Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1489

Search results for: radar detection.

1489 Angle of Arrival Estimation Using Maximum Likelihood Method

Authors: H. K. Hwang, Zekeriya Aliyazicioglu, Solomon Wu, Hung Lu, Nick Wilkins, Daniel Kerr

Abstract:

Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar has received increasing attention in recent years. MIMO radar has many advantages over conventional phased array radar such as target detection,resolution enhancement, and interference suppression. In this paper, the results are presented from a simulation study of MIMO uniformly-spaced linear array (ULA) antennas. The performance is investigated under varied parameters, including varied array size, pseudo random (PN) sequence length, number of snapshots, and signal to noise ratio (SNR). The results of MIMO are compared to a traditional array antenna.

Keywords: Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar, phased array antenna, target detection, radar signal processing.

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1488 Ultra-High Frequency Passive Radar Coverage for Cars Detection in Semi-Urban Scenarios

Authors: Pedro Gómez-del-Hoyo, Jose-Luis Bárcena-Humanes, Nerea del-Rey-Maestre, María-Pilar Jarabo-Amores, David Mata-Moya

Abstract:

A study of achievable coverages using passive radar systems in terrestrial traffic monitoring applications is presented. The study includes the estimation of the bistatic radar cross section of different commercial vehicle models that provide challenging low values which make detection really difficult. A semi-urban scenario is selected to evaluate the impact of excess propagation losses generated by an irregular relief. A bistatic passive radar exploiting UHF frequencies radiated by digital video broadcasting transmitters is assumed. A general method of coverage estimation using electromagnetic simulators in combination with estimated car average bistatic radar cross section is applied. In order to reduce the computational cost, hybrid solution is implemented, assuming free space for the target-receiver path but estimating the excess propagation losses for the transmitter-target one.

Keywords: Bistatic radar cross section, passive radar, propagation losses, radar coverage.

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1487 A Mini Radar System for Low Altitude Targets Detection

Authors: Kangkang Wu, Kaizhi Wang, Zhijun Yuan

Abstract:

This paper deals with a mini radar system aimed at detecting small targets at the low latitude. The radar operates at Ku-band in the frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) mode with two receiving channels. The radar system has the characteristics of compactness, mobility, and low power consumption. This paper focuses on the implementation of the radar system, and the Block least mean square (Block LMS) algorithm is applied to minimize the fortuitous distortion. It is validated from a series of experiments that the track of the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) can be easily distinguished with the radar system.

Keywords: Unmanned aerial vehicle, interference, block least mean square, frequency modulated continuous wave.

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1486 Target Detection with Improved Image Texture Feature Coding Method and Support Vector Machine

Authors: R. Xu, X. Zhao, X. Li, C. Kwan, C.-I Chang

Abstract:

An image texture analysis and target recognition approach of using an improved image texture feature coding method (TFCM) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) for target detection is presented. With our proposed target detection framework, targets of interest can be detected accurately. Cascade-Sliding-Window technique was also developed for automated target localization. Application to mammogram showed that over 88% of normal mammograms and 80% of abnormal mammograms can be correctly identified. The approach was also successfully applied to Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) images for target detection.

Keywords: Image texture analysis, feature extraction, target detection, pattern classification.

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1485 Real Time Lidar and Radar High-Level Fusion for Obstacle Detection and Tracking with Evaluation on a Ground Truth

Authors: Hatem Hajri, Mohamed-Cherif Rahal

Abstract:

Both Lidars and Radars are sensors for obstacle detection. While Lidars are very accurate on obstacles positions and less accurate on their velocities, Radars are more precise on obstacles velocities and less precise on their positions. Sensor fusion between Lidar and Radar aims at improving obstacle detection using advantages of the two sensors. The present paper proposes a real-time Lidar/Radar data fusion algorithm for obstacle detection and tracking based on the global nearest neighbour standard filter (GNN). This algorithm is implemented and embedded in an automative vehicle as a component generated by a real-time multisensor software. The benefits of data fusion comparing with the use of a single sensor are illustrated through several tracking scenarios (on a highway and on a bend) and using real-time kinematic sensors mounted on the ego and tracked vehicles as a ground truth.

