Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 301

Search results for: segmentation

91 A Robust Salient Region Extraction Based on Color and Texture Features

Authors: Mingxin Zhang, Zhaogan Lu, Junyi Shen

Abstract:

In current common research reports, salient regions are usually defined as those regions that could present the main meaningful or semantic contents. However, there are no uniform saliency metrics that could describe the saliency of implicit image regions. Most common metrics take those regions as salient regions, which have many abrupt changes or some unpredictable characteristics. But, this metric will fail to detect those salient useful regions with flat textures. In fact, according to human semantic perceptions, color and texture distinctions are the main characteristics that could distinct different regions. Thus, we present a novel saliency metric coupled with color and texture features, and its corresponding salient region extraction methods. In order to evaluate the corresponding saliency values of implicit regions in one image, three main colors and multi-resolution Gabor features are respectively used for color and texture features. For each region, its saliency value is actually to evaluate the total sum of its Euclidean distances for other regions in the color and texture spaces. A special synthesized image and several practical images with main salient regions are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed saliency metric and other several common metrics, i.e., scale saliency, wavelet transform modulus maxima point density, and important index based metrics. Experiment results verified that the proposed saliency metric could achieve more robust performance than those common saliency metrics.

Keywords: salient regions, color and texture features, image segmentation, saliency metric

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90 Color Image Segmentation Using Kekre-s Algorithm for Vector Quantization

Authors: H. B. Kekre, Tanuja K. Sarode, Bhakti Raul

Abstract:

In this paper we propose segmentation approach based on Vector Quantization technique. Here we have used Kekre-s fast codebook generation algorithm for segmenting low-altitude aerial image. This is used as a preprocessing step to form segmented homogeneous regions. Further to merge adjacent regions color similarity and volume difference criteria is used. Experiments performed with real aerial images of varied nature demonstrate that this approach does not result in over segmentation or under segmentation. The vector quantization seems to give far better results as compared to conventional on-the-fly watershed algorithm.

Keywords: Image Segmentation, , Codebook, Codevector, data compression, Encoding

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89 Fast Segmentation for the Piecewise Smooth Mumford-Shah Functional

Authors: Yingjie Zhang

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with an improved algorithm based on the piecewise-smooth Mumford and Shah (MS) functional for an efficient and reliable segmentation. In order to speed up convergence, an additional force, at each time step, is introduced further to drive the evolution of the curves instead of only driven by the extensions of the complementary functions u + and u - . In our scheme, furthermore, the piecewise-constant MS functional is integrated to generate the extra force based on a temporary image that is dynamically created by computing the union of u + and u - during segmenting. Therefore, some drawbacks of the original algorithm, such as smaller objects generated by noise and local minimal problem also are eliminated or improved. The resulting algorithm has been implemented in Matlab and Visual Cµ, and demonstrated efficiently by several cases.

Keywords: Active contours, energy minimization, image segmentation, level sets.

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88 Segmentation Problems and Solutions in Printed Degraded Gurmukhi Script

Authors: M. K. Jindal, G. S. Lehal, R. K. Sharma

Abstract:

Character segmentation is an important preprocessing step for text recognition. In degraded documents, existence of touching characters decreases recognition rate drastically, for any optical character recognition (OCR) system. In this paper we have proposed a complete solution for segmenting touching characters in all the three zones of printed Gurmukhi script. A study of touching Gurmukhi characters is carried out and these characters have been divided into various categories after a careful analysis. Structural properties of the Gurmukhi characters are used for defining the categories. New algorithms have been proposed to segment the touching characters in middle zone, upper zone and lower zone. These algorithms have shown a reasonable improvement in segmenting the touching characters in degraded printed Gurmukhi script. The algorithms proposed in this paper are applicable only to machine printed text. We have also discussed a new and useful technique to segment the horizontally overlapping lines.

Keywords: Character Segmentation, Middle Zone, Upper Zone, Lower Zone, Touching Characters, Horizontally Overlapping Lines.

