Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 169

Search results for: precipitation

49 Studying the Trend of Drought in Fars Province (Iran) using SPI Method

Authors: A. Gandomkar, R. Dehghani

Abstract:

Drought is natural and climate phenomenon and in fact server as a part of climate in an area and also it has significant environmental, social ,and economic consequences .drought differs from the other natural disasters from this viewpoint that it s a creeping phenomenon meaning that it progresses little and its difficult to determine the time of its onset and termination .most of the drought definitions are on based on precipitation shortage and consequently ,the shortage of water some of the activities related to the water such as agriculture In this research ,drought condition in Fars province was evacuated using SPI method within a 37 year – statistical –period(1974-2010)and maps related to the drought were prepared for each of the statistical period years. According to the results obtained from this research, the years 1974, 1976, 1975, 1982 with SPI (-1.03, 0.39, -1.05, -1.49) respectively, were the doughiest years and 1996,1997,2000 with SPI (2.49, 1.49, 1.46, 1.04) respectively, the most humid within the studying time series and the rest are in more normal conditions in the term of drought.

Keywords: Fars Province, Drought, SPI Method, Time Series

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1231
48 Studying the Effect of Climate Change on the Conditions of Isfahan-s Province Tourism

Authors: A.Gandomkar, F. Khorasanizadeh

Abstract:

Tourism is a phenomenon respected by the human communities since a long time ago. It has been evoloving continually based on a variety of social and economic needs and with respect to increasingly development of communication and considerable increase of tourist-s number and resulted exchange income has attained much out come such as employment for the communities. or the purpose of tourism development in this zone suitable times and locations need to be specified in the zone for the tourist-s attendance. One of the most important needs of the tourists is the knowledge of climate conditions and suitable times for sightseeing. In this survey, the climate trend condition has been identified for attending the tourists in Isfahan province using the modified tourism climate index (TCI) as well as SPSS, GIS, excel, surfer softwares. This index evoluates systematically the climate conditions for tourism affairs and activities using the monthly maximum mean parameters of daily temperature, daily mean temperature, minimum relative humidity, daily mean relative humidity, precipitation (mm), total sunny hours, wind speed and dust. The results obtaind using kendal-s correlation test show that the months January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November and December are significant and have an increasing trend that indicates the best condition for attending the tourists. S, P, T mean , T max and dust are estimated from 1976-2005 and do kendal-s correlation test again to see which parameter has been effective. Based on the test, we also observed on the effective parameters that the rate of dust in February, March, April, May, June, July, August, October and November is decreasing and precipitation in September and January is increasing and also the radiation rate in May and August is increasing that indicate a better condition of convenience. Maximum temperature in June is also decreasing. Isfahan province has two spring and fall peaks and the best places for tourism are in the north and western areas.

Keywords: Climate, Tourism, Correlation Test, Tourism Climate Index, Isfahan Province

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1390
47 Study of Temperature Changes in Fars Province

Authors: A. Gandomkar, R. Dehghani

Abstract:

Climate change is a phenomenon has been based on the available evidence from a very long time ago and now its existence is very probable. The speed and nature of climate parameters changes at the middle of twentieth century has been different and its quickness more than the before and its trend changed to some extent comparing to the past. Climate change issue now regarded as not only one of the most common scientific topic but also a social political one, is not a new issue. Climate change is a complicated atmospheric oceanic phenomenon on a global scale and long-term. Precipitation pattern change, fast decrease of snowcovered resources and its rapid melting, increased evaporation, the occurrence of destroying floods, water shortage crisis, severe reduction at the rate of harvesting agricultural products and, so on are all the significant of climate change. To cope with this phenomenon, its consequences and events in which public instruction is the most important but it may be climate that no significant cant and effective action has been done so far. The present article is included a part of one surrey about climate change in Fars. The study area having annually mean temperature 14 and precipitation 320 mm .23 stations inside the basin with a common 37 year statistical period have been applied to the meteorology data (1974-2010). Man-kendal and change factor methods are two statistical methods, applying them, the trend of changes and the annual mean average temperature and the annual minimum mean temperature were studied by using them. Based on time series for each parameter, the annual mean average temperature and the mean of annual maximum temperature have a rising trend so that this trend is clearer to the mean of annual maximum temperature.