Keywords: Ground truth, Hungarian algorithm, lidar Radar data fusion, global nearest neighbor filter.

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1484 Analysis of Target Location Estimation in High Performance Radar System

Authors: Jin-Hyeok Kim, Won-Chul Choi, Seung-Ri Jin, Dong-Jo Park

Abstract:

In this paper, an analysis of a target location estimation system using the best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE) for high performance radar systems is presented. In synthetic environments, we are here concerned with three key elements of radar system modeling, which makes radar systems operates accurately in strategic situation in virtual ground. Radar Cross Section (RCS) modeling is used to determine the actual amount of electromagnetic waves that are reflected from a tactical object. Pattern Propagation Factor (PPF) is an attenuation coefficient of the radar equation that contains the reflection from the surface of the earth, the diffraction, the refraction and scattering by the atmospheric environment. Clutter is the unwanted echoes of electronic systems. For the data fusion of output results from radar detection in synthetic environment, BLUE is used and compared with the mean values of each simulation results. Simulation results demonstrate the performance of the radar system.

Keywords: Best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE) , data fusion, radar system modeling, target location estimation

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1483 Detection of Leaks in Water Mains Using Ground Penetrating Radar

Authors: Alaa Al Hawari, Mohammad Khader, Tarek Zayed, Osama Moselhi

Abstract:

Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is one of the most effective electromagnetic techniques for non-destructive non-invasive subsurface features investigation. Water leak from pipelines is the most common undesirable reason of potable water losses. Rapid detection of such losses is going to enhance the use of the Water Distribution Networks (WDN) and decrease threatens associated with water mains leaks. In this study, GPR approach was developed to detect leaks by implementing an appropriate imaging analyzing strategy based on image refinement, reflection polarity and reflection amplitude that would ease the process of interpreting the collected raw radargram image.

Keywords: Water Networks, Leakage, Water pipelines, Ground Penetrating Radar.

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1482 Motion Detection Method for Clutter Rejection in the Bio-Radar Signal Processing

Authors: Carolina Gouveia, José Vieira, Pedro Pinho

Abstract:

The cardiopulmonary signal monitoring, without the usage of contact electrodes or any type of in-body sensors, has several applications such as sleeping monitoring and continuous monitoring of vital signals in bedridden patients. This system has also applications in the vehicular environment to monitor the driver, in order to avoid any possible accident in case of cardiac failure. Thus, the bio-radar system proposed in this paper, can measure vital signals accurately by using the Doppler effect principle that relates the received signal properties with the distance change between the radar antennas and the person’s chest-wall. Once the bio-radar aim is to monitor subjects in real-time and during long periods of time, it is impossible to guarantee the patient immobilization, hence their random motion will interfere in the acquired signals. In this paper, a mathematical model of the bio-radar is presented, as well as its simulation in MATLAB. The used algorithm for breath rate extraction is explained and a method for DC offsets removal based in a motion detection system is proposed. Furthermore, experimental tests were conducted with a view to prove that the unavoidable random motion can be used to estimate the DC offsets accurately and thus remove them successfully.

Keywords: Bio-signals, DC Component, Doppler Effect, ellipse fitting, radar, SDR.

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1481 Investigation of Utilizing L-Band Horn Antenna in Landmine Detection

Authors: Ahmad H. Abdelgwad, Ahmed A. Nashat

Abstract:

Landmine detection is an important and yet challenging problem remains to be solved. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a powerful and rapidly maturing technology for subsurface threat identification. The detection methodology of GPR depends mainly on the contrast of the dielectric properties of the searched target and its surrounding soil. This contrast produces a partial reflection of the electromagnetic pulses that are being transmitted into the soil and then being collected by the GPR.  One of the most critical hardware components for the performance of GPR is the antenna system. The current paper explores the design and simulation of a pyramidal horn antenna operating at L-band frequencies (1- 2 GHz) to detect a landmine. A prototype model of the GPR system setup is developed to simulate full wave analysis of the electromagnetic fields in different soil types. The contrast in the dielectric permittivity of the landmine and the sandy soil is the most important parameter to be considered for detecting the presence of landmine. L-band horn antenna is proved to be well-versed in the investigation of landmine detection.