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87 Quadrilateral Decomposition by Two-Ear Property Resulting in CAD Segmentation

Authors: Maharavo Randrianarivony

Abstract:

The objective is to split a simply connected polygon into a set of convex quadrilaterals without inserting new boundary nodes. The presented approach consists in repeatedly removing quadrilaterals from the polygon. Theoretical results pertaining to quadrangulation of simply connected polygons are derived from the usual 2-ear theorem. It produces a quadrangulation technique with O(n) number of quadrilaterals. The theoretical methodology is supplemented by practical results and CAD surface segmentation.

Keywords: Quadrangulation, simply connected, two-ear theorem.

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86 Application of Fuzzy Neural Network for Image Tumor Description

Authors: Nahla Ibraheem Jabbar, Monica Mehrotra

Abstract:

This paper used a fuzzy kohonen neural network for medical image segmentation. Image segmentation plays a important role in the many of medical imaging applications by automating or facilitating the diagnostic. The paper analyses the tumor by extraction of the features of (area, entropy, means and standard deviation).These measurements gives a description for a tumor.

Keywords: FCM, features extraction, medical image processing, neural network, segmentation.

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85 Automated Segmentation of ECG Signals using Piecewise Derivative Dynamic Time Warping

Authors: Ali Zifan, Mohammad Hassan Moradi, Sohrab Saberi, Farzad Towhidkhah

Abstract:

Electrocardiogram (ECG) segmentation is necessary to help reduce the time consuming task of manually annotating ECG-s. Several algorithms have been developed to segment the ECG automatically. We first review several of such methods, and then present a new single lead segmentation method based on Adaptive piecewise constant approximation (APCA) and Piecewise derivative dynamic time warping (PDDTW). The results are tested on the QT database. We compared our results to Laguna-s two lead method. Our proposed approach has a comparable mean error, but yields a slightly higher standard deviation than Laguna-s method.

Keywords: Adaptive Piecewise Constant Approximation, Dynamic programming, ECG segmentation, Piecewise DerivativeDynamic Time Warping.

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84 Deficiencies of Lung Segmentation Techniques using CT Scan Images for CAD

Authors: Nisar Ahmed Memon, Anwar Majid Mirza, S.A.M. Gilani

Abstract:

Segmentation is an important step in medical image analysis and classification for radiological evaluation or computer aided diagnosis. This paper presents the problem of inaccurate lung segmentation as observed in algorithms presented by researchers working in the area of medical image analysis. The different lung segmentation techniques have been tested using the dataset of 19 patients consisting of a total of 917 images. We obtained datasets of 11 patients from Ackron University, USA and of 8 patients from AGA Khan Medical University, Pakistan. After testing the algorithms against datasets, the deficiencies of each algorithm have been highlighted.

Keywords: Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD), MathematicalMorphology, Medical Image Analysis, Region Growing, Segmentation, Thresholding,

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83 Segmentation of Lungs from CT Scan Images for Early Diagnosis of Lung Cancer

Authors: Nisar Ahmed Memon, Anwar Majid Mirza, S.A.M. Gilani

Abstract:

Segmentation is an important step in medical image analysis and classification for radiological evaluation or computer aided diagnosis. The CAD (Computer Aided Diagnosis ) of lung CT generally first segment the area of interest (lung) and then analyze the separately obtained area for nodule detection in order to diagnosis the disease. For normal lung, segmentation can be performed by making use of excellent contrast between air and surrounding tissues. However this approach fails when lung is affected by high density pathology. Dense pathologies are present in approximately a fifth of clinical scans, and for computer analysis such as detection and quantification of abnormal areas it is vital that the entire and perfectly lung part of the image is provided and no part, as present in the original image be eradicated. In this paper we have proposed a lung segmentation technique which accurately segment the lung parenchyma from lung CT Scan images. The algorithm was tested against the 25 datasets of different patients received from Ackron Univeristy, USA and AGA Khan Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan.

Keywords: Computer Aided Diagnosis, Medical ImageProcessing, Region Growing, Segmentation, Thresholding,

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82 Signature Recognition Using Conjugate Gradient Neural Networks

Authors: Jamal Fathi Abu Hasna

Abstract:

There are two common methodologies to verify signatures: the functional approach and the parametric approach. This paper presents a new approach for dynamic handwritten signature verification (HSV) using the Neural Network with verification by the Conjugate Gradient Neural Network (NN). It is yet another avenue in the approach to HSV that is found to produce excellent results when compared with other methods of dynamic. Experimental results show the system is insensitive to the order of base-classifiers and gets a high verification ratio.

