Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 405

Search results for: segmented classes

405 Recursive Algorithms for Image Segmentation Based on a Discriminant Criterion

Authors: Bing-Fei Wu, Yen-Lin Chen, Chung-Cheng Chiu

Abstract:

In this study, a new criterion for determining the number of classes an image should be segmented is proposed. This criterion is based on discriminant analysis for measuring the separability among the segmented classes of pixels. Based on the new discriminant criterion, two algorithms for recursively segmenting the image into determined number of classes are proposed. The proposed methods can automatically and correctly segment objects with various illuminations into separated images for further processing. Experiments on the extraction of text strings from complex document images demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.1

Keywords: image segmentation, multilevel thresholding, clustering, discriminant analysis

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404 A Ring Segmented Bus Architecture for Globally Asynchronous Locally Synchronous System

Authors: Masafumi Kondo, Yoichiro Sato, Kazuyuki Tashiro, Tomoyuki Yokogawa, Michiyoshi Hayase

Abstract:

Recently, most digital systems are designed as GALS (Globally Asynchronous Locally Synchronous) systems. Several architectures have been proposed as bus architectures for a GALS system : shared bus, segmented bus, ring bus, and so on. In this study, we propose a ring segmented bus architecture which is a combination of segmented bus and ring bus architecture with the aim of throughput enhancement. In a segmented bus architecture, segments are connected in series. By connecting the segments at the end of the bus and constructing the ring bus, it becomes possible to allocate a channel of the bus bidirectionally. The bus channel is allocated to the shortest path between segments. We consider a metastable operation caused by asynchronous communication between segments and a burst transfer between segments. According to the result of simulation, it is shown that the GALS system designed by the proposed method has the desired operations.

Keywords: GALS systems bus architecture, segmented bus, ring bus.

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403 Image Similarity: A Genetic Algorithm Based Approach

Authors: R. C. Joshi, Shashikala Tapaswi

Abstract:

The paper proposes an approach using genetic algorithm for computing the region based image similarity. The image is denoted using a set of segmented regions reflecting color and texture properties of an image. An image is associated with a family of image features corresponding to the regions. The resemblance of two images is then defined as the overall similarity between two families of image features, and quantified by a similarity measure, which integrates properties of all the regions in the images. A genetic algorithm is applied to decide the most plausible matching. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated using examples from an image database of general-purpose images, and is shown to produce good results.

Keywords: Image Features, color descriptor, segmented classes, texture descriptors, genetic algorithm.

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402 Multilevel Activation Functions For True Color Image Segmentation Using a Self Supervised Parallel Self Organizing Neural Network (PSONN) Architecture: A Comparative Study

Authors: Siddhartha Bhattacharyya, Paramartha Dutta, Ujjwal Maulik, Prashanta Kumar Nandi

Abstract:

The paper describes a self supervised parallel self organizing neural network (PSONN) architecture for true color image segmentation. The proposed architecture is a parallel extension of the standard single self organizing neural network architecture (SONN) and comprises an input (source) layer of image information, three single self organizing neural network architectures for segmentation of the different primary color components in a color image scene and one final output (sink) layer for fusion of the segmented color component images. Responses to the different shades of color components are induced in each of the three single network architectures (meant for component level processing) by applying a multilevel version of the characteristic activation function, which maps the input color information into different shades of color components, thereby yielding a processed component color image segmented on the basis of the different shades of component colors. The number of target classes in the segmented image corresponds to the number of levels in the multilevel activation function. Since the multilevel version of the activation function exhibits several subnormal responses to the input color image scene information, the system errors of the three component network architectures are computed from some subnormal linear index of fuzziness of the component color image scenes at the individual level. Several multilevel activation functions are employed for segmentation of the input color image scene using the proposed network architecture. Results of the application of the multilevel activation functions to the PSONN architecture are reported on three real life true color images. The results are substantiated empirically with the correlation coefficients between the segmented images and the original images.

Keywords: Colour image segmentation, fuzzy set theory, multi-level activation functions, parallel self-organizing neural network.

