**Commenced**in January 2007

**Frequency:**Monthly

**Edition:**International

**Paper Count:**765

# Search results for: probability density function

##### 765 A Stochastic Approach to Extreme Wind Speeds Conditions on a Small Axial Wind Turbine

**Authors:**
Nkongho Ayuketang Arreyndip,
Ebobenow Joseph

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Probability,
Stochastic,
Probability density function,
Turbulence.

##### 764 Unsupervised Feature Selection Using Feature Density Functions

**Authors:**
Mina Alibeigi,
Sattar Hashemi,
Ali Hamzeh

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Feature,
Feature Selection,
Filter,
Probability
Density Function

##### 763 Carbon Disulfide Production via Hydrogen Sulfide Methane Reformation

**Authors:**
H. Hosseini,
M. Javadi,
M. Moghiman,
M. H. Ghodsi Rad

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Carbon disulfide,
sour natural gas,
H2SMR,
probability density function.

##### 762 Stochastic Risk Analysis Framework for Building Construction Projects

**Authors:**
Abdulkadir Abu Lawal

**Abstract:**

The study was carried out to establish the probability density function of some selected building construction projects of similar complexity delivered using Bill of Quantities (BQ) and Lump Sum (LS) forms of contract, and to draw a reliability scenario for each form of contract. 30 of such delivered projects are analyzed for each of the contract forms using Weibull Analysis, and their Weibull functions (α, and β) are determined based on their completion times. For the BQ form of contract delivered projects, α is calculated as 1.6737E20 and β as + 0.0115 and for the LS form, α is found to be 5.6556E03 and β is determined as + 0.4535. Using these values, respective probability density functions are calculated and plotted, as handy tool for risk analysis of future projects of similar characteristics. By input of variables from other projects, decision making processes can be made for a whole project or its components using EVM Analysis in project evaluation and review techniques. This framework, as a quantitative approach, depends on the assumption of normality in projects completion time, it can help greatly in determining the completion time probability for veritable projects using any of the contract forms under consideration. Projects aspects that are not amenable to measurement, on the other hand, can be analyzed using fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic. This scenario can be drawn for different types of building construction projects, and using different suitable forms of contract in projects delivery.

**Keywords:**
Building construction,
Projects,
Forms of contract,
Probability density function,
Reliability scenario.

##### 761 Probability Density Estimation Using Advanced Support Vector Machines and the Expectation Maximization Algorithm

**Authors:**
Refaat M Mohamed,
Ayman El-Baz,
Aly A. Farag

**Abstract:**

This paper presents a new approach for the prob-ability density function estimation using the Support Vector Ma-chines (SVM) and the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithms.In the proposed approach, an advanced algorithm for the SVM den-sity estimation which incorporates the Mean Field theory in the learning process is used. Instead of using ad-hoc values for the para-meters of the kernel function which is used by the SVM algorithm,the proposed approach uses the EM algorithm for an automatic optimization of the kernel. Experimental evaluation using simulated data set shows encouraging results.

**Keywords:**
Density Estimation,
SVM,
Learning Algorithms,
Parameters Estimation.

##### 760 An Extension of the Kratzel Function and Associated Inverse Gaussian Probability Distribution Occurring in Reliability Theory

**Authors:**
R. K. Saxena,
Ravi Saxena

**Abstract:**

In view of their importance and usefulness in reliability theory and probability distributions, several generalizations of the inverse Gaussian distribution and the Krtzel function are investigated in recent years. This has motivated the authors to introduce and study a new generalization of the inverse Gaussian distribution and the Krtzel function associated with a product of a Bessel function of the third kind )(zKQ and a Z - Fox-Wright generalized hyper geometric function introduced in this paper. The introduced function turns out to be a unified gamma-type function. Its incomplete forms are also discussed. Several properties of this gamma-type function are obtained. By means of this generalized function, we introduce a generalization of inverse Gaussian distribution, which is useful in reliability analysis, diffusion processes, and radio techniques etc. The inverse Gaussian distribution thus introduced also provides a generalization of the Krtzel function. Some basic statistical functions associated with this probability density function, such as moments, the Mellin transform, the moment generating function, the hazard rate function, and the mean residue life function are also obtained.KeywordsFox-Wright function, Inverse Gaussian distribution, Krtzel function & Bessel function of the third kind.