Keywords: Signature Verification, MATLAB Software, Conjugate Gradient, Segmentation, Skilled Forgery, and Genuine.

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81 Graph-based High Level Motion Segmentation using Normalized Cuts

Authors: Sungju Yun, Anjin Park, Keechul Jung

Abstract:

Motion capture devices have been utilized in producing several contents, such as movies and video games. However, since motion capture devices are expensive and inconvenient to use, motions segmented from captured data was recycled and synthesized to utilize it in another contents, but the motions were generally segmented by contents producers in manual. Therefore, automatic motion segmentation is recently getting a lot of attentions. Previous approaches are divided into on-line and off-line, where on-line approaches segment motions based on similarities between neighboring frames and off-line approaches segment motions by capturing the global characteristics in feature space. In this paper, we propose a graph-based high-level motion segmentation method. Since high-level motions consist of several repeated frames within temporal distances, we consider all similarities among all frames within the temporal distance. This is achieved by constructing a graph, where each vertex represents a frame and the edges between the frames are weighted by their similarity. Then, normalized cuts algorithm is used to partition the constructed graph into several sub-graphs by globally finding minimum cuts. In the experiments, the results using the proposed method showed better performance than PCA-based method in on-line and GMM-based method in off-line, as the proposed method globally segment motions from the graph constructed based similarities between neighboring frames as well as similarities among all frames within temporal distances.

Keywords: Capture Devices, High-Level Motion, Motion Segmentation, Normalized Cuts

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80 Binarization of Text Region based on Fuzzy Clustering and Histogram Distribution in Signboards

Authors: Jonghyun Park, Toan Nguyen Dinh, Gueesang Lee

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a novel approach to accurately detect text regions including shop name in signboard images with complex background for mobile system applications. The proposed method is based on the combination of text detection using edge profile and region segmentation using fuzzy c-means method. In the first step, we perform an elaborate canny edge operator to extract all possible object edges. Then, edge profile analysis with vertical and horizontal direction is performed on these edge pixels to detect potential text region existing shop name in a signboard. The edge profile and geometrical characteristics of each object contour are carefully examined to construct candidate text regions and classify the main text region from background. Finally, the fuzzy c-means algorithm is performed to segment and detected binarize text region. Experimental results show that our proposed method is robust in text detection with respect to different character size and color and can provide reliable text binarization result.

Keywords: Text detection, edge profile, signboard image, fuzzy clustering.

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79 A New Method for Detection of Artificial Objects and Materials from Long Distance Environmental Images

Authors: H. Dujmic, V. Papic, H. Turic

Abstract:

The article presents a new method for detection of artificial objects and materials from images of the environmental (non-urban) terrain. Our approach uses the hue and saturation (or Cb and Cr) components of the image as the input to the segmentation module that uses the mean shift method. The clusters obtained as the output of this stage have been processed by the decision-making module in order to find the regions of the image with the significant possibility of representing human. Although this method will detect various non-natural objects, it is primarily intended and optimized for detection of humans; i.e. for search and rescue purposes in non-urban terrain where, in normal circumstances, non-natural objects shouldn-t be present. Real world images are used for the evaluation of the method.

Keywords: Landscape surveillance, mean shift algorithm, image segmentation, target detection.

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78 Player Number Localization and Recognition in Soccer Video using HSV Color Space and Internal Contours

Authors: Matko Šaric, Hrvoje Dujmic, Vladan Papic, Nikola Rožic

Abstract:

Detection of player identity is challenging task in sport video content analysis. In case of soccer video player number recognition is effective and precise solution. Jersey numbers can be considered as scene text and difficulties in localization and recognition appear due to variations in orientation, size, illumination, motion etc. This paper proposed new method for player number localization and recognition. By observing hue, saturation and value for 50 different jersey examples we noticed that most often combination of low and high saturated pixels is used to separate number and jersey region. Image segmentation method based on this observation is introduced. Then, novel method for player number localization based on internal contours is proposed. False number candidates are filtered using area and aspect ratio. Before OCR processing extracted numbers are enhanced using image smoothing and rotation normalization.