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401 Structural Performance Evaluation of Segmented Wind Turbine Blade through Finite Element Simulation

Authors: Chandrashekhar Bhat, Dilifa J. Noronha, Faber A. Saldanha

Abstract:

Transportation of long turbine blades from one place to another is a difficult process. Hence a feasibility study of modularization of wind turbine blade was taken from structural standpoint through finite element analysis. Initially, a non-segmented blade is modeled and its structural behavior is evaluated to serve as reference. The resonant, static bending and fatigue tests are simulated in accordance with IEC61400-23 standard for comparison purpose. The non-segmented test blade is separated at suitable location based on trade off studies and the segments are joined with an innovative double strap bonded joint configuration. The adhesive joint is modeled by adopting cohesive zone modeling approach in ANSYS. The developed blade model is analyzed for its structural response through simulation. Performances of both the blades are found to be similar, which indicates that, efficient segmentation of the long blade is possible which facilitates easy transportation of the blades and on site reassembling. The location selected for segmentation and adopted joint configuration has resulted in an efficient segmented blade model which proves the methodology adopted for segmentation was quite effective. The developed segmented blade appears to be the viable alternative considering its structural response specifically in fatigue within considered assumptions.

Keywords: Cohesive zone modeling, fatigue, segmentation, wind turbine blade.

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400 Decomposition Method for Neural Multiclass Classification Problem

Authors: H. El Ayech, A. Trabelsi

Abstract:

In this article we are going to discuss the improvement of the multi classes- classification problem using multi layer Perceptron. The considered approach consists in breaking down the n-class problem into two-classes- subproblems. The training of each two-class subproblem is made independently; as for the phase of test, we are going to confront a vector that we want to classify to all two classes- models, the elected class will be the strongest one that won-t lose any competition with the other classes. Rates of recognition gotten with the multi class-s approach by two-class-s decomposition are clearly better that those gotten by the simple multi class-s approach.

Keywords: Artificial neural network, letter-recognition, Multi class Classification, Multi Layer Perceptron.

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399 Cost and Profit Analysis of Markovian Queuing System with Two Priority Classes: A Computational Approach

Authors: S. S. Mishra, D. K. Yadav

Abstract:

This paper focuses on cost and profit analysis of single-server Markovian queuing system with two priority classes. In this paper, functions of total expected cost, revenue and profit of the system are constructed and subjected to optimization with respect to its service rates of lower and higher priority classes. A computing algorithm has been developed on the basis of fast converging numerical method to solve the system of non linear equations formed out of the mathematical analysis. A novel performance measure of cost and profit analysis in view of its economic interpretation for the system with priority classes is attempted to discuss in this paper. On the basis of computed tables observations are also drawn to enlighten the variational-effect of the model on the parameters involved therein.

Keywords: Cost and Profit, Computing, Expected Revenue, Priority classes

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398 Unsupervised Segmentation Technique for Acute Leukemia Cells Using Clustering Algorithms

Authors: N. H. Harun, A. S. Abdul Nasir, M. Y. Mashor, R. Hassan

Abstract:

Leukaemia is a blood cancer disease that contributes to the increment of mortality rate in Malaysia each year. There are two main categories for leukaemia, which are acute and chronic leukaemia. The production and development of acute leukaemia cells occurs rapidly and uncontrollable. Therefore, if the identification of acute leukaemia cells could be done fast and effectively, proper treatment and medicine could be delivered. Due to the requirement of prompt and accurate diagnosis of leukaemia, the current study has proposed unsupervised pixel segmentation based on clustering algorithm in order to obtain a fully segmented abnormal white blood cell (blast) in acute leukaemia image. In order to obtain the segmented blast, the current study proposed three clustering algorithms which are k-means, fuzzy c-means and moving k-means algorithms have been applied on the saturation component image. Then, median filter and seeded region growing area extraction algorithms have been applied, to smooth the region of segmented blast and to remove the large unwanted regions from the image, respectively. Comparisons among the three clustering algorithms are made in order to measure the performance of each clustering algorithm on segmenting the blast area. Based on the good sensitivity value that has been obtained, the results indicate that moving kmeans clustering algorithm has successfully produced the fully segmented blast region in acute leukaemia image. Hence, indicating that the resultant images could be helpful to haematologists for further analysis of acute leukaemia.