Keywords: Climate change, Coefficient Variation, Fars province, Man-Kendal method.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1520
46 Drop Impact on a Vibrated, Heated Surface: Towards a Potential New Way of Elaborating Nuclear Fuel from Gel Microspheres

Authors: Méryl Brothier, Dominique Moulinier, Christophe Bertaux

Abstract:

The gel-supported precipitation (GSP) process can be used to make spherical particles (spherules) of nuclear fuel, particularly for very high temperature reactors (VHTR) and even for implementing the process called SPHEREPAC. In these different cases, the main characteristics are the sphericity of the particles to be manufactured and the control over their grain size. Nonetheless, depending on the specifications defined for these spherical particles, the GSP process has intrinsic limits, particularly when fabricating very small particles. This paper describes the use of secondary fragmentation (water, water/PVA and uranyl nitrate) on solid surfaces under varying temperature and vibration conditions to assess the relevance of using this new technique to manufacture very small spherical particles by means of a modified GSP process. The fragmentation mechanisms are monitored and analysed, before the trends for its subsequent optimised application are described.

Keywords: Microsphere elaboration, nuclear fuel, droplet impact , gel-supported precipitation process.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1154
45 The Effect of Ageing on Impact Toughness and Microstructure of 2024 Al-Cu-Mg Alloy

Authors: Swami Naidu Gurugubelli

Abstract:

The present study aims at determining the effect of ageing on the impact toughness and microstructure of 2024 Al-Cu - Mg alloy. Following the 2 h solutionizing treatment at 450°C and water quench, the specimens were aged at 200°C for various periods (1 to 18 h). The precipitation stages during ageing were monitored by hardness measurements. For each specimen group, Charpy impact and hardness tests were carried out. During ageing the impact toughness of the alloy first increased, and then, following a maxima decreased due to the precipitation of intermediate phases, finally it reached its minimum at the peak hardness. Correlations between hardness and impact toughness were investigated.

Keywords: Ageing, alloy, hardness, microstructure.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1686
44 An Overview of the Factors Affecting Microbial-Induced Calcite Precipitation and its Potential Application in Soil Improvement

Authors: Wei-Soon Ng, Min-Lee Lee, Siew-Ling Hii

Abstract:

Microbial-induced calcite precipitation (MICP) is a relatively green and sustainable soil improvement technique. It utilizes biochemical process that exists naturally in soil to improve engineering properties of soils. The calcite precipitation process is uplifted by the mean of injecting higher concentration of urease positive bacteria and reagents into the soil. The main objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the factors affecting the MICP in soil. Several factors were identified including nutrients, bacteria type, geometric compatibility of bacteria, bacteria cell concentration, fixation and distribution of bacteria in soil, temperature, reagents concentration, pH, and injection method. These factors were found to be essential for promoting successful MICP soil treatment. Furthermore, a preliminary laboratory test was carried out to investigate the potential application of the technique in improving the shear strength and impermeability of a residual soil specimen. The results showed that both shear strength and impermeability of residual soil improved significantly upon MICP treatment. The improvement increased with increasing soil density.

Keywords: Bacteria, biocementation, bioclogging, calcite precipitation, soil improvement.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4960
43 Structure and Magnetic Properties of Nanocomposite Fe2O3/TiO2 Catalysts Fabricated by Heterogeneous Precipitation

Authors: Jana P. Vejpravova, Daniel Niznansky, Vaclav Vales, Barbara Bittova, Vaclav Tyrpekl, Stanislav Danis, Vaclav Holy, Stephen Doyle

Abstract:

The aim of our work is to study phase composition, particle size and magnetic response of Fe2O3/TiO2 nanocomposites with respect to the final annealing temperature. Those nanomaterials are considered as smart catalysts, separable from a liquid/gaseous phase by applied magnetic field. The starting product was obtained by an ecologically acceptable route, based on heterogeneous precipitation of the TiO2 on modified g-Fe2O3 nanocrystals dispersed in water. The precursor was subsequently annealed on air at temperatures ranging from 200 oC to 900 oC. The samples were investigated by synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction (S-PXRD), magnetic measurements and Mössbauer spectroscopy. As evidenced by S-PXRD and Mössbauer spectroscopy, increasing the annealing temperature causes evolution of the phase composition from anatase/maghemite to rutile/hematite, finally above 700 oC the pseudobrookite (Fe2TiO5) also forms. The apparent particle size of the various Fe2O3/TiO2 phases has been determined from the highquality S-PXRD data by using two different approaches: the Rietveld refinement and the Debye method. Magnetic response of the samples is discussed in considering the phase composition and the particle size.