Keywords: player number, soccer video, HSV color space

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77 A Nonoblivious Image Watermarking System Based on Singular Value Decomposition and Texture Segmentation

Authors: Soroosh Rezazadeh, Mehran Yazdi

Abstract:

In this paper, a robust digital image watermarking scheme for copyright protection applications using the singular value decomposition (SVD) is proposed. In this scheme, an entropy masking model has been applied on the host image for the texture segmentation. Moreover, the local luminance and textures of the host image are considered for watermark embedding procedure to increase the robustness of the watermarking scheme. In contrast to all existing SVD-based watermarking systems that have been designed to embed visual watermarks, our system uses a pseudo-random sequence as a watermark. We have tested the performance of our method using a wide variety of image processing attacks on different test images. A comparison is made between the results of our proposed algorithm with those of a wavelet-based method to demonstrate the superior performance of our algorithm.

Keywords: Watermarking, copyright protection, singular value decomposition, entropy masking, texture segmentation.

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76 A New Ridge Orientation based Method of Computation for Feature Extraction from Fingerprint Images

Authors: Jayadevan R., Jayant V. Kulkarni, Suresh N. Mali, Hemant K. Abhyankar

Abstract:

An important step in studying the statistics of fingerprint minutia features is to reliably extract minutia features from the fingerprint images. A new reliable method of computation for minutiae feature extraction from fingerprint images is presented. A fingerprint image is treated as a textured image. An orientation flow field of the ridges is computed for the fingerprint image. To accurately locate ridges, a new ridge orientation based computation method is proposed. After ridge segmentation a new method of computation is proposed for smoothing the ridges. The ridge skeleton image is obtained and then smoothed using morphological operators to detect the features. A post processing stage eliminates a large number of false features from the detected set of minutiae features. The detected features are observed to be reliable and accurate.

Keywords: Minutia, orientation field, ridge segmentation, textured image.

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75 Low Computational Image Compression Scheme based on Absolute Moment Block Truncation Coding

Authors: K.Somasundaram, I.Kaspar Raj

Abstract:

In this paper we have proposed three and two stage still gray scale image compressor based on BTC. In our schemes, we have employed a combination of four techniques to reduce the bit rate. They are quad tree segmentation, bit plane omission, bit plane coding using 32 visual patterns and interpolative bit plane coding. The experimental results show that the proposed schemes achieve an average bit rate of 0.46 bits per pixel (bpp) for standard gray scale images with an average PSNR value of 30.25, which is better than the results from the exiting similar methods based on BTC.

Keywords: Bit plane, Block Truncation Coding, Image compression, lossy compression, quad tree segmentation

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74 Image Segmentation Based on Graph Theoretical Approach to Improve the Quality of Image Segmentation

Authors: Deepthi Narayan, Srikanta Murthy K., G. Hemantha Kumar

Abstract:

Graph based image segmentation techniques are considered to be one of the most efficient segmentation techniques which are mainly used as time & space efficient methods for real time applications. How ever, there is need to focus on improving the quality of segmented images obtained from the earlier graph based methods. This paper proposes an improvement to the graph based image segmentation methods already described in the literature. We contribute to the existing method by proposing the use of a weighted Euclidean distance to calculate the edge weight which is the key element in building the graph. We also propose a slight modification of the segmentation method already described in the literature, which results in selection of more prominent edges in the graph. The experimental results show the improvement in the segmentation quality as compared to the methods that already exist, with a slight compromise in efficiency.

Keywords: Graph based image segmentation, threshold, Weighted Euclidean distance.