Keywords: Acute Leukaemia Images, Clustering Algorithms, Image Segmentation, Moving k-Means.

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397 The Relationship between Class Attendance and Performance of Industrial Engineering Students Enrolled for a Statistics Subject at the University of Technology

Authors: Tshaudi Motsima

Abstract:

Class attendance is key at all levels of education. At tertiary level many students develop a tendency of not attending all classes without being aware of the repercussions of not attending all classes. It is important for all students to attend all classes as they can receive first-hand information and they can benefit more. The student who attends classes is likely to perform better academically than the student who does not. The aim of this paper is to assess the relationship between class attendance and academic performance of industrial engineering students. The data for this study were collected through the attendance register of students and the other data were accessed from the Integrated Tertiary Software and the Higher Education Data Analyzer Portal. Data analysis was conducted on a sample of 93 students. The results revealed that students with medium predicate scores (OR = 3.8; p = 0.027) and students with low predicate scores (OR = 21.4, p < 0.001) were significantly likely to attend less than 80% of the classes as compared to students with high predicate scores. Students with examination performance of less than 50% were likely to attend less than 80% of classes than students with examination performance of 50% and above, but the differences were not statistically significant (OR = 1.3; p = 0.750).

Keywords: Class attendance, examination performance, final outcome, logistic regression.

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396 A New Recognition Scheme for Machine- Printed Arabic Texts based on Neural Networks

Authors: Z. Shaaban

Abstract:

This paper presents a new approach to tackle the problem of recognizing machine-printed Arabic texts. Because of the difficulty of recognizing cursive Arabic words, the text has to be normalized and segmented to be ready for the recognition stage. The new scheme for recognizing Arabic characters depends on multiple parallel neural networks classifier. The classifier has two phases. The first phase categories the input character into one of eight groups. The second phase classifies the character into one of the Arabic character classes in the group. The system achieved high recognition rate.

Keywords: Neural Networks, character recognition, feature extraction, multiple networks, Arabic text.

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395 A New Weighted LDA Method in Comparison to Some Versions of LDA

Authors: Delaram Jarchi, Reza Boostani

Abstract:

Linear Discrimination Analysis (LDA) is a linear solution for classification of two classes. In this paper, we propose a variant LDA method for multi-class problem which redefines the between class and within class scatter matrices by incorporating a weight function into each of them. The aim is to separate classes as much as possible in a situation that one class is well separated from other classes, incidentally, that class must have a little influence on classification. It has been suggested to alleviate influence of classes that are well separated by adding a weight into between class scatter matrix and within class scatter matrix. To obtain a simple and effective weight function, ordinary LDA between every two classes has been used in order to find Fisher discrimination value and passed it as an input into two weight functions and redefined between class and within class scatter matrices. Experimental results showed that our new LDA method improved classification rate, on glass, iris and wine datasets, in comparison to different versions of LDA.

Keywords: Discriminant vectors, weighted LDA, uncorrelation, principle components, Fisher-face method, Bootstarp method.

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394 Decomposition of Homeomorphism on Topological Spaces

Authors: Ahmet Z. Ozcelik, Serkan Narli

Abstract:

In this study, two new classes of generalized homeomorphisms are introduced and shown that one of these classes has a group structure. Moreover, some properties of these two homeomorphisms are obtained.

Keywords: Generalized closed set, homeomorphism, gsghomeomorphism, sgs-homeomorphism.

