide the proposed routing solutions, to plan an integrated routing mode. The improved network and the model used is the cinema as a case study to assess the floor. The effectiveness of guidance solution in the total evacuation time is significant by verification.

Keywords: Artificial bee colony, Evacuation, Simulation.

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3527 Supporting Densification through the Planning and Implementation of Road Infrastructure in the South African Context

Authors: K. Govender, M. Sinclair

Abstract:

This paper demonstrates a proof of concept whereby shorter trips and land use densification can be promoted through an alternative approach to planning and implementation of road infrastructure in the South African context. It briefly discusses how the development of the Compact City concept relies on a combination of promoting shorter trips and densification through a change in focus in road infrastructure provision. The methodology developed in this paper uses a traffic model to test the impact of synthesized deterrence functions on congestion locations in the road network through the assignment of traffic on the study network. The results from this study demonstrate that intelligent planning of road infrastructure can indeed promote reduced urban sprawl, increased residential density and mixed-use areas which are supported by an efficient public transport system; and reduced dependence on the freeway network with a fixed road infrastructure budget. The study has resonance for all cities where urban sprawl is seemingly unstoppable.

Keywords: Compact cities, densification, road infrastructure planning, transportation modeling.

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3526 A Novel Solution Methodology for Transit Route Network Design Problem

Authors: Ghada Moussa, Mamoud Owais

Abstract:

Transit route Network Design Problem (TrNDP) is the most important component in Transit planning, in which the overall cost of the public transportation system highly depends on it. The main purpose of this study is to develop a novel solution methodology for the TrNDP, which goes beyond pervious traditional sophisticated approaches. The novelty of the solution methodology, adopted in this paper, stands on the deterministic operators which are tackled to construct bus routes. The deterministic manner of the TrNDP solution relies on using linear and integer mathematical formulations that can be solved exactly with their standard solvers. The solution methodology has been tested through Mandl’s benchmark network problem. The test results showed that the methodology developed in this research is able to improve the given network solution in terms of number of constructed routes, direct transit service coverage, transfer directness and solution reliability. Although the set of routes resulted from the methodology would stand alone as a final efficient solution for TrNDP, it could be used as an initial solution for meta-heuristic procedures to approach global optimal. Based on the presented methodology, a more robust network optimization tool would be produced for public transportation planning purposes.

Keywords: Integer programming, Transit route design, Transportation, Urban planning.

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3525 Health Risk Assessment for Sewer Workers using Bayesian Belief Networks

Authors: Kevin Fong-Rey Liu, Ken Yeh, Cheng-Wu Chen, Han-Hsi Liang

Abstract:

The sanitary sewerage connection rate becomes an important indicator of advanced cities. Following the construction of sanitary sewerages, the maintenance and management systems are required for keeping pipelines and facilities functioning well. These maintenance tasks often require sewer workers to enter the manholes and the pipelines, which are confined spaces short of natural ventilation and full of hazardous substances. Working in sewers could be easily exposed to a risk of adverse health effects. This paper proposes the use of Bayesian belief networks (BBN) as a higher level of noncarcinogenic health risk assessment of sewer workers. On the basis of the epidemiological studies, the actual hospital attendance records and expert experiences, the BBN is capable of capturing the probabilistic relationships between the hazardous substances in sewers and their adverse health effects, and accordingly inferring the morbidity and mortality of the adverse health effects. The provision of the morbidity and mortality rates of the related diseases is more informative and can alleviate the drawbacks of conventional methods.

Keywords: Bayesian belief networks, sanitary sewerage, healthrisk assessment, hazard quotient, target organ-specific hazard index.

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3524 Continuity Planning in Supply Chain Networks: Degrees of Freedom and Application in the Risk Management Process

Authors: Marco Bötel, Tobias Gelau, Wendelin Gross

Abstract:

Supply chain networks are frequently hit by unplanned events which lead to disruptions and cause operational and financial consequences. It is neither possible to avoid disruption risk entirely, nor are network members able to prepare for every possible disruptive event. Therefore a continuity planning should be set up which supports effective operational responses in supply chain networks in times of emergencies. In this research network related degrees of freedom which determine the options for responsive actions are derived from interview data. The findings are further embedded into a common risk management process. The paper provides support for researchers and practitioners to identify the network related options for responsive actions and to determine the need for improving the reaction capabilities.

Keywords: Supply Chain Risk Management, Business Continuity Planning, Degrees of Freedom, Risk Management Process, Mitigation Measures.

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3523 Losses Analysis in TEP Considering Uncertainity in Demand by DPSO

Authors: S. Jalilzadeh, A. Kimiyaghalam, A. Ashouri

Abstract:

This paper presents a mathematical model and a methodology to analyze the losses in transmission expansion planning (TEP) under uncertainty in demand. The methodology is based on discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO). DPSO is a useful and powerful stochastic evolutionary algorithm to solve the large-scale, discrete and nonlinear optimization problems like TEP. The effectiveness of the proposed idea is tested on an actual transmission network of the Azerbaijan regional electric company, Iran. The simulation results show that considering the losses even for transmission expansion planning of a network with low load growth is caused that operational costs decreases considerably and the network satisfies the requirement of delivering electric power more reliable to load centers.