Keywords: X-ray diffraction, profile analysis, Mössbauer spectroscopy, magnetic properties, TiO2, Fe2O3, Fe2TiO5

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1733
42 Removal of Iron from Groundwater by Sulfide Precipitation

Authors: H. Jusoh, N. Sapari, R.Z. Raja Azie

Abstract:

Iron in groundwater is one of the problems that render the water unsuitable for drinking. The concentration above 0.3 mg/L is common in groundwater. The conventional method of removal is by precipitation under oxic condition. In this study, iron removal under anaerobic conditions was examined by batch experiment as a main purpose. The process involved by purging of groundwater samples with H2S to form iron sulfide. Removal up to 83% for 1 mg/L iron solution was achieved. The removal efficiency dropped to 82% and 75% for the higher initial iron concentrations 3.55 and 5.01 mg/L, respectively. The average residual sulfide concentration in water after the process was 25*g/L. The Eh level during the process was -272 mV. The removal process was found to follow the first order reaction with average rate constant of 4.52 x 10-3. The half-life for the concentrations to reduce from initial values was 157 minutes.

Keywords: Anaerobic, chemical kinetics, hydrogen sulfide, iron, rate constant

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2280
41 Radar Hydrology: New Z/R Relationships for Klang River Basin Malaysia based on Rainfall Classification

Authors: R. Suzana, T. Wardah, A.B. Sahol Hamid

Abstract:

The use of radar in Quantitative Precipitation Estimation (QPE) for radar-rainfall measurement is significantly beneficial. Radar has advantages in terms of high spatial and temporal condition in rainfall measurement and also forecasting. In Malaysia, radar application in QPE is still new and needs to be explored. This paper focuses on the Z/R derivation works of radarrainfall estimation based on rainfall classification. The works developed new Z/R relationships for Klang River Basin in Selangor area for three different general classes of rain events, namely low (<10mm/hr), moderate (>10mm/hr, <30mm/hr) and heavy (>30mm/hr) and also on more specific rain types during monsoon seasons. Looking at the high potential of Doppler radar in QPE, the newly formulated Z/R equations will be useful in improving the measurement of rainfall for any hydrological application, especially for flood forecasting.

Keywords: Radar, Quantitative Precipitation Estimation, Z/R development, flood forecasting

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1787
40 Formation of Nanosize Phases under Thermomechanical Strengthening of Low Carbon Steel

Authors: Victor E. Gromov, Yurii F. Ivanov, Vadim B. Kosterev, Sergey V. Konovalov, Veronica I. Myasnikova, Guoyi Tang

Abstract:

A study of the H-beam's nanosize structure phase states after thermomechanical strengthening was carried out by TEM. The following processes were analyzed. 1. The dispersing of the cementite plates by cutting them by moving dislocations. 2. The dissolution of cementite plates and repeated precipitation of the cementite particles on the dislocations, the boundaries, subgrains and grains. 3. The decay of solid solution of carbon in the α-iron after "self-tempering" of martensite. 4. The final transformation of the retained austenite in beinite with α-iron particles and cementite formation. 5. The implementation of the diffusion mechanism of γ ⇒ α transformation.

Keywords: nanosize, phase, steel, strengthening

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1325
39 Quantitative Precipitation Forecast using MM5 and WRF models for Kelantan River Basin

Authors: Wardah, T., Kamil, A.A., Sahol Hamid, A.B., Maisarah, W.W.I

Abstract:

Quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) from atmospheric model as input to hydrological model in an integrated hydro-meteorological flood forecasting system has been operational in many countries worldwide. High-resolution numerical weather prediction (NWP) models with grid cell sizes between 2 and 14 km have great potential in contributing towards reasonably accurate QPF. In this study the potential of two NWP models to forecast precipitation for a flood-prone area in a tropical region is examined. The precipitation forecasts produced from the Fifth Generation Penn State/NCAR Mesoscale (MM5) and Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) models are statistically verified with the observed rain in Kelantan River Basin, Malaysia. The statistical verification indicates that the models have performed quite satisfactorily for low and moderate rainfall but not very satisfactory for heavy rainfall.

Keywords: MM5, Numerical weather prediction (NWP), quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF), WRF

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2527
38 Preparation of ATO Conductive Particles with Narrow Size Distribution

Authors: Yueying Wu, Fengzhu Lv, Yihe Zhang, Zixian Xu

Abstract:

Antimosy-doped tin oxide (ATO) particles were prepared via chemical coprecipitation and reverse emulsion. The size and size distribution of ATO particles were obviously decreased via reverse microemulsion method. At the relatively high yield the ATO particles were nearly spherical in shape, meanwhile the crystalline structure and excellent conductivity were reserved, which could satisfy the requirement as composite fillers, such as dielectric filler of polyimide film.