Keywords: Full wave analysis, ground penetrating radar, horn antenna design, landmine detection.

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1480 Design and Implementation of Real-Time Automatic Censoring System on Chip for Radar Detection

Authors: Imron Rosyadi, Ridha A. Djemal, Saleh A. Alshebeili

Abstract:

Design and implementation of a novel B-ACOSD CFAR algorithm is presented in this paper. It is proposed for detecting radar target in log-normal distribution environment. The BACOSD detector is capable to detect automatically the number interference target in the reference cells and detect the real target by an adaptive threshold. The detector is implemented as a System on Chip on FPGA Altera Stratix II using parallelism and pipelining technique. For a reference window of length 16 cells, the experimental results showed that the processor works properly with a processing speed up to 115.13MHz and processing time0.29 ┬Ás, thus meets real-time requirement for a typical radar system.

Keywords: CFAR, FPGA, radar.

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1479 A Forward Automatic Censored Cell-Averaging Detector for Multiple Target Situations in Log-Normal Clutter

Authors: Musa'ed N. Almarshad, Saleh A. Alshebeili, Mourad Barkat

Abstract:

A challenging problem in radar signal processing is to achieve reliable target detection in the presence of interferences. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for automatic censoring of radar interfering targets in log-normal clutter. The proposed algorithm, termed the forward automatic censored cell averaging detector (F-ACCAD), consists of two steps: removing the corrupted reference cells (censoring) and the actual detection. Both steps are performed dynamically by using a suitable set of ranked cells to estimate the unknown background level and set the adaptive thresholds accordingly. The F-ACCAD algorithm does not require any prior information about the clutter parameters nor does it require the number of interfering targets. The effectiveness of the F-ACCAD algorithm is assessed by computing, using Monte Carlo simulations, the probability of censoring and the probability of detection in different background environments.

Keywords: CFAR, Log-normal clutter, Censoring, Probabilityof detection, Probability of false alarm, Probability of falsecensoring.

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1478 Networked Radar System to Increase Safety of Urban Railroad Crossing

Authors: S. Saponara, L. Fanucci, R. Cassettari, P. Ruggiero, M. Righetto

Abstract:

The paper presents an innovative networked radar system for detection of obstacles in a railway level crossing scenario. This Monitoring System (MS) is able to detect moving or still obstacles within the railway level crossing area automatically, avoiding the need of human presence for surveillance. The MS is also connected to the National Railway Information and Signaling System to communicate in real-time the level crossing status. The architecture is compliant with the highest Safety Integrity Level (SIL4) of the CENELEC standard. The number of radar sensors used is configurable at set-up time and depends on how large the level crossing area can be. At least two sensors are expected and up four can be used for larger areas. The whole processing chain that elaborates the output sensor signals, as well as the communication interface, is fully-digital, was designed in VHDL code and implemented onto a Xilinx Virtex 6.

Keywords: Radar for safe mobility, railroad crossing, railway, transport safety.

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1477 Impairments Correction of Six-Port Based Millimeter-Wave Radar

Authors: Dan Ohev Zion, Alon Cohen

Abstract:

In recent years, the presence of short-range millimeter-wave radar in civil application has increased significantly. Autonomous driving, security, 3D imaging and high data rate communication systems are a few examples. The next challenge is the integration inside small form-factor devices, such as smartphones (e.g. gesture recognition). The main challenge is implementation of a truly low-power, low-complexity high-resolution radar. The most popular approach is the Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar, with an analog multiplication front-end. In this paper, we present an approach for adaptive estimation and correction of impairments of such front-end, specifically implemented using the Six-Port Device (SPD) as the multiplier element. The proposed algorithm was simulated and implemented on a 60 GHz radar lab prototype.

Keywords: Radar, millimeter-wave, six-port, FMCW Radar, IQ mismatch.