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73 Real-time Laser Monitoring based on Pipe Detective Operation

Authors: Mongkorn Klingajay, Tawatchai Jitson

Abstract:

The pipe inspection operation is the difficult detective performance. Almost applications are mainly relies on a manual recognition of defective areas that have carried out detection by an engineer. Therefore, an automation process task becomes a necessary in order to avoid the cost incurred in such a manual process. An automated monitoring method to obtain a complete picture of the sewer condition is proposed in this work. The focus of the research is the automated identification and classification of discontinuities in the internal surface of the pipe. The methodology consists of several processing stages including image segmentation into the potential defect regions and geometrical characteristic features. Automatic recognition and classification of pipe defects are carried out by means of using an artificial neural network technique (ANN) based on Radial Basic Function (RBF). Experiments in a realistic environment have been conducted and results are presented.

Keywords: Artificial neural network, Radial basic function, Curve fitting, CCTV, Image segmentation, Data acquisition.

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72 Region-Based Segmentation of Generic Video Scenes Indexing

Authors: Aree A. Mohammed

Abstract:

In this work we develop an object extraction method and propose efficient algorithms for object motion characterization. The set of proposed tools serves as a basis for development of objectbased functionalities for manipulation of video content. The estimators by different algorithms are compared in terms of quality and performance and tested on real video sequences. The proposed method will be useful for the latest standards of encoding and description of multimedia content – MPEG4 and MPEG7.

Keywords: Object extraction, Video indexing, Segmentation, Optical flow, Motion estimators.

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71 Fuzzy Mathematical Morphology approach in Image Processing

Authors: Yee Yee Htun, Dr. Khaing Khaing Aye

Abstract:

Morphological operators transform the original image into another image through the interaction with the other image of certain shape and size which is known as the structure element. Mathematical morphology provides a systematic approach to analyze the geometric characteristics of signals or images, and has been applied widely too many applications such as edge detection, objection segmentation, noise suppression and so on. Fuzzy Mathematical Morphology aims to extend the binary morphological operators to grey-level images. In order to define the basic morphological operations such as fuzzy erosion, dilation, opening and closing, a general method based upon fuzzy implication and inclusion grade operators is introduced. The fuzzy morphological operations extend the ordinary morphological operations by using fuzzy sets where for fuzzy sets, the union operation is replaced by a maximum operation, and the intersection operation is replaced by a minimum operation. In this work, it consists of two articles. In the first one, fuzzy set theory, fuzzy Mathematical morphology which is based on fuzzy logic and fuzzy set theory; fuzzy Mathematical operations and their properties will be studied in details. As a second part, the application of fuzziness in Mathematical morphology in practical work such as image processing will be discussed with the illustration problems.

Keywords: Binary Morphological, Fuzzy sets, Grayscalemorphology, Image processing, Mathematical morphology.

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70 Adaptive Gaussian Mixture Model for Skin Color Segmentation

Authors: Reza Hassanpour, Asadollah Shahbahrami, Stephan Wong

Abstract:

Skin color based tracking techniques often assume a static skin color model obtained either from an offline set of library images or the first few frames of a video stream. These models can show a weak performance in presence of changing lighting or imaging conditions. We propose an adaptive skin color model based on the Gaussian mixture model to handle the changing conditions. Initial estimation of the number and weights of skin color clusters are obtained using a modified form of the general Expectation maximization algorithm, The model adapts to changes in imaging conditions and refines the model parameters dynamically using spatial and temporal constraints. Experimental results show that the method can be used in effectively tracking of hand and face regions.

Keywords: Face detection, Segmentation, Tracking, Gaussian Mixture Model, Adaptation.

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69 An Automatic Gridding and Contour Based Segmentation Approach Applied to DNA Microarray Image Analysis

Authors: Alexandra Oliveros, Miguel Sotaquirá

Abstract:

DNA microarray technology is widely used by geneticists to diagnose or treat diseases through gene expression. This technology is based on the hybridization of a tissue-s DNA sequence into a substrate and the further analysis of the image formed by the thousands of genes in the DNA as green, red or yellow spots. The process of DNA microarray image analysis involves finding the location of the spots and the quantification of the expression level of these. In this paper, a tool to perform DNA microarray image analysis is presented, including a spot addressing method based on the image projections, the spot segmentation through contour based segmentation and the extraction of relevant information due to gene expression.

Keywords: Contour segmentation, DNA microarrays, edge detection, image processing, segmentation, spot addressing.