Keywords: ATO particle, Conductivity, Distribution, Reverse emulsion

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1487
37 Assessing drought Vulnerability of Bulgarian Agriculture through Model Simulations

Authors: Z. Popova, L. S. Pereira, М. Ivanova, P. Alexandrova, K. Doneva, V. Alexandrov, M. Kercheva

Abstract:

This study assesses the vulnerability of Bulgarian agriculture to drought using the WINISAREG model and seasonal standard precipitation index SPI(2) for the period 1951-2004. This model was previously validated for maize on soils of different water holding capacity (TAW) in various locations. Simulations are performed for Plovdiv, Stara Zagora and Sofia. Results relative to Plovdiv show that in soils of large TAW (180 mm m-1) net irrigation requirements (NIRs) range 0-40 mm in wet years and 350-380 mm in dry years. In soils of small TAW (116 mm m-1), NIRs reach 440 mm in the very dry year. NIRs in Sofia are about 80 mm smaller. Rainfed maize is associated with great yield variability (29%91%) were found for seasonal agricultural drought relating the SPI (2) for “July-Aug" with the simulated RYD of rainfed maize while in Stara Zagora and Sofia the relationships are less accurate (R2>71%). When rainfed maize is grown on soils of large TAW economical losses are produced when high peak season SPI (2) < -0.50 in Plovdiv/Stara Zagora and SPI (2) < -0.90 in Sofia. The corresponding NIR thresholds were identified.

Keywords: Drought vulnerability, ISAREG simulation model, South Bulgaria, SPI-index

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1395
36 Analysis of Precipitation and Temperature Trends in Sefid-Roud Basin

Authors: Amir Gandomkar, Tahereh Soltani Gord faramarzi, Parisa Safaripour Chafi, Abdol-Reza Amani

Abstract:

Temperature, humidity and precipitation in an area, are parameters proved influential in the climate of that area, and one should recognize them so that he can determine the climate of that area. Climate changes are of primary importance in climatology, and in recent years, have been of great concern to researchers and even politicians and organizations, for they can play an important role in social, political and economic activities. Even though the real cause of climate changes or their stability is not yet fully recognized, they are a matter of concern to researchers and their importance for countries has prompted them to investigate climate changes in different levels, especially in regional, national and continental level. This issue has less been investigated in our country. However, in recent years, there have been some researches and conferences on climate changes. This study is also in line with such researches and tries to investigate and analyze the trends of climate changes (temperature and precipitation) in Sefid-roud (the name of a river) basin. Three parameters of mean annual precipitation, temperature, and maximum and minimum temperatures in 36 synoptic and climatology stations in a statistical period of 49 years (1956-2005) in the stations of Sefid-roud basin were analyzed by Mann-Kendall test. The results obtained by data analysis show that climate changes are short term and have a trend. The analysis of mean temperature revealed that changes have a significantly rising trend, besides the precipitation has a significantly falling trend.

Keywords: Trend, Climate changes, Sefid-roud, Mann-Kendall

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1385
35 The Response Relation between Climate Change and NDVI over the Qinghai-Tibet plateau

Authors: Shen Weishou, Ji Di, Zhang Hui, Yan Shouguang, Li Haidong, Lin Naifeng

Abstract:

Based on a long-term vegetation index dataset of NDVI and meteorological data from 68 meteorological stations in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau and their relations with major climate factors were analyzed. The results show the following: 1) The linear trends of temperature in the Qinghai-Tibet plateau indicate that the temperature in the plateau generally increased, but it rose faster in the last 20 years. 2) The most significant NDVI increase occurred in the eastern and southern plateau. However, the western and northern plateau demonstrate a decreasing trend. 3) There is a significant positive linear correlation between NDVI and temperature and a negative correlation between NDVI and mean wind speed. However, no significant statistical relationship was found between NDVI and relative humidity, precipitation or sunshine duration.4) The changes in NDVI for the plateau are driven by temperature-precipitation, but for the desert and forest areas, the relation changes to precipitation-temperature-wind velocity and wind velocity-temperature-precipitation.