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1476 Distance Estimation for Radar Systems Using DS-UWB Signals

Authors: Youngpo Lee, Seokho Yoon

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose a distance estimation scheme for radar systems using direct sequence ultra wideband (DS-UWB) signals. The proposed distance estimation scheme averages out the noise by accumulating the correlator outputs of the radar, and thus, helps the radar to employ a short-length DS-UWB signal reducing the correlation processing time. Numerical results confirm that the proposed distance estimation scheme provides a better estimation performance and a reduced correlation processing time compared with those of the conventional DS-UWB radars.

Keywords: Radar, DS-UWB, distance estimation, correlation accumulation.

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1475 SVM-Based Detection of SAR Images in Partially Developed Speckle Noise

Authors: J. P. Dubois, O. M. Abdul-Latif

Abstract:

Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a statistical learning tool that was initially developed by Vapnik in 1979 and later developed to a more complex concept of structural risk minimization (SRM). SVM is playing an increasing role in applications to detection problems in various engineering problems, notably in statistical signal processing, pattern recognition, image analysis, and communication systems. In this paper, SVM was applied to the detection of SAR (synthetic aperture radar) images in the presence of partially developed speckle noise. The simulation was done for single look and multi-look speckle models to give a complete overlook and insight to the new proposed model of the SVM-based detector. The structure of the SVM was derived and applied to real SAR images and its performance in terms of the mean square error (MSE) metric was calculated. We showed that the SVM-detected SAR images have a very low MSE and are of good quality. The quality of the processed speckled images improved for the multi-look model. Furthermore, the contrast of the SVM detected images was higher than that of the original non-noisy images, indicating that the SVM approach increased the distance between the pixel reflectivity levels (the detection hypotheses) in the original images.

Keywords: Least Square-Support Vector Machine, SyntheticAperture Radar. Partially Developed Speckle, Multi-Look Model.

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1474 An Enhanced SAR-Based Tsunami Detection System

Authors: Jean-Pierre Dubois, Jihad S. Daba, H. Karam, J. Abdallah

Abstract:

Tsunami early detection and warning systems have proved to be of ultimate importance, especially after the destructive tsunami that hit Japan in March 2012. Such systems are crucial to inform the authorities of any risk of a tsunami and of the degree of its danger in order to make the right decision and notify the public of the actions they need to take to save their lives. The purpose of this research is to enhance existing tsunami detection and warning systems. We first propose an automated and miniaturized model of an early tsunami detection and warning system. The model for the operation of a tsunami warning system is simulated using the data acquisition toolbox of Matlab and measurements acquired from specified internet pages due to the lack of the required real-life sensors, both seismic and hydrologic, and building a graphical user interface for the system. In the second phase of this work, we implement various satellite image filtering schemes to enhance the acquired synthetic aperture radar images of the tsunami affected region that are masked by speckle noise. This enables us to conduct a post-tsunami damage extent study and calculate the percentage damage. We conclude by proposing improvements to the existing telecommunication infrastructure of existing warning tsunami systems using a migration to IP-based networks and fiber optics links.

Keywords: Detection, GIS, GSN, GTS, GPS, speckle noise, synthetic aperture radar, tsunami, wiener filter.

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1473 Radar Task Schedulers based on Multiple Queue

Authors: María I. Jiménez, Alberto Izquierdo, Juan J. Villacorta, Lara del Val, Mariano Raboso

Abstract:

There are very complex communication systems, as the multifunction radar, MFAR (Multi-Function Array Radar), where functions are integrated all together, and simultaneously are performed the classic functions of tracking and surveillance, as all the functions related to the communication, countermeasures, and calibration. All these functions are divided into the tasks to execute. The task scheduler is a key element of the radar, since it does the planning and distribution of energy and time resources to be shared and used by all tasks. This paper presents schedulers based on the use of multiple queue. Several schedulers have been designed and studied, and it has been made a comparative analysis of different performed schedulers. The tests and experiments have been done by means of system software simulation. Finally a suitable set of radar characteristics has been selected to evaluate the behavior of the task scheduler working.

Keywords: Queue Theory, Radar, Scheduler, Task.

