Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: residual energy

11 Sea Level Characteristics Referenced to Specific Geodetic Datum in Alexandria, Egypt

Authors: Ahmed M. Khedr, Saad M. Abdelrahman, Kareem M. Tonbol

Abstract:

Two geo-referenced sea level datasets (September 2008 – November 2010) and (April 2012 – January 2014) were recorded at Alexandria Western Harbour (AWH). Accurate re-definition of tidal datum, referred to the latest International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF-2014), was discussed and updated to improve our understanding of the old predefined tidal datum at Alexandria. Tidal and non-tidal components of sea level were separated with the use of Delft-3D hydrodynamic model-tide suit (Delft-3D, 2015). Tidal characteristics at AWH were investigated and harmonic analysis showed the most significant 34 constituents with their amplitudes and phases. Tide was identified as semi-diurnal pattern as indicated by a “Form Factor” of 0.24 and 0.25, respectively. Principle tidal datums related to major tidal phenomena were recalculated referred to a meaningful geodetic height datum. The portion of residual energy (surge) out of the total sea level energy was computed for each dataset and found 77% and 72%, respectively. Power spectral density (PSD) showed accurate resolvability in high band (1–6) cycle/days for the nominated independent constituents, except some neighbouring constituents, which are too close in frequency. Wind and atmospheric pressure data, during the recorded sea level time, were analysed and cross-correlated with the surge signals. Moderate association between surge and wind and atmospheric pressure data were obtained. In addition, long-term sea level rise trend at AWH was computed and showed good agreement with earlier estimated rates.

Keywords: Alexandria, Delft-3D, Egypt, geodetic reference, harmonic analysis, sea level.

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10 Performance Analysis of Deterministic Stable Election Protocol Using Fuzzy Logic in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: Sumanpreet Kaur, Harjit Pal Singh, Vikas Khullar

Abstract:

In Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), the sensor containing motes (nodes) incorporate batteries that can lament at some extent. To upgrade the energy utilization, clustering is one of the prototypical approaches for split sensor motes into a number of clusters where one mote (also called as node) proceeds as a Cluster Head (CH). CH selection is one of the optimization techniques for enlarging stability and network lifespan. Deterministic Stable Election Protocol (DSEP) is an effectual clustering protocol that makes use of three kinds of nodes with dissimilar residual energy for CH election. Fuzzy Logic technology is used to expand energy level of DSEP protocol by using fuzzy inference system. This paper presents protocol DSEP using Fuzzy Logic (DSEP-FL) CH by taking into account four linguistic variables such as energy, concentration, centrality and distance to base station. Simulation results show that our proposed method gives more effective results in term of a lifespan of network and stability as compared to the performance of other clustering protocols.

Keywords: Deterministic stable election protocol, energy model, fuzzy logic, wireless sensor network.

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9 Improved Network Construction Methods Based on Virtual Rails for Mobile Sensor Network

Authors: Noritaka Shigei, Kazuto Matsumoto, Yoshiki Nakashima, Hiromi Miyajima

Abstract:

Although Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks (MWSNs), which consist of mobile sensor nodes (MSNs), can cover a wide range of observation region by using a small number of sensor nodes, they need to construct a network to collect the sensing data on the base station by moving the MSNs. As an effective method, the network construction method based on Virtual Rails (VRs), which is referred to as VR method, has been proposed. In this paper, we propose two types of effective techniques for the VR method. They can prolong the operation time of the network, which is limited by the battery capabilities of MSNs and the energy consumption of MSNs. The first technique, an effective arrangement of VRs, almost equalizes the number of MSNs belonging to each VR. The second technique, an adaptive movement method of MSNs, takes into account the residual energy of battery. In the simulation, we demonstrate that each technique can improve the network lifetime and the combination of both techniques is the most effective.

Keywords: Wireless sensor network, mobile sensor node, relay of sensing data, virtual rail, residual energy.