**Keywords:**
Fox-Wright function,
Inverse Gaussian distribution,
Krtzel function & Bessel function of the third kind.

##### 759 Speaker Identification by Joint Statistical Characterization in the Log Gabor Wavelet Domain

**Authors:**
Suman Senapati,
Goutam Saha

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Speaker Identification,
Log Gabor Wavelet,
Bayesian Bivariate Estimator,
Circularly Symmetric Probability
Density Function,
SIRP.

##### 758 A Stochastic Diffusion Process Based on the Two-Parameters Weibull Density Function

**Authors:**
Meriem Bahij,
Ahmed Nafidi,
Boujemâa Achchab,
Sílvio M. A. Gama,
José A. O. Matos

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Diffusion process,
discrete sampling,
likelihood
estimation method,
simulation,
stochastic diffusion equation,
trends
functions,
bi-parameters Weibull density function.

##### 757 Probability of Globality

**Authors:**
Eva Eggeling,
Dieter W. Fellner,
Torsten Ullrich

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
global optimization,
probability theory,
probability of
globality

##### 756 Characteristic Function in Estimation of Probability Distribution Moments

**Authors:**
Vladimir S. Timofeev

**Abstract:**

In this article the problem of distributional moments estimation is considered. The new approach of moments estimation based on usage of the characteristic function is proposed. By statistical simulation technique author shows that new approach has some robust properties. For calculation of the derivatives of characteristic function there is used numerical differentiation. Obtained results confirmed that author’s idea has a certain working efficiency and it can be recommended for any statistical applications.

**Keywords:**
Characteristic function,
distributional moments,
robustness,
outlier,
statistical estimation problem,
statistical simulation.

##### 755 Clusterization Probability in 14N Nuclei

**Authors:**
N. Burtebayev,
Sh. Hamada,
Zh. Kerimkulov,
D. K. Alimov,
A. V. Yushkov,
N. Amangeldi,
A. N. Bakhtibaev

**Abstract:**

The main aim of the current work is to examine if 14N is candidate to be clusterized nuclei or not. In order to check this attendance, we have measured the angular distributions for 14N ion beam elastically scattered on 12C target nuclei at different low energies; 17.5, 21, and 24.5MeV which are close to the Coulomb barrier energy for 14N+12C nuclear system. Study of various transfer reactions could provide us with useful information about the attendance of nuclei to be in a composite form (core + valence). The experimental data were analyzed using two approaches; Phenomenological (Optical Potential) and semi-microscopic (Double Folding Potential). The agreement between the experimental data and the theoretical predictions is fairly good in the whole angular range.

**Keywords:**
Deuteron Transfer,
Elastic Scattering,
Optical
Model,
Double Folding,
Density Distribution.

##### 754 Grid–SVC: An Improvement in SVC Algorithm, Based On Grid Based Clustering

**Authors:**
Farhad Hadinejad,
Hasan Saberi,
Saeed Kazem

**Abstract:**

Support vector clustering (SVC) is an important kernelbased clustering algorithm in multi applications. It has got two main bottle necks, the high computation price and labeling piece. In this paper, we presented a modified SVC method, named Grid–SVC, to improve the original algorithm computationally. First we normalized and then we parted the interval, where the SVC is processing, using a novel Grid–based clustering algorithm. The algorithm parts the intervals, based on the density function of the data set and then applying the cartesian multiply makes multi-dimensional grids. Eliminating many outliers and noise in the preprocess, we apply an improved SVC method to each parted grid in a parallel way. The experimental results show both improvement in time complexity order and the accuracy.

**Keywords:**
Grid–based clustering,
SVC,
Density function,
Radial
basis function.

##### 753 Orthogonal Polynomial Density Estimates: Alternative Representation and Degree Selection

**Authors:**
Serge B. Provost,
Min Jiang

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
kernel density estimation,
orthogonal polynomials,
moment-based methodologies,
density approximation.

##### 752 A New Algorithm for Enhanced Robustness of Copyright Mark

**Authors:**
Harsh Vikram Singh,
S. P. Singh,
Anand Mohan

**Abstract:**

This paper discusses a new heavy tailed distribution based data hiding into discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients of image, which provides statistical security as well as robustness against steganalysis attacks. Unlike other data hiding algorithms, the proposed technique does not introduce much effect in the stegoimage-s DCT coefficient probability plots, thus making the presence of hidden data statistically undetectable. In addition the proposed method does not compromise on hiding capacity. When compared to the generic block DCT based data-hiding scheme, our method found more robust against a variety of image manipulating attacks such as filtering, blurring, JPEG compression etc.