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1472 Radar Hydrology: New Z/R Relationships for Klang River Basin Malaysia based on Rainfall Classification

Authors: R. Suzana, T. Wardah, A.B. Sahol Hamid

Abstract:

The use of radar in Quantitative Precipitation Estimation (QPE) for radar-rainfall measurement is significantly beneficial. Radar has advantages in terms of high spatial and temporal condition in rainfall measurement and also forecasting. In Malaysia, radar application in QPE is still new and needs to be explored. This paper focuses on the Z/R derivation works of radarrainfall estimation based on rainfall classification. The works developed new Z/R relationships for Klang River Basin in Selangor area for three different general classes of rain events, namely low (<10mm/hr), moderate (>10mm/hr, <30mm/hr) and heavy (>30mm/hr) and also on more specific rain types during monsoon seasons. Looking at the high potential of Doppler radar in QPE, the newly formulated Z/R equations will be useful in improving the measurement of rainfall for any hydrological application, especially for flood forecasting.

Keywords: Radar, Quantitative Precipitation Estimation, Z/R development, flood forecasting

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1471 RADAR Imaging to Develop an Enhanced Fog Vision System for Collision Avoidance

Authors: Saswata Chakraborty, R.P.Chatterjee, S. Majumder, Anup Kr. Bhattacharjee

Abstract:

The scattering effect of light in fog improves the difficulty in visibility thus introducing disturbances in transport facilities in urban or industrial areas causing fatal accidents or public harassments, therefore, developing an enhanced fog vision system with radio wave to improvise the way outs of these severe problems is really a big challenge for researchers. Series of experimental studies already been done and more are in progress to know the weather effect on radio frequencies for different ranges. According to Rayleigh scattering Law, the propagating wavelength should be greater than the diameter of the particle present in the penetrating medium. Direct wave RF signal thus have high chance of failure to work in such weather for detection of any object. Therefore an extensive study was required to find suitable region in the RF band that can help us in detecting objects with proper shape. This paper produces some results on object detection using 912 MHz band with successful detection of the persistence of any object coming under the trajectory of a vehicle navigating in indoor and outdoor environment. The developed images are finally transformed to video signal to enable continuous monitoring.

Keywords: RADAR Imaging, Fog vision system, Objectdetection, Jpeg to Mpeg conversion

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1470 Markov Random Field-Based Segmentation Algorithm for Detection of Land Cover Changes Using Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar Polarimetric Images

Authors: Mehrnoosh Omati, Mahmod Reza Sahebi

Abstract:

The information on land use/land cover changing plays an essential role for environmental assessment, planning and management in regional development. Remotely sensed imagery is widely used for providing information in many change detection applications. Polarimetric Synthetic aperture radar (PolSAR) image, with the discrimination capability between different scattering mechanisms, is a powerful tool for environmental monitoring applications. This paper proposes a new boundary-based segmentation algorithm as a fundamental step for land cover change detection. In this method, first, two PolSAR images are segmented using integration of marker-controlled watershed algorithm and coupled Markov random field (MRF). Then, object-based classification is performed to determine changed/no changed image objects. Compared with pixel-based support vector machine (SVM) classifier, this novel segmentation algorithm significantly reduces the speckle effect in PolSAR images and improves the accuracy of binary classification in object-based level. The experimental results on Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) polarimetric images show a 3% and 6% improvement in overall accuracy and kappa coefficient, respectively. Also, the proposed method can correctly distinguish homogeneous image parcels.

Keywords: Coupled Markov random field, environment, object-based analysis, Polarimetric SAR images.

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1469 Efficient Lossless Compression of Weather Radar Data

Authors: Wei-hua Ai, Wei Yan, Xiang Li

Abstract:

Data compression is used operationally to reduce bandwidth and storage requirements. An efficient method for achieving lossless weather radar data compression is presented. The characteristics of the data are taken into account and the optical linear prediction is used for the PPI images in the weather radar data in the proposed method. The next PPI image is identical to the current one and a dramatic reduction in source entropy is achieved by using the prediction algorithm. Some lossless compression methods are used to compress the predicted data. Experimental results show that for the weather radar data, the method proposed in this paper outperforms the other methods.