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68 Segmentation of Cardiac Images by the Force Field Driven Speed Term

Authors: Renato Dedic, Madjid Allili, Roger Lecomte, Adbelhamid Benchakroun

Abstract:

The class of geometric deformable models, so-called level sets, has brought tremendous impact to medical imagery. In this paper we present yet another application of level sets to medical imaging. The method we give here will in a way modify the speed term in the standard level sets equation of motion. To do so we build a potential based on the distance and the gradient of the image we study. In turn the potential gives rise to the force field: F~F(x, y) = P ∀(p,q)∈I ((x, y) - (p, q)) |ÔêçI(p,q)| |(x,y)-(p,q)| 2 . The direction and intensity of the force field at each point will determine the direction of the contour-s evolution. The images we used to test our method were produced by the Univesit'e de Sherbrooke-s PET scanners.

Keywords: PET, Cardiac, Heart, Mouse, Geodesic, Geometric, Level Sets, Deformable Models, Edge Detection, Segmentation.

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67 Component-based Segmentation of Words from Handwritten Arabic Text

Authors: Jawad H AlKhateeb, Jianmin Jiang, Jinchang Ren, Stan S Ipson

Abstract:

Efficient preprocessing is very essential for automatic recognition of handwritten documents. In this paper, techniques on segmenting words in handwritten Arabic text are presented. Firstly, connected components (ccs) are extracted, and distances among different components are analyzed. The statistical distribution of this distance is then obtained to determine an optimal threshold for words segmentation. Meanwhile, an improved projection based method is also employed for baseline detection. The proposed method has been successfully tested on IFN/ENIT database consisting of 26459 Arabic words handwritten by 411 different writers, and the results were promising and very encouraging in more accurate detection of the baseline and segmentation of words for further recognition.

Keywords: Arabic OCR, off-line recognition, Baseline estimation, Word segmentation.

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66 Through Biometric Card in Romania: Person Identification by Face, Fingerprint and Voice Recognition

Authors: Hariton N. Costin, Iulian Ciocoiu, Tudor Barbu, Cristian Rotariu

Abstract:

In this paper three different approaches for person verification and identification, i.e. by means of fingerprints, face and voice recognition, are studied. Face recognition uses parts-based representation methods and a manifold learning approach. The assessment criterion is recognition accuracy. The techniques under investigation are: a) Local Non-negative Matrix Factorization (LNMF); b) Independent Components Analysis (ICA); c) NMF with sparse constraints (NMFsc); d) Locality Preserving Projections (Laplacianfaces). Fingerprint detection was approached by classical minutiae (small graphical patterns) matching through image segmentation by using a structural approach and a neural network as decision block. As to voice / speaker recognition, melodic cepstral and delta delta mel cepstral analysis were used as main methods, in order to construct a supervised speaker-dependent voice recognition system. The final decision (e.g. “accept-reject" for a verification task) is taken by using a majority voting technique applied to the three biometrics. The preliminary results, obtained for medium databases of fingerprints, faces and voice recordings, indicate the feasibility of our study and an overall recognition precision (about 92%) permitting the utilization of our system for a future complex biometric card.

Keywords: Biometry, image processing, pattern recognition, speech analysis.

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65 Target Detection using Adaptive Progressive Thresholding Based Shifted Phase-Encoded Fringe-Adjusted Joint Transform Correlator

Authors: Inder K. Purohit, M. Nazrul Islam, K. Vijayan Asari, Mohammad A. Karim

Abstract:

A new target detection technique is presented in this paper for the identification of small boats in coastal surveillance. The proposed technique employs an adaptive progressive thresholding (APT) scheme to first process the given input scene to separate any objects present in the scene from the background. The preprocessing step results in an image having only the foreground objects, such as boats, trees and other cluttered regions, and hence reduces the search region for the correlation step significantly. The processed image is then fed to the shifted phase-encoded fringe-adjusted joint transform correlator (SPFJTC) technique which produces single and delta-like correlation peak for a potential target present in the input scene. A post-processing step involves using a peak-to-clutter ratio (PCR) to determine whether the boat in the input scene is authorized or unauthorized. Simulation results are presented to show that the proposed technique can successfully determine the presence of an authorized boat and identify any intruding boat present in the given input scene.