Keywords: Qinghai-Tibet plateau, NDVI, climate warming.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1818
34 Precipitation Change and its Implication in the Change of Winter Wheat drought and Production in North China Region from 2000 to 2010

Authors: Y. Huang, Q. J. Tian, L. T. Du, J. Liu, S. S. Li

Abstract:

Understanding how precipitation inter-annually changes and its implication in agricultural drought and production change in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth season is critical for crop production in China. MODIS Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI) and daily mean precipitation time series for the main growth season(Feb. to May) of winter wheat from 2000 to 2010 were used to analyze the distribution of trends of precipitation, agricultural drought and winter wheat yield change respectively, and relationships between them in North China region(Huang-huai-hai region, HHH region), China. The results indicated that the trend of precipitation in HHH region past 11 years was increasing, which had induced generally corresponding decreasing trend of agricultural drought and increasing trend of wheat yield, while the trend of drought was spatially diverse. The study could provide a basis for agricultural drought research during winter wheat season in HHH region under the ground of climate change.

Keywords: drought, MODIS, precipitation change, TVDI, winter wheat production

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1286
33 Investigating the Precipitation and Temperature Change Procedure in Zayanderood Watershed

Authors: Amir Gandomkar

Abstract:

Global warming and continental changes have been one of the people's issues in the recent years and its consequences have appeared in the most parts of the earth planet or will appear in the future. Temperature and Precipitation are two main parameters in climatology. Any changes in these two parameters in this region cause widespread changes in the ecosystem and its natural and humanistic structure. One of the important consequences of this procedure is change in surface and underground water resources. Zayanderood watershed basin which is the main central river in Iran has faced water shortage in the recent years and also it has resulted in drought in Gavkhuni swamp and the river itself. Managers and experts in provinces which are the Zayanderood water consumers believe that global warming; raining decrease and continental changes are the main reason of water decrease. By statistical investigation of annual Precipitation and 46 years temperature of internal and external areas of Zayanderood watershed basin's stations and by using Kendal-man method, Precipitation and temperature procedure changes have been analyzed in this basin. According to obtained results, there was not any noticeable decrease or increase procedure in Precipitation and annual temperature in the basin during this period. However, regarding to Precipitation, a noticeable decrease and increase have been observed in small part of western and some parts of eastern and southern basin, respectively. Furthermore, the investigation of annual temperature procedure has shown that a noticeable increase has been observed in some parts of western and eastern basin, and also a noticeable increasing procedure of temperature in the central parts of metropolitan Esfahan can be observed.

Keywords: Zayanderood, Man_Kendal, Climate Change

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1179
32 Effect of Tempering Temperature and Time on the Corrosion Behaviour of 304 and 316 Austenitic Stainless Steels in Oxalic Acid

Authors: Ayo S. Afolabi, Johannes H. Potgieter, Ambali S. Abdulkareem, Nonhlanhla Fungura

Abstract:

The effect of different tempering temperatures and heat treatment times on the corrosion resistance of austenitic stainless steels in oxalic acid was studied in this work using conventional weight loss and electrochemical measurements. Typical 304 and 316 stainless steel samples were tempered at 150oC, 250oC and 350oC after being austenized at 1050oC for 10 minutes. These samples were then immersed in 1.0M oxalic acid and their weight losses were measured at every five days for 30 days. The results show that corrosion of both types of ASS samples increased with an increase in tempering temperature and time and this was due to the precipitation of chromium carbides at the grain boundaries of these metals. Electrochemical results also confirm that the 304 ASS is more susceptible to corrosion than 316 ASS in this medium. This is attributed to the molybdenum in the composition of the latter. The metallographic images of these samples showed non–uniform distribution of precipitated chromium carbides at the grain boundaries of these metals and unevenly distributed carbides and retained austenite phases which cause galvanic effects in the medium.

Keywords: ASS, corrosion, oxalic acid, tempering, temperature, time.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2922
31 Study of Asphaltene Precipitation İnduced Formation Damage During CO2 Injection for a Malaysian Light Oil

Authors: Sima Sh. Alian, Abdul Aziz Omar, Ali F. Alta'ee, Irzie Hani

Abstract:

In this work, the precipitation of asphaltene from a Malaysian light oil reservoir was studies. A series of experiments were designed and carried out to examine the effect of CO2 injection on asphaltene precipitation. Different pressures of injections were used in Dynamic flooding experiment in order to investigate the effect of pressure versus injection pore volume of CO2. These dynamic displacement tests simulate reservoir condition. Results show that by increasing the pore volume of injected gas asphaltene precipitation will increases, also rise in injection pressure causes less precipitation. Sandstone core plug was used to represent reservoir formation during displacement test; therefore it made it possible to study the effect of present of asphaltene on formation. It is found out that the precipitated asphaltene can reduce permeability and porosity which is not favorable during oil production.