Keywords: Lossless compression, weather radar data, optical linear prediction, PPI image

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1468 Ship Detection Requirements Analysis for Different Sea States: Validation on Real SAR Data

Authors: Jaime Martín-de-Nicolás, David Mata-Moya, Nerea del-Rey-Maestre, Pedro Gómez-del-Hoyo, María-Pilar Jarabo-Amores

Abstract:

Ship detection is nowadays quite an important issue in tasks related to sea traffic control, fishery management and ship search and rescue. Although it has traditionally been carried out by patrol ships or aircrafts, coverage and weather conditions and sea state can become a problem. Synthetic aperture radars can surpass these coverage limitations and work under any climatological condition. A fast CFAR ship detector based on a robust statistical modeling of sea clutter with respect to sea states in SAR images is used. In this paper, the minimum SNR required to obtain a given detection probability with a given false alarm rate for any sea state is determined. A Gaussian target model using real SAR data is considered. Results show that SNR does not depend heavily on the class considered. Provided there is some variation in the backscattering of targets in SAR imagery, the detection probability is limited and a post-processing stage based on morphology would be suitable.

Keywords: SAR, generalized gamma distribution, detection curves, radar detection.

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1467 The Parameters Analysis for the Intersection Collision Avoidance Systems Based on Radar Sensors

Authors: Jieh-Shian Young, Chan Wei Hsu

Abstract:

This paper mainly studies the analyses of parameters in the intersection collision avoidance (ICA) system based on the radar sensors. The parameters include the positioning errors, the repeat period of the radar sensor, the conditions of potential collisions of two cross-path vehicles, etc. The analyses of the parameters can provide the requirements, limitations, or specifications of this ICA system. In these analyses, the positioning errors will be increased as the measured vehicle approach the intersection. In addition, it is not necessary to implement the radar sensor in higher position since the positioning sensitivities become serious as the height of the radar sensor increases. A concept of the safety buffer distances for front and rear of the measured vehicle is also proposed. The conditions for potential collisions of two cross-path vehicles are also presented to facilitate the computation algorithm.

Keywords: Intersection Collision Avoidance (ICA), Positioning Errors, Radar Sensors, Sensitivity of Positioning.

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1466 An Efficient Classification Method for Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar Images

Authors: Sang-Hong Park

Abstract:

This paper proposes an efficient method to classify inverse synthetic aperture (ISAR) images. Because ISAR images can be translated and rotated in the 2-dimensional image place, invariance to the two factors is indispensable for successful classification. The proposed method achieves invariance to translation and rotation of ISAR images using a combination of two-dimensional Fourier transform, polar mapping and correlation-based alignment of the image. Classification is conducted using a simple matching score classifier. In simulations using the real ISAR images of five scaled models measured in a compact range, the proposed method yields classification ratios higher than 97 %.

Keywords: Radar, ISAR, radar target classification, radar imaging.

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1465 The Comprehensive Study Based on Ultrasonic and X-ray Visual Technology for GIS Equipment Detection

Authors: Wei Zhang, Hong Yu, Xian-ping Zhao, Da-da Wang, Fei Xue

Abstract:

For lack of the visualization of the ultrasonic detection method of partial discharge (PD), the ultrasonic detection technology combined with the X-ray visual detection method (UXV) is proposed. The method can conduct qualitative analysis accurately and conduct reliable positioning diagnosis to the internal insulation defects of GIS, and while it could make up the blindness of the X-ray visual detection method and improve the detection rate. In this paper, an experimental model of GIS is used as the trial platform, a variety of insulation defects are set inside the GIS cavity. With the proposed method, the ultrasonic method is used to conduct the preliminary detection, and then the X-ray visual detection is used to locate and diagnose precisely. Therefore, the proposed UXV technology is feasible and practical.