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8 Game Theory Based Diligent Energy Utilization Algorithm for Routing in Wireless Sensor Network

Authors: X. Mercilin Raajini, R. Raja Kumar, P. Indumathi, V. Praveen

Abstract:

Many cluster based routing protocols have been proposed in the field of wireless sensor networks, in which a group of nodes are formed as clusters. A cluster head is selected from one among those nodes based on residual energy, coverage area, number of hops and that cluster-head will perform data gathering from various sensor nodes and forwards aggregated data to the base station or to a relay node (another cluster-head), which will forward the packet along with its own data packet to the base station. Here a Game Theory based Diligent Energy Utilization Algorithm (GTDEA) for routing is proposed. In GTDEA, the cluster head selection is done with the help of game theory, a decision making process, that selects a cluster-head based on three parameters such as residual energy (RE), Received Signal Strength Index (RSSI) and Packet Reception Rate (PRR). Finding a feasible path to the destination with minimum utilization of available energy improves the network lifetime and is achieved by the proposed approach. In GTDEA, the packets are forwarded to the base station using inter-cluster routing technique, which will further forward it to the base station. Simulation results reveal that GTDEA improves the network performance in terms of throughput, lifetime, and power consumption.

Keywords: Cluster head, Energy utilization, Game Theory, LEACH, Sensor network.

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7 Hybrid Hierarchical Routing Protocol for WSN Lifetime Maximization

Authors: H. Aoudia, Y. Touati, E. H. Teguig, A. Ali Cherif

Abstract:

Conceiving and developing routing protocols for wireless sensor networks requires considerations on constraints such as network lifetime and energy consumption. In this paper, we propose a hybrid hierarchical routing protocol named HHRP combining both clustering mechanism and multipath optimization taking into account residual energy and RSSI measures. HHRP consists of classifying dynamically nodes into clusters where coordinators nodes with extra privileges are able to manipulate messages, aggregate data and ensure transmission between nodes according to TDMA and CDMA schedules. The reconfiguration of the network is carried out dynamically based on a threshold value which is associated with the number of nodes belonging to the smallest cluster. To show the effectiveness of the proposed approach HHRP, a comparative study with LEACH protocol is illustrated in simulations.

Keywords: Routing protocols, energy optimization, clustering.

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6 A Mobile Agent-based Clustering Data Fusion Algorithm in WSN

Authors: Xiangbin Zhu, Wenjuan Zhang

Abstract:

In wireless sensor networks,the mobile agent technology is used in data fusion. According to the node residual energy and the results of partial integration,we design the node clustering algorithm. Optimization of mobile agent in the routing within the cluster strategy for wireless sensor networks to further reduce the amount of data transfer. Through the experiments, using mobile agents in the integration process within the cluster can be reduced the path loss in some extent.

Keywords: wireless sensor networks, data fusion, mobile agent

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5 An Energy Reverse AODV Routing Protocol in Ad Hoc Mobile Networks

Authors: Said Khelifa, Zoulikha Mekkakia Maaza

Abstract:

In this paper we present a full performance analysis of an energy conserving routing protocol in mobile ad hoc network, named ER-AODV (Energy Reverse Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector routing). ER-AODV is a reactive routing protocol based on a policy which combines two mechanisms used in the basic AODV protocol. AODV and most of the on demand ad hoc routing protocols use single route reply along reverse path. Rapid change of topology causes that the route reply could not arrive to the source node, i.e. after a source node sends several route request messages, the node obtains a reply message, and this increases in power consumption. To avoid these problems, we propose a mechanism which tries multiple route replies. The second mechanism proposes a new adaptive approach which seeks to incorporate the metric "residual energy " in the process route selection, Indeed the residual energy of mobile nodes were considered when making routing decisions. The results of simulation show that protocol ER-AODV answers a better energy conservation.

Keywords: Ad hoc mobile networks, Energy AODV, Energy consumption, ER-AODV, Reverse AODV.