Keywords: Asphaltene, asphaltene precipitation, enhanced oil recovery.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3360
30 The Investigation of Green Roof and White Roof Cooling Potential on Single Storey Residential Building in the Malaysian Climate

Authors: Asmat Ismail, Muna Hanim Abdul Samad, Abdul Malek Abdul Rahman

Abstract:

The phenomenon of global warming or climate change has led to many environmental issues including higher atmospheric temperatures, intense precipitation, increased greenhouse gaseous emissions and increased indoor discomfort. Studies have shown that bringing nature to the roof such as constructing green roof and implementing high-reflective roof may give positive impact in mitigating the effects of global warming and in increasing thermal comfort sensation inside buildings. However, no study has been conducted to compare both types of passive roof treatments in Malaysia in order to increase thermal comfort in buildings. Therefore, this study is conducted to investigate the effect of green roof and white painted roof as passive roof treatment in improving indoor comfort of Malaysian homes. This study uses an experimental approach in which the measurements of temperatures are conducted on the case study building. The measurements of outdoor and indoor environments were conducted on the flat roof with two different types of roof treatment that are green roof and white roof. The measurement of existing black bare roof was also conducted to act as a control for this study.

Keywords: global warming, green roof, white painted roof, indoor temperature reduction.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2220
29 Synthesis and Thermoelectric Behavior in Nanoparticles of Doped Co Ferrites

Authors: M. Anis-ur- Rehman, A. Abdullah, Mariam Ansari , Zeb-un-Nisa, M. S. Awan

Abstract:

Samples of CoFe2-xCrxO4 where x varies from 0.0 to 0.5 were prepared by co-precipitation route. These samples were sintered at 750°C for 2 hours. These particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) at room temperature. The FCC spinel structure was confirmed by XRD patterns of the samples. The crystallite sizes of these particles were calculated from the most intense peak by Scherrer formula. The crystallite sizes lie in the range of 37-60 nm. The lattice parameter was found decreasing upon substitution of Cr. DC electrical resistivity was measured as a function of temperature. The room temperature thermoelectric power was measured for the prepared samples. The magnitude of Seebeck coefficient depends on the composition and resistivity of the samples.

Keywords: Ferrites, crystallite size, drift mobility, seebeck coefficient, thermopower.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1712
28 Climate Change Finger Prints in Mountainous Upper Euphrates Basin

Authors: Abdullah Gokhan Yilmaz, Monzur Alam Imteaz, Shirley Gato-Trinidad, Iqbal Hossain

Abstract:

Climate change leading to global warming affects the earth through many different ways such as weather (temperature, precipitation, humidity and the other parameters of weather), snow coverage and ice melting, sea level rise, hydrological cycles, quality of water, agriculture, forests, ecosystems and health. One of the most affected areas by climate change is hydrology and water resources. Regions where majority of runoff consists of snow melt are more sensitive to climate change. The first step of climate change studies is to establish trends of significant climate variables including precipitation, temperature and flow data to detect any potential climate change impacts already happened. Two popular non-parametric trend analysis methods, Mann-Kendal and Spearman-s Rho were applied to Upper Euphrates Basin (Turkey) to detect trends of precipitation, temperatures (maximum, minimum and average) and streamflow.

Keywords: Climate change, precipitation, snow hydrology, trend analysis and Upper Euphrates Basin

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 55171
27 Forecasting of Flash Floods over Wadi Watier –Sinai Peninsula Using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model

Authors: Moustafa S. El-Sammany

Abstract:

Flash floods are considered natural disasters that can cause casualties and demolishing of infra structures. The problem is that flash floods, particularly in arid and semi arid zones, take place in very short time. So, it is important to forecast flash floods earlier to its events with a lead time up to 48 hours to give early warning alert to avoid or minimize disasters. The flash flood took place over Wadi Watier - Sinai Peninsula, in October 24th, 2008, has been simulated, investigated and analyzed using the state of the art regional weather model. The Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model, which is a reliable short term forecasting tool for precipitation events, has been utilized over the study area. The model results have been calibrated with the real data, for the same date and time, of the rainfall measurements recorded at Sorah gauging station. The WRF model forecasted total rainfall of 11.6 mm while the real measured one was 10.8 mm. The calibration shows significant consistency between WRF model and real measurements results.