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393 Worth A Thousand Words – How Drawings Provide Insight into Children-s Attitudes and Perceptions of Physical Education

Authors: Sandy Daley, Sandra Jones, Don Iverson

Abstract:

The benefits of physical activity for children are promoted widely and well understood; however factors which impact on children-s beliefs and attitudes towards physical education need to be explored in more detail. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how primary school children value and perceive their involvement in physical education (PE) classes through the use of drawings. While this type of data collection has been used previously to determine a child-s response to specific health education classes, such as drug education, to the best of our knowledge it has not been used in the context of PE. Results from this study showed that kindergarten children found PE classes fun and engaging. Children in Year 4 and Year 6 were less satisfied with PE classes because of the activities offered, the lack of opportunity to play sport, and perception that teachers did not appear to value this area of the curriculum.

Keywords: attitudes, physical education, primary school children, write and draw

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392 Automatic Fingerprint Classification Using Graph Theory

Authors: Mana Tarjoman, Shaghayegh Zarei

Abstract:

Using efficient classification methods is necessary for automatic fingerprint recognition system. This paper introduces a new structural approach to fingerprint classification by using the directional image of fingerprints to increase the number of subclasses. In this method, the directional image of fingerprints is segmented into regions consisting of pixels with the same direction. Afterwards the relational graph to the segmented image is constructed and according to it, the super graph including prominent information of this graph is formed. Ultimately we apply a matching technique to compare obtained graph with the model graphs in order to classify fingerprints by using cost function. Increasing the number of subclasses with acceptable accuracy in classification and faster processing in fingerprints recognition, makes this system superior.

Keywords: Classification, Directional image, Fingerprint, Graph, Super graph.

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391 Film Sensors for the Harsh Environment Application

Authors: Wenmin Qu

Abstract:

A capacitance level sensor with a segmented film electrode and a thin-film volume flow sensor with an innovative by-pass sleeve is presented as industrial products for the application in a harsh environment. The working principle of such sensors is well known; however, the traditional sensors show some limitations for certain industrial measurements. The two sensors presented in this paper overcome this limitation and enlarge the application spectrum. The problem is analyzed, and the solution is given. The emphasis of the paper is on developing the problem-solving concepts and the realization of the corresponding measuring circuits. These should give advice and encouragement, how we can still develop electronic measuring products in an almost saturated market.

Keywords: By-pass sleeve, charge transfer circuit, fixed ΔT circuit, harsh environment, industrial application, segmented electrode.

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390 Flipped Learning Application on the Development of Capabilities for Civil Engineering Education in Labs

Authors: Hector Barrios-Piña, Georgia García-Arellano, Salvador García-Rodríguez, Gerardo Bocanegra-García, Shashi Kant

Abstract:

This work shows the methodology of application and the effectiveness of the Flipped Learning technique for Civil Engineering laboratory classes. It was experimented by some of the professors of the Department of Civil Engineering at Tecnológico de Monterrey while teaching their laboratory classes. A total of 28 videos were created. The videos primarily demonstrate instructions of the experimental practices other than the usage of tools and materials. The technique allowed the students to prepare for their classes in advance. A survey was conducted on the participating professors and students (semester of August-December 2019) to quantify the effectiveness of the Flipped Learning technique. The students reported it as an excellent way of improving their learning aptitude, including self-learning whereas, the professors felt it as an efficient technique for optimizing their class session, which also provided an extra slot for class-interaction. A comparison of grades was analyzed between the students of the traditional classes and with Flipped Learning. It did not distinguish the benefits of Flipped Learning. However, the positive responses from the students and the professors provide an impetus for continuing and promoting the Flipped Learning technique in future classes.

Keywords: Flipped learning, laboratory classes, educational innovation, civil engineering, higher education, competences.

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389 Generating Class-Based Test Cases for Interface Classes of Object-Oriented Gray-Box Frameworks

Authors: Jehad Al Dallal, Paul Sorenson

Abstract:

An application framework provides a reusable design and implementation for a family of software systems. Application developers extend the framework to build their particular applications using hooks. Hooks are the places identified to show how to use and customize the framework. Hooks define Framework Interface Classes (FICs) and their possible specifications, which helps in building reusable test cases for the implementations of these classes. In applications developed using gray-box frameworks, FICs inherit framework classes or use them without inheritance. In this paper, a test-case generation technique is extended to build test cases for FICs built for gray-box frameworks. A tool is developed to automate the introduced technique.