**Keywords:**
Information Security,
Robust Steganography,
Steganalysis,
Pareto Probability Distribution function.

##### 751 Effect of Fire Retardant Painting Product on Smoke Optical Density of Burning Natural Wood Samples

**Authors:**
Abdullah N. Olimat,
Ahmad S. Awad,
Faisal M. AL-Ghathian

**Abstract:**

^{2}is exposed to the wood samples in a horizontal orientation. The main objective of the current study is to carry out the experimental tests for samples of natural woods to evaluate the capability to escape in case of fire and the fire safety requirements. Specific optical density, transmittance, thermal conductivity, and mass loss are main measured parameters. Also, comparisons between samples with paint and with no paint are carried out between the selected samples of woods.

**Keywords:**
Optical density,
specific optical density,
transmittance,
visibility.

##### 750 Probabilities and the Persistence of Memory in a Bingo-like Carnival Game

**Authors:**
M. Glomski,
M. Lopes

**Abstract:**

Seemingly simple probabilities in the m-player game bingo have never been calculated. These probabilities include expected game length and the expected number of winners on a given turn. The difficulty in probabilistic analysis lies in the subtle interdependence among the m-many bingo game cards in play. In this paper, the game i got it!, a bingo variant, is considered. This variation provides enough weakening of the inter-player dependence to allow probabilistic analysis not possible for traditional bingo. The probability of winning in exactly k turns is calculated for a one-player game. Given a game of m-many players, the expected game length and tie probability are calculated. With these calculations, the game-s interesting payout scheme is considered.

**Keywords:**
Conditional probability,
games of chance,
npersongames,
probability theory.

##### 749 New Multisensor Data Fusion Method Based on Probabilistic Grids Representation

**Authors:**
Zhichao Zhao,
Yi Liu,
Shunping Xiao

**Abstract:**

A new data fusion method called joint probability density matrix (JPDM) is proposed, which can associate and fuse measurements from spatially distributed heterogeneous sensors to identify the real target in a surveillance region. Using the probabilistic grids representation, we numerically combine the uncertainty regions of all the measurements in a general framework. The NP-hard multisensor data fusion problem has been converted to a peak picking problem in the grids map. Unlike most of the existing data fusion method, the JPDM method dose not need association processing, and will not lead to combinatorial explosion. Its convergence to the CRLB with a diminishing grid size has been proved. Simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

**Keywords:**
Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB),
data fusion,
probabilistic grids,
joint probability density matrix,
localization,
sensor network.

##### 748 Roll of Membership functions in Fuzzy Logic for Prediction of Shoot Length of Mustard Plant Based on Residual Analysis

**Authors:**
Satyendra Nath Mandal,
J. Pal Choudhury,
Dilip De,
S. R. Bhadra Chaudhuri

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Fuzzification,
defuzzification,
gaussian function,
triangular function,
trapezoidal function,
s-function,
,
membership function,
residual analysis.

##### 747 Investigation of Plant Density and Weed Competition in Different Cultivars of Wheat In Khoramabad Region

**Authors:**
Ali Khourgami,
Masoud Rafiee,
Korous Rahmati,
Ghobad Bour

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Convolvulus arvensis,
plant density,
Triticumsativum,
weed density,
Wheat

##### 746 Nonlinear Evolution of Electron Density Under High-Energy-Density Conditions

**Authors:**
Shi Chen,
Zi Y. Chen,
Jian K. Dan,
Jian F. Li

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Electron density modulation,
HED,
nonlinearevolution,
plasmas.

##### 745 The Statistical Properties of Filtered Signals

**Authors:**
Ephraim Gower,
Thato Tsalaile,
Monageng Kgwadi,
Malcolm Hawksford.

**Abstract:**

In this paper, the statistical properties of filtered or convolved signals are considered by deriving the resulting density functions as well as the exact mean and variance expressions given a prior knowledge about the statistics of the individual signals in the filtering or convolution process. It is shown that the density function after linear convolution is a mixture density, where the number of density components is equal to the number of observations of the shortest signal. For circular convolution, the observed samples are characterized by a single density function, which is a sum of products.