Keywords: Early warning system, Flash floods forecasting, WadiWatier, WRF model.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1554
26 Fabrication and Characterization of CdS Nanoparticles Annealed by using Different Radiations

Authors: Aneeqa Sabah, Saadat Anwar Siddiqi, Salamat Ali

Abstract:

The systematic manipulations of shapes and sizes of inorganic compounds greatly benefit the various application fields including optics, magnetic, electronics, catalysis and medicine. However shape control has been much more difficult to achieve. Hence exploration of novel method for the preparation of differently shaped nanoparticles is challenging research area. II-VI group of semiconductor cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanostructure with different morphologies (such as, acicular like, mesoporous, spherical shapes) and of crystallite sizes vary from 11 to 16 nm were successfully synthesized by chemical aqueous precipitation of Cd2+ ions with homogeneously released S2- ions from decomposition of cadmium sulphate (CdSO4) and thioacetamide (CH3CSNH2) by annealing at different radiations (microwave, ultrasonic and sunlight) with matter and systematic research has been done for various factors affecting the controlled growth rate of CdS nanoparticles. The obtained nanomaterials have been characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravometric (DSC-TGA) analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The result indicates that on increasing the reaction time particle size increases but on increasing the molar ratios grain size decreases.

Keywords: CdS nanoparticles, Morphology, Oxidation, Radiations

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2575
25 A Study of the Variables in the Optimisation of a Platinum Precipitation Process

Authors: Tebogo Phetla, Edison Muzenda, M Belaid

Abstract:

This study investigated possible ways to improve the efficiency of the platinum precipitation process using ammonium chloride by reducing the platinum content reporting to the effluent. The ore treated consist of five platinum group metals namely, ruthenium, rhodium, iridium, platinum, palladium and a precious metal gold. Gold, ruthenium, rhodium and iridium were extracted prior the platinum precipitation process. Temperature, reducing agent, flow rate and potential difference were the variables controlled to determine the operation conditions for optimum platinum precipitation efficiency. Hydrogen peroxide was added as the oxidizing agent at the temperature of 85-90oC and potential difference of 700-850mV was the variable used to check the oxidizing state of platinum. The platinum was further purified at temperature between 60-65oC, potential difference above 700 mV, ammonium chloride of 200 l, and at these conditions the platinum content reporting to the effluent was reduced to less than 300ppm, resulting in optimum platinum precipitation efficiency and purity of 99.9%.

Keywords: Platinum Group Metals (PGM), Potential difference, Precipitation, Redox reactions.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 4420
24 Sulphur-Mediated Precipitation of Pt/Fe/Co/CrIons in Liquid-Liquid and Gas-Liquid Chloride Systems

Authors: J. Siame, H. Kasaini

Abstract:

The proof of concept experiments were conducted to determine the feasibility of using small amounts of Dissolved Sulphur (DS) from the gaseous phase to precipitate platinum ions in chloride media. Two sets of precipitation experiments were performed in which the source of sulphur atoms was either a thiosulphate solution (Na2S2O3) or a sulphur dioxide gas (SO2). In liquid-liquid (L-L) system, complete precipitation of Pt was achieved at small dosages of Na2S2O3 (0.01 – 1.0 M) in a time interval of 3-5 minutes. On the basis of this result, gas absorption tests were carried out mainly to achieve sulphur solubility equivalent to 0.018 M. The idea that huge amounts of precious metals could be recovered selectively from their dilute solutions by utilizing the waste SO2 streams at low pressure seemed attractive from the economic and environmental point of views. Therefore, mass transfer characteristics of SO2 gas associated with reactive absorption across the gas-liquid (G-L) interface were evaluated under different conditions of pressure (0.5 – 2 bar), solution temperature ranges from 20 – 50 oC and acid strength (1 – 4 M, HCl). This paper concludes with information about selective precipitation of Pt in the presence of cations (Fe2+, Co2+, and Cr3+) in a CSTR and recommendation to scale up laboratory data to industrial pilot scale operations.

Keywords: CSTR, diffusivity, platinum, selective precipitation, sulphur dioxide, thiosulphate.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1787
23 Water and Soil Environment Pollution Reduction by Filter Strips

Authors: Roy R. Gu, Mahesh Sahu, Xianggui Zhao

Abstract:

Contour filter strips planted with perennial vegetation can be used to improve surface and ground water quality by reducing pollutant, such as NO3-N, and sediment outflow from cropland to a river or lake. Meanwhile, the filter strips of perennial grass with biofuel potentials also have economic benefits of producing ethanol. In this study, The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was applied to the Walnut Creek Watershed to examine the effectiveness of contour strips in reducing NO3-N outflows from crop fields to the river or lake. Required input data include watershed topography, slope, soil type, land-use, management practices in the watershed and climate parameters (precipitation, maximum/minimum air temperature, solar radiation, wind speed and relative humidity). Numerical experiments were conducted to identify potential subbasins in the watershed that have high water quality impact, and to examine the effects of strip size and location on NO3-N reduction in the subbasins under various meteorological conditions (dry, average and wet). Variable sizes of contour strips (10%, 20%, 30% and 50%, respectively, of a subbasin area) planted with perennial switchgrass were selected for simulating the effects of strip size and location on stream water quality. Simulation results showed that a filter strip having 10%-50% of the subbasin area could lead to 55%- 90% NO3-N reduction in the subbasin during an average rainfall year. Strips occupying 10-20% of the subbasin area were found to be more efficient in reducing NO3-N when placed along the contour than that when placed along the river. The results of this study can assist in cost-benefit analysis and decision-making in best water resources management practices for environmental protection.

Keywords: modeling, SWAT, water quality, NO3-N, watershed.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1389
22 Synthesis and Characterization of Silver/Polylactide Nanocomposites

Authors: Kamyar Shameli, Mansor Bin Ahmad, Wan Md Zin Wan Yunus, Nor Azowa Ibrahim, Maryam Jokar, Majid Darroudi

Abstract:

Silver/polylactide nanocomposites (Ag/PLA-NCs) were synthesized via chemical reduction method in diphase solvent. Silver nitrate and sodium borohydride were used as a silver precursor and reducing agent in the polylactide (PLA). The properties of Ag/PLA-NCs were studied as a function of the weight percentages of silver nanoparticles (8, 16 and 32 wt% of Ag-NPs) relative to the weight of PLA. The Ag/PLA-NCs were characterized by Xray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electro-optical microscopy (EOM), UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). XRD patterns confirmed that Ag-NPs crystallographic planes were face centered cubic (fcc) type. TEM images showed that mean diameters of Ag-NPs were 3.30, 3.80 and 4.80 nm. Electro-optical microscopy revealed excellent dispersion and interaction between Ag-NPs and PLA films. The generation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed from the UVvisible spectra. FT-IR spectra showed that there were no significant differences between PLA and Ag/PLA-NCs films. The synthesized Ag/PLA-NCs were stable in organic solution over a long period of time without sign of precipitation.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, Polylactide, Silver Nanoparticles, Sodium Borohydride, Transmission Electron Microscopy.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3144
21 Study the Effect of Ultrasonic Irradiation and Surfactant/Fe ions Weight Ratio on Morphology and Particle Size of Magnetite Nanoparticles Synthesised by co-precipitation for Medical Application

Authors: S.Saloomeh Azimipour Meibod, Peyman Pourafshary, Hamid Reza Madaah Hosseini

Abstract:

A biocompatible ferrofluid have been prepared by coprecipitation of FeCl2.4H2O and FeCl3.6H2O under ultrasonic irradiation and with NaOH as alkaline agent. Cystein was also used as capping agent in the solution. Magnetic properties of the produced ferrofluid were then determined by VSM test and magnetite nanoparticles were characterized by XRD and TEM techniques. The effect of surfactant to Fe ion weight ratio was also studied during this project by using two different amount of Dextran. Results showed the presence of a biocompatible superparamagnetic ferrofluid including magnetite nanoparticles with particle size ranging under 20 nm. The increase in the surfactant content results in the narrowing of the size distribution and reduction of the particle size and more solution stability.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, Ferrofluid, Nanoparticle, Sizedistribution, Ultrasonic irradiation

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1465
20 Examination of Flood Runoff Reproductivity for Different Rainfall Sources in Central Vietnam

Authors: Do Hoai Nam, Keiko Udo, Akira Mano

Abstract:

This paper presents the combination of different precipitation data sets and the distributed hydrological model, in order to examine the flood runoff reproductivity of scattered observation catchments. The precipitation data sets were obtained from observation using rain-gages, satellite based estimate (TRMM), and numerical weather prediction model (NWP), then were coupled with the super tank model. The case study was conducted in three basins (small, medium, and large size) located in Central Vietnam. Calculated hydrographs based on ground observation rainfall showed best fit to measured stream flow, while those obtained from TRMM and NWP showed high uncertainty of peak discharges. However, calculated hydrographs using the adjusted rainfield depicted a promising alternative for the application of TRMM and NWP in flood modeling for scattered observation catchments, especially for the extension of forecast lead time.

Keywords: Flood forecast, rainfall-runoff model, satellite rainfall estimate, numerical weather prediction, quantitative precipitation forecasting.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1265