Keywords: Class testing, object-oriented framework, reusable test case.

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388 Evaluating the Effectiveness of Electronic Response Systems in Technology-Oriented Classes

Authors: Ahmad Salman

Abstract:

Electronic Response Systems such as Kahoot, Poll Everywhere, and Google Classroom are gaining a lot of popularity when surveying audiences in events, meetings, and classroom. The reason is mainly because of the ease of use and the convenience these tools bring since they provide mobile applications with a simple user interface. In this paper, we present a case study on the effectiveness of using Electronic Response Systems on student participation and learning experience in a classroom. We use a polling application for class exercises in two different technology-oriented classes. We evaluate the effectiveness of the usage of the polling applications through statistical analysis of the students performance in these two classes and compare them to the performances of students who took the same classes without using the polling application for class participation. Our results show an increase in the performances of the students who used the Electronic Response System when compared to those who did not by an average of 11%.

Keywords: Interactive learning, classroom technology, electronic response systems, polling applications, learning evaluation.

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387 Object Tracking using MACH filter and Optical Flow in Cluttered Scenes and Variable Lighting Conditions

Authors: Waqar Shahid Qureshi, Abu-Baqar Nisar Alvi

Abstract:

Vision based tracking problem is solved through a combination of optical flow, MACH filter and log r-θ mapping. Optical flow is used for detecting regions of movement in video frames acquired under variable lighting conditions. The region of movement is segmented and then searched for the target. A template is used for target recognition on the segmented regions for detecting the region of interest. The template is trained offline on a sequence of target images that are created using the MACH filter and log r-θ mapping. The template is applied on areas of movement in successive frames and strong correlation is seen for in-class targets. Correlation peaks above a certain threshold indicate the presence of target and the target is tracked over successive frames.

Keywords: Correlation filters, optical flow, log r-θ mapping.

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386 Using Ontology Search in the Design of Class Diagram from Business Process Model

Authors: Wararat Rungworawut, Twittie Senivongse

Abstract:

Business process model describes process flow of a business and can be seen as the requirement for developing a software application. This paper discusses a BPM2CD guideline which complements the Model Driven Architecture concept by suggesting how to create a platform-independent software model in the form of a UML class diagram from a business process model. An important step is the identification of UML classes from the business process model. A technique for object-oriented analysis called domain analysis is borrowed and key concepts in the business process model will be discovered and proposed as candidate classes for the class diagram. The paper enhances this step by using ontology search to help identify important classes for the business domain. As ontology is a source of knowledge for a particular domain which itself can link to ontologies of related domains, the search can give a refined set of candidate classes for the resulting class diagram.

Keywords: Business Process Model, Model DrivenArchitecture, Ontology, UML Class Diagram.

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385 Retrieving Similar Segmented Objects Using Motion Descriptors

Authors: Konstantinos C. Kartsakalis, Angeliki Skoura, Vasileios Megalooikonomou

Abstract:

The fuzzy composition of objects depicted in images acquired through MR imaging or the use of bio-scanners has often been a point of controversy for field experts attempting to effectively delineate between the visualized objects. Modern approaches in medical image segmentation tend to consider fuzziness as a characteristic and inherent feature of the depicted object, instead of an undesirable trait. In this paper, a novel technique for efficient image retrieval in the context of images in which segmented objects are either crisp or fuzzily bounded is presented. Moreover, the proposed method is applied in the case of multiple, even conflicting, segmentations from field experts. Experimental results demonstrate the efficiency of the suggested method in retrieving similar objects from the aforementioned categories while taking into account the fuzzy nature of the depicted data.

Keywords: Fuzzy Object, Fuzzy Image Segmentation, Motion Descriptors, MRI Imaging, Object-Based Image Retrieval.