Keywords: DPSO, TEP, Uncertainty

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3522 Reducing the Short Circuit Levels in Kuwait Transmission Network (A Case Study)

Authors: Mahmoud Gilany, Wael Al-Hasawi

Abstract:

Preliminary studies on Kuwait high voltage transmission system show significant increase in the short circuit level at some of the grid substations and some generating stations. This increase results from the growth in the power transmission systems in size and complexity. New generating stations are expected to be added to the system within the next few years. This paper describes the study analysis performed to evaluate the available and potential solutions to control SC levels in Kuwait power system. It also presents a modified planning of the transmission network in order to fulfill this task.

Keywords: Short circuit current, network splitting, fault current limiter, power transmission planning.

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3521 Hub Port Positioning and Route Planning of Feeder Lines for Regional Transportation Network

Authors: Huang Xiaoling, Liu Lufeng

Abstract:

In this paper, we seek to determine one reasonable local hub port and optimal routes for a containership fleet, performing pick-ups and deliveries, between the hub and spoke ports in a same region. The relationship between a hub port, and traffic in feeder lines is analyzed. A new network planning method is proposed, an integrated hub port location and route design, a capacitated vehicle routing problem with pick-ups, deliveries and time deadlines are formulated and solved using an improved genetic algorithm for positioning the hub port and establishing routes for a containership fleet. Results on the performance of the algorithm and the feasibility of the approach show that a relatively small fleet of containerships could provide efficient services within deadlines.

Keywords: Route planning, Hub port location, Container feeder service.

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3520 Sewer Culvert Installation Method to Accommodate Underground Construction in an Urban Area with Narrow Streets (The Development of Shield Switching Type Micro-Tunneling Method and the Introduction of Construction Examples)

Authors: Osamu Igawa, Hiroshi Kouchiwa, Yuji Ito

Abstract:

In recent years, a reconstruction project for sewer  pipelines has been progressing in Japan with the aim of renewing old  sewer culverts. However, it is difficult to secure a sufficient base area  for shafts in an urban area because many streets are narrow with a  complex layout. As a result, construction in such urban areas is  generally very demanding.  In urban areas, there is a strong requirement for a safe, reliable and  economical construction method that does not disturb the public’s  daily life and urban activities. With this in mind, we developed a new  construction method called the “shield switching type micro-tunneling  method,” which integrates the micro-tunneling method and shield  method.  In this method, pipeline is constructed first for sections that are  gently curved or straight using the economical micro-tunneling  method, and then the method is switched to the shield method for  sections with a sharp curve or a series of curves without establishing  an intermediate shaft.  This paper provides the information, features and construction  examples of this newly developed method.

 

Keywords: Micro-tunneling method, Secondary lining applied RC segment, Sharp curve, Shield method, Switching type.

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3519 Optimum Neural Network Architecture for Precipitation Prediction of Myanmar

Authors: Khaing Win Mar, Thinn Thu Naing

Abstract:

Nowadays, precipitation prediction is required for proper planning and management of water resources. Prediction with neural network models has received increasing interest in various research and application domains. However, it is difficult to determine the best neural network architecture for prediction since it is not immediately obvious how many input or hidden nodes are used in the model. In this paper, neural network model is used as a forecasting tool. The major aim is to evaluate a suitable neural network model for monthly precipitation mapping of Myanmar. Using 3-layerd neural network models, 100 cases are tested by changing the number of input and hidden nodes from 1 to 10 nodes, respectively, and only one outputnode used. The optimum model with the suitable number of nodes is selected in accordance with the minimum forecast error. In measuring network performance using Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), experimental results significantly show that 3 inputs-10 hiddens-1 output architecture model gives the best prediction result for monthly precipitation in Myanmar.

Keywords: Precipitation prediction, monthly precipitation, neural network models, Myanmar.

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3518 Quantification of Periodicities in Fugitive Emission of Gases from Lyari Waterway

Authors: Rana Khalid Naeem, Asif Mansoor

Abstract:

Periodicities in the environmetric time series can be idyllically assessed by utilizing periodic models. In this communication fugitive emission of gases from open sewer channel Lyari which follows periodic behaviour are approximated by employing periodic autoregressive model of order p. The orders of periodic model for each season are selected through the examination of periodic partial autocorrelation or information criteria. The parameters for the selected order of season are estimated individually for each emitted air toxin. Subsequently, adequacies of fitted models are established by examining the properties of the residual for each season. These models are beneficial for schemer and administrative bodies for the improvement of implemented policies to surmount future environmental problems.

Keywords: Exchange of Gases, Goodness of Fit, Open Sewer Channel, PAR(p) Models, Periodicities, Season Wise Models.

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