Keywords: GIS, ultrasonic, visual detection, X-ray

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1464 Efficient Signal Detection Using QRD-M Based On Channel Condition in MIMO-OFDM System

Authors: Jae-Jeong Kim, Ki-Ro Kim, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose an efficient signal detector that switches M parameter of QRD-M detection scheme is proposed for MIMO-OFDM system. The proposed detection scheme calculates the threshold by 1-norm condition number and then switches M parameter of QRD-M detection scheme according to channel information. If channel condition is bad, the parameter M is set to high value to increase the accuracy of detection. If channel condition is good, the parameter M is set to low value to reduce complexity of detection. Therefore, the proposed detection scheme has better tradeoff between BER performance and complexity than the conventional detection scheme. The simulation result shows that the complexity of proposed detection scheme is lower than QRD-M detection scheme with similar BER performance.

Keywords: MIMO-OFDM, QRD-M, Channel condition.

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1463 Moving Vehicles Detection Using Automatic Background Extraction

Authors: Saad M. Al-Garni, Adel A. Abdennour

Abstract:

Vehicle detection is the critical step for highway monitoring. In this paper we propose background subtraction and edge detection technique for vehicle detection. This technique uses the advantages of both approaches. The practical applications approved the effectiveness of this method. This method consists of two procedures: First, automatic background extraction procedure, in which the background is extracted automatically from the successive frames; Second vehicles detection procedure, which depend on edge detection and background subtraction. Experimental results show the effective application of this algorithm. Vehicles detection rate was higher than 91%.

Keywords: Image processing, Automatic background extraction, Moving vehicle detection.

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1462 Application of a Time-Frequency-Based Blind Source Separation to an Instantaneous Mixture of Secondary Radar Sources

Authors: M. Tria, M. Benidir, E. Chaumette

Abstract:

In Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR) systems, it is more difficult to locate and recognise aircrafts in the neighbourhood of civil airports since aerial traffic becomes greater. Here, we propose to apply a recent Blind Source Separation (BSS) algorithm based on Time-Frequency Analysis, in order to separate messages sent by different aircrafts and falling in the same radar beam in reception. The above source separation method involves joint-diagonalization of a set of smoothed version of spatial Wigner-Ville distributions. The technique makes use of the difference in the t-f signatures of the nonstationary sources to be separated. Consequently, as the SSR sources emit different messages at different frequencies, the above fitted to this new application. We applied the technique in simulation to separate SSR replies. Results are provided at the end of the paper.

Keywords: Blind Source Separation, Time-Frequency Analysis, Secondary Radar

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1461 Detection and Classification of Power Quality Disturbances Using S-Transform and Wavelet Algorithm

Authors: Mohamed E. Salem Abozaed

Abstract:

Detection and classification of power quality (PQ) disturbances is an important consideration to electrical utilities and many industrial customers so that diagnosis and mitigation of such disturbance can be implemented quickly. S-transform algorithm and continuous wavelet transforms (CWT) are time-frequency algorithms, and both of them are powerful in detection and classification of PQ disturbances. This paper presents detection and classification of PQ disturbances using S-transform and CWT algorithms. The results of detection and classification, provides that S-transform is more accurate in detection and classification for most PQ disturbance than CWT algorithm, where as CWT algorithm more powerful in detection in some disturbances like notching

Keywords: CWT, Disturbances classification, Disturbances detection, Power quality, S-transform.

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1460 Fault Detection via Stability Analysis for the Hybrid Control Unit of HEVs

Authors: Kyogun Chang, Yoon Bok Lee

Abstract:

Fault detection determines faultexistence and detecting time. This paper discusses two layered fault detection methods to enhance the reliability and safety. Two layered fault detection methods consist of fault detection methods of component level controllers and system level controllers. Component level controllers detect faults by using limit checking, model-based detection, and data-driven detection and system level controllers execute detection by stability analysis which can detect unknown changes. System level controllers compare detection results via stability with fault signals from lower level controllers. This paper addresses fault detection methods via stability and suggests fault detection criteria in nonlinear systems. The fault detection method applies tothe hybrid control unit of a military hybrid electric vehicleso that the hybrid control unit can detect faults of the traction motor.

Keywords: Two Layered Fault Detection, Stability Analysis, Fault-Tolerant Control

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