Keywords: Adaptive progressive thresholding, fringe adjusted filters, image segmentation, joint transform correlation, synthetic discriminant function

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64 Advanced Stochastic Models for Partially Developed Speckle

Authors: Jihad S. Daba (Jean-Pierre Dubois), Philip Jreije

Abstract:

Speckled images arise when coherent microwave, optical, and acoustic imaging techniques are used to image an object, surface or scene. Examples of coherent imaging systems include synthetic aperture radar, laser imaging systems, imaging sonar systems, and medical ultrasound systems. Speckle noise is a form of object or target induced noise that results when the surface of the object is Rayleigh rough compared to the wavelength of the illuminating radiation. Detection and estimation in images corrupted by speckle noise is complicated by the nature of the noise and is not as straightforward as detection and estimation in additive noise. In this work, we derive stochastic models for speckle noise, with an emphasis on speckle as it arises in medical ultrasound images. The motivation for this work is the problem of segmentation and tissue classification using ultrasound imaging. Modeling of speckle in this context involves partially developed speckle model where an underlying Poisson point process modulates a Gram-Charlier series of Laguerre weighted exponential functions, resulting in a doubly stochastic filtered Poisson point process. The statistical distribution of partially developed speckle is derived in a closed canonical form. It is observed that as the mean number of scatterers in a resolution cell is increased, the probability density function approaches an exponential distribution. This is consistent with fully developed speckle noise as demonstrated by the Central Limit theorem.

Keywords: Doubly stochastic filtered process, Poisson point process, segmentation, speckle, ultrasound

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63 Human Face Detection and Segmentation using Eigenvalues of Covariance Matrix, Hough Transform and Raster Scan Algorithms

Authors: J. Prakash, K. Rajesh

Abstract:

In this paper we propose a novel method for human face segmentation using the elliptical structure of the human head. It makes use of the information present in the edge map of the image. In this approach we use the fact that the eigenvalues of covariance matrix represent the elliptical structure. The large and small eigenvalues of covariance matrix are associated with major and minor axial lengths of an ellipse. The other elliptical parameters are used to identify the centre and orientation of the face. Since an Elliptical Hough Transform requires 5D Hough Space, the Circular Hough Transform (CHT) is used to evaluate the elliptical parameters. Sparse matrix technique is used to perform CHT, as it squeeze zero elements, and have only a small number of non-zero elements, thereby having an advantage of less storage space and computational time. Neighborhood suppression scheme is used to identify the valid Hough peaks. The accurate position of the circumference pixels for occluded and distorted ellipses is identified using Bresenham-s Raster Scan Algorithm which uses the geometrical symmetry properties. This method does not require the evaluation of tangents for curvature contours, which are very sensitive to noise. The method has been evaluated on several images with different face orientations.

Keywords: Circular Hough Transform, Covariance matrix, Eigenvalues, Elliptical Hough Transform, Face segmentation, Raster Scan Algorithm.

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62 Computer Aided Detection on Mammography

Authors: Giovanni Luca Masala

Abstract:

A typical definition of the Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD), found in literature, can be: A diagnosis made by a radiologist using the output of a computerized scheme for automated image analysis as a diagnostic aid. Often it is possible to find the expression Computer Aided Detection (CAD or CADe): this definition emphasizes the intent of CAD to support rather than substitute the human observer in the analysis of radiographic images. In this article we will illustrate the application of CAD systems and the aim of these definitions. Commercially available CAD systems use computerized algorithms for identifying suspicious regions of interest. In this paper are described the general CAD systems as an expert system constituted of the following components: segmentation / detection, feature extraction, and classification / decision making. As example, in this work is shown the realization of a Computer- Aided Detection system that is able to assist the radiologist in identifying types of mammary tumor lesions. Furthermore this prototype of station uses a GRID configuration to work on a large distributed database of digitized mammographic images.

Keywords: Computer Aided Detection, Computer Aided Diagnosis, mammography, GRID.

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