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384 High-Resolution 12-Bit Segmented Capacitor DAC in Successive Approximation ADC

Authors: Wee Leong Son, Hasmayadi Abdul Majid, Rohana Musa

Abstract:

This paper study the segmented split capacitor Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) implemented in a differentialtype 12-bit Successive Approximation Analog-to-Digital Converter (SA-ADC). The series capacitance split array method employed as it reduced the total area of the capacitors required for high resolution DACs. A 12-bit regular binary array structure requires 2049 unit capacitors (Cs) while the split array needs 127 unit Cs. These results in the reduction of the total capacitance and power consumption of the series split array architectures as to regular binary-weighted structures. The paper will show the 12-bit DAC series split capacitor with 4-bit thermometer coded DAC architectures as well as the simulation and measured results.

Keywords: Successive Approximation Register Analog-to- Digital Converter, SAR ADC, Low voltage ADC.

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383 A Deterministic Polynomial-time Algorithm for the Clique Problem and the Equality of P and NP Complexity Classes

Authors: Zohreh O. Akbari

Abstract:

In this paper a deterministic polynomial-time algorithm is presented for the Clique problem. The case is considered as the problem of omitting the minimum number of vertices from the input graph so that none of the zeroes on the graph-s adjacency matrix (except the main diagonal entries) would remain on the adjacency matrix of the resulting subgraph. The existence of a deterministic polynomial-time algorithm for the Clique problem, as an NP-complete problem will prove the equality of P and NP complexity classes.

Keywords: Clique problem, Deterministic Polynomial-time Algorithm, Equality of P and NP Complexity Classes.

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382 Generating Class-Based Test Cases for Interface Classes of Object-Oriented Black Box Frameworks

Authors: Jehad Al Dallal, Paul Sorenson

Abstract:

An application framework provides a reusable design and implementation for a family of software systems. Application developers extend the framework to build their particular applications using hooks. Hooks are the places identified to show how to use and customize the framework. Hooks define the Framework Interface Classes (FICs) and their possible specifications, which helps in building reusable test cases for the implementations of these classes. This paper introduces a novel technique called all paths-state to generate state-based test cases to test the FICs at class level. The technique is experimentally evaluated. The empirical evaluation shows that all paths-state technique produces test cases with a high degree of coverage for the specifications of the implemented FICs comparing to test cases generated using round-trip path and all-transition techniques.

Keywords: Hooks, object-oriented framework, frameworkinterface classes (FICs), specification-based testing, test casegeneration.

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381 Automatic Segmentation of Thigh Magnetic Resonance Images

Authors: Lorena Urricelqui, Armando Malanda, Arantxa Villanueva

Abstract:

Purpose: To develop a method for automatic segmentation of adipose and muscular tissue in thighs from magnetic resonance images. Materials and methods: Thirty obese women were scanned on a Siemens Impact Expert 1T resonance machine. 1500 images were finally used in the tests. The developed segmentation method is a recursive and multilevel process that makes use of several concepts such as shaped histograms, adaptative thresholding and connectivity. The segmentation process was implemented in Matlab and operates without the need of any user interaction. The whole set of images were segmented with the developed method. An expert radiologist segmented the same set of images following a manual procedure with the aid of the SliceOmatic software (Tomovision). These constituted our 'goal standard'. Results: The number of coincidental pixels of the automatic and manual segmentation procedures was measured. The average results were above 90 % of success in most of the images. Conclusions: The proposed approach allows effective automatic segmentation of MRIs from thighs, comparable to expert manual performance.

Keywords: Segmentation, thigh, magnetic resonance image, fat, muscle.

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380 Swine Flu Transmission Model in Risk and Non-Risk Human Population

Authors: P. Pongsumpun

Abstract:

The Swine flu outbreak in humans is due to a new strain of influenza A virus subtype H1N1 that derives in part from human influenza, avian influenza, and two separated strains of swine influenza. It can be transmitted from human to human. A mathematical model for the transmission of Swine flu is developed in which the human populations are divided into two classes, the risk and non-risk human classes. Each class is separated into susceptible, exposed, infectious, quarantine and recovered sub-classes. In this paper, we formulate the dynamical model of Swine flu transmission and the repetitive contacts between the people are also considered. We analyze the behavior for the transmission of this disease. The Threshold condition of this disease is found and numerical results are shown to confirm our theoretical predictions.