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4 Energy and Distance Based Clustering: An Energy Efficient Clustering Method for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Mehdi Saeidmanesh, Mojtaba Hajimohammadi, Ali Movaghar

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose an energy efficient cluster based communication protocol for wireless sensor network. Our protocol considers both the residual energy of sensor nodes and the distance of each node from the BS when selecting cluster-head. This protocol can successfully prolong the network-s lifetime by 1) reducing the total energy dissipation on the network and 2) evenly distributing energy consumption over all sensor nodes. In this protocol, the nodes with more energy and less distance from the BS are probable to be selected as cluster-head. Simulation results with MATLAB show that proposed protocol could increase the lifetime of network more than 94% for first node die (FND), and more than 6% for the half of the nodes alive (HNA) factor as compared with conventional protocols.

Keywords: Clustering methods, energy efficiency, routing protocol, wireless sensor networks.

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3 A Balanced Cost Cluster-Heads Selection Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Ouadoudi Zytoune, Youssef Fakhri, Driss Aboutajdine

Abstract:

This paper focuses on reducing the power consumption of wireless sensor networks. Therefore, a communication protocol named LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy) is modified. We extend LEACHs stochastic cluster-head selection algorithm by a modifying the probability of each node to become cluster-head based on its required energy to transmit to the sink. We present an efficient energy aware routing algorithm for the wireless sensor networks. Our contribution consists in rotation selection of clusterheads considering the remoteness of the nodes to the sink, and then, the network nodes residual energy. This choice allows a best distribution of the transmission energy in the network. The cluster-heads selection algorithm is completely decentralized. Simulation results show that the energy is significantly reduced compared with the previous clustering based routing algorithm for the sensor networks.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks, Energy efficiency, WirelessCommunications, Clustering-based algorithm.

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2 EAAC: Energy-Aware Admission Control Scheme for Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Dilip Kumar S.M, Vijaya Kumar B.P.

Abstract:

The decisions made by admission control algorithms are based on the availability of network resources viz. bandwidth, energy, memory buffers, etc., without degrading the Quality-of-Service (QoS) requirement of applications that are admitted. In this paper, we present an energy-aware admission control (EAAC) scheme which provides admission control for flows in an ad hoc network based on the knowledge of the present and future residual energy of the intermediate nodes along the routing path. The aim of EAAC is to quantify the energy that the new flow will consume so that it can be decided whether the future residual energy of the nodes along the routing path can satisfy the energy requirement. In other words, this energy-aware routing admits a new flow iff any node in the routing path does not run out of its energy during the transmission of packets. The future residual energy of a node is predicted using the Multi-layer Neural Network (MNN) model. Simulation results shows that the proposed scheme increases the network lifetime. Also the performance of the MNN model is presented.

Keywords: Ad hoc networks, admission control, energy-aware routing, Quality-of-Service, future residual energy, neural network.

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1 Multipath Routing Sensor Network for Finding Crack in Metallic Structure Using Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Dulal Acharjee, Punyaban Patel

Abstract:

For collecting data from all sensor nodes, some changes in Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) protocol is proposed. At each hop level, route-ranking technique is used for distributing packets to different selected routes dynamically. For calculating rank of a route, different parameters like: delay, residual energy and probability of packet loss are used. A hybrid topology of DMPR(Disjoint Multi Path Routing) and MMPR(Meshed Multi Path Routing) is formed, where braided topology is used in different faulty zones of network. For reducing energy consumption, variant transmission ranges is used instead of fixed transmission range. For reducing number of packet drop, a fuzzy logic inference scheme is used to insert different types of delays dynamically. A rule based system infers membership function strength which is used to calculate the final delay amount to be inserted into each of the node at different clusters. In braided path, a proposed 'Dual Line ACK Link'scheme is proposed for sending ACK signal from a damaged node or link to a parent node to ensure that any error in link or any node-failure message may not be lost anyway. This paper tries to design the theoretical aspects of a model which may be applied for collecting data from any large hanging iron structure with the help of wireless sensor network. But analyzing these data is the subject of material science and civil structural construction technology, that part is out of scope of this paper.

Keywords: Metallic corrosion, Multi Path Routing, DisjointMPR, Meshed MPR, braided path, dual line ACK link, route rankingand Fuzzy Logic.

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