**Keywords:**
Circular Convolution,
linear Convolution,
mixture density
function.

##### 744 One scheme of Transition Probability Evaluation

**Authors:**
Alexander B. Bichkov,
Alla A. Mityureva,
Valery V. Smirnov

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Path integral,
saddle point method,
semiclassical approximation,
transition probability

##### 743 Evaluation of Best-Fit Probability Distribution for Prediction of Extreme Hydrologic Phenomena

**Authors:**
Karim Hamidi Machekposhti,
Hossein Sedghi

**Abstract:**

The probability distributions are the best method for forecasting of extreme hydrologic phenomena such as rainfall and flood flows. In this research, in order to determine suitable probability distribution for estimating of annual extreme rainfall and flood flows (discharge) series with different return periods, precipitation with 40 and discharge with 58 years time period had been collected from Karkheh River at Iran. After homogeneity and adequacy tests, data have been analyzed by Stormwater Management and Design Aid (SMADA) software and residual sum of squares (R.S.S). The best probability distribution was Log Pearson Type III with R.S.S value (145.91) and value (13.67) for peak discharge and Log Pearson Type III with R.S.S values (141.08) and (8.95) for maximum discharge in Jelogir Majin and Pole Zal stations, respectively. The best distribution for maximum precipitation in Jelogir Majin and Pole Zal stations was Log Pearson Type III distribution with R.S.S values (1.74&1.90) and then Pearson Type III distribution with R.S.S values (1.53&1.69). Overall, the Log Pearson Type III distributions are acceptable distribution types for representing statistics of extreme hydrologic phenomena in Karkheh River at Iran with the Pearson Type III distribution as a potential alternative.

**Keywords:**
Karkheh river,
log pearson type III,
probability distribution,
residual sum of squares.

##### 742 Non-equilibrium Statistical Mechanics of a Driven Lattice Gas Model: Probability Function, FDT-violation, and Monte Carlo Simulations

**Authors:**
K. Sudprasert,
M. Precharattana,
N. Nuttavut,
D. Triampo,
B. Pattanasiri,
Y. Lenbury,
W. Triampo

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Non-equilibrium,
lattice gas,
stochastic process

##### 741 Probability and Instruction Effects in Syllogistic Conditional Reasoning

**Authors:**
Olimpia Matarazzo,
Ivana Baldassarre

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Conditionals,
conditional probability,
conditional syllogism,
inferential task.

##### 740 Forecast Based on an Empirical Probability Function with an Adjusted Error Using Propagation of Error

**Authors:**
Oscar Javier Herrera,
Manuel Ángel Camacho

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Demand Forecasting,
Empirical Distribution,
Propagation of Error.

##### 739 Mobile Robot Path Planning Utilizing Probability Recursive Function

**Authors:**
Ethar H. Khalil,
Bahaa I. Kazem

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Mobile robot,
path planning,
Bezier curve.

##### 738 Probability-Based Damage Detection of Structures Using Kriging Surrogates and Enhanced Ideal Gas Molecular Movement Algorithm

**Authors:**
M. R. Ghasemi,
R. Ghiasi,
H. Varaee

**Abstract:**

Surrogate model has received increasing attention for use in detecting damage of structures based on vibration modal parameters. However, uncertainties existing in the measured vibration data may lead to false or unreliable output result from such model. In this study, an efficient approach based on Monte Carlo simulation is proposed to take into account the effect of uncertainties in developing a surrogate model. The probability of damage existence (PDE) is calculated based on the probability density function of the existence of undamaged and damaged states. The kriging technique allows one to genuinely quantify the surrogate error, therefore it is chosen as metamodeling technique. Enhanced version of ideal gas molecular movement (EIGMM) algorithm is used as main algorithm for model updating. The developed approach is applied to detect simulated damage in numerical models of 72-bar space truss and 120-bar dome truss. The simulation results show the proposed method can perform well in probability-based damage detection of structures with less computational effort compared to direct finite element model.

**Keywords:**
Enhanced ideal gas molecular movement,
Kriging,
probability-based damage detection,
probability of damage existence,
surrogate modeling,
uncertainty quantification.

##### 737 Analytical Modeling of Globular Protein-Ferritin in α-Helical Conformation: A White Noise Functional Approach

**Authors:**
Vernie C. Convicto,
Henry P. Aringa,
Wilson I. Barredo

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Globular protein,
modulating function,
white noise,
winding probability.

##### 736 The Possibility-Probability Relationship for Bloodstream Concentrations of Physiologically Active Substances

**Authors:**
Arkady Bolotin

**Abstract:**

**Keywords:**
Possibility distributions,
possibility-probability relationship.