Keywords: Mathematical model, Steady state, Swine flu, threshold condition.

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379 Designing a Tool for Software Maintenance

Authors: Amir Ngah, Masita Abdul Jalil, Zailani Abdullah

Abstract:

The aim of software maintenance is to maintain the software system in accordance with advancement in software and hardware technology. One of the early works on software maintenance is to extract information at higher level of abstraction. In this paper, we present the process of how to design an information extraction tool for software maintenance. The tool can extract the basic information from old programs such as about variables, based classes, derived classes, objects of classes, and functions. The tool have two main parts; the lexical analyzer module that can read the input file character by character, and the searching module which users can get the basic information from the existing programs. We implemented this tool for a patterned sub-C++ language as an input file.

Keywords: Extraction tool, software maintenance, reverse engineering, C++.

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378 Discovering Complex Regularities: from Tree to Semi-Lattice Classifications

Authors: A. Faro, D. Giordano, F. Maiorana

Abstract:

Data mining uses a variety of techniques each of which is useful for some particular task. It is important to have a deep understanding of each technique and be able to perform sophisticated analysis. In this article we describe a tool built to simulate a variation of the Kohonen network to perform unsupervised clustering and support the entire data mining process up to results visualization. A graphical representation helps the user to find out a strategy to optimize classification by adding, moving or delete a neuron in order to change the number of classes. The tool is able to automatically suggest a strategy to optimize the number of classes optimization, but also support both tree classifications and semi-lattice organizations of the classes to give to the users the possibility of passing from one class to the ones with which it has some aspects in common. Examples of using tree and semi-lattice classifications are given to illustrate advantages and problems. The tool is applied to classify macroeconomic data that report the most developed countries- import and export. It is possible to classify the countries based on their economic behaviour and use the tool to characterize the commercial behaviour of a country in a selected class from the analysis of positive and negative features that contribute to classes formation. Possible interrelationships between the classes and their meaning are also discussed.

Keywords: Unsupervised classification, Kohonen networks, macroeconomics, Visual data mining, Cluster interpretation.

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377 Soil Laboratory Classes in Curtin University, Australia

Authors: Amin Chegenizadeh, Hamid Nikraz

Abstract:

Soil mechanics is a traditional course in any university. Management of lab classes is one of the main issues to deliver a proper outline. In Curtin University, different methods applied to check the efficiency of these methods. One of them was mainly rely on demonstration and the other one mainly on involving students in running tests. Comparison between these delivery methods also are outlined in summary section. The recommendation also made that the more satisfaction is reachable while the students engaged.

Keywords: Soil, Geomechanic, Laboratory.

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376 Performance Analysis of CATR Reflector with Super Hybrid Modulated Segmented Exponential Serrated Edges

Authors: T. Venkata Rama Krishna, P. Siddaiah, B. Prabhakara Rao

Abstract:

This paper presented a theoretical and numerical investigation of the Compact Antenna Test Range (CATR) equipped with Super Hybrid Modulated Segmented Exponential Serrations (SHMSES). The investigation was based on diffraction theory and, more specifically, the Fresnel diffraction formulation. The CATR provides uniform illumination within the Fresnel region to test antenna. Application of serrated edges has been shown to be a good method to control diffraction at the edges of the reflectors. However, in order to get some insight into the positive effect of serrated edges a less rigorous analysis technique known as Physical Optics (PO) may be used. Ripple free and enhanced quiet zone width are observed for specific values of width and height modulation factors per serrations. The performance of SHMSE serrated reflector is evaluated in order to observe the effects of edge diffraction on the test zone fields.

Keywords: Fresnel region, quiet zone, physical optics, ripples, serrations.

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