Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1063

Search results for: particle displacement

1063 Effect of Cyclotron Resonance Frequencies in Particles Due to AC and DC Electromagnetic Fields

Authors: Malka N. Halgamuge, Chathurika D. Abeyratne, Priyan Mendis

Abstract:

A fundamental model consisting of charged particles moving in free space exposed to alternating and direct current (ACDC) electromagnetic fields is analyzed. Effects of charged particles initial position and initial velocity to cyclotron resonance frequency are observed. Strong effects are observed revealing that effects of electric and magnetic fields on a charged particle in free space varies with the initial conditions. This indicates the frequency where maximum displacement occur can be changed. At this frequency the amplitude of oscillation of the particle displacement becomes unbounded.

Keywords: Cyclotron resonance, electromagnetic fields, particle displacement

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1062 A New Particle Filter Inspired by Biological Evolution: Genetic Filter

Authors: S. Park, J. Hwang, K. Rou, E. Kim

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider a new particle filter inspired by biological evolution. In the standard particle filter, a resampling scheme is used to decrease the degeneracy phenomenon and improve estimation performance. Unfortunately, however, it could cause the undesired the particle deprivation problem, as well. In order to overcome this problem of the particle filter, we propose a novel filtering method called the genetic filter. In the proposed filter, we embed the genetic algorithm into the particle filter and overcome the problems of the standard particle filter. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated by computer simulation.

Keywords: Particle filter, genetic algorithm, evolutionary algorithm.

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1061 NewPerceptual Organization within Temporal Displacement

Authors: Michele Sinico

Abstract:

The psychological present has an actual extension. When a sequence of instantaneous stimuli falls in this short interval of time, observers perceive a compresence of events in succession and the temporal order depends on the qualitative relationships between the perceptual properties of the events. Two experiments were carried out to study the influence of perceptual grouping, with and without temporal displacement, on the duration of auditory sequences. The psychophysical method of adjustment was adopted. The first experiment investigated the effect of temporal displacement of a white noise on sequence duration. The second experiment investigated the effect of temporal displacement, along the pitch dimension, on temporal shortening of sequence. The results suggest that the temporal order of sounds, in the case of temporal displacement, is organized along the pitch dimension.

Keywords: Time perception, perceptual present, temporal displacement, gestalt laws of perceptual organization

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1060 Particle Concentration Distribution under Idling Conditions in a Residential Underground Garage

Authors: Yu Zhao, Shinsuke Kato, Jianing Zhao

Abstract:

Particles exhausted from cars have adverse impacts on human health. The study developed a three-dimensional particle dispersion numerical model including particle coagulation to simulate the particle concentration distribution under idling conditions in a residential underground garage. The simulation results demonstrate that particle disperses much faster in the vertical direction than that in horizontal direction. The enhancement of particle dispersion in the vertical direction due to the increase of cars with engine running is much stronger than that in the car exhaust direction. Particle dispersion from each pair of adjacent cars has little influence on each other in the study. Average particle concentration after 120 seconds exhaust is 1.8-4.5 times higher than the initial total particles at ambient environment. Particle pollution in the residential underground garage is severe.

Keywords: Dispersion, Idling conditions, Particle concentration, Residential underground garage.

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1059 Development of a Fiber based Interferometric Sensor for Non-contact Displacement Measurement

Authors: S. Pullteap

Abstract:

In this paper, a fiber based Fabry-Perot interferometer is proposed and demonstrated for a non-contact displacement measurement. A piece of micro-prism which attached to the mechanical vibrator is served as the target reflector. Interference signal is generated from the superposition between the sensing beam and the reference beam within the sensing arm of the fiber sensor. This signal is then converted to the displacement value by using a developed program written in visual Cµ programming with a resolution of λ/8. A classical function generator is operated for controlling the vibrator. By fixing an excitation frequency of 100 Hz and varying the excitation amplitude range of 0.1 – 3 Volts, the output displacements measured by the fiber sensor are obtained from 1.55 μm to 30.225 μm. A reference displacement sensor with a sensitivity of ~0.4 μm is also employed for comparing the displacement errors between both sensors. We found that over the entire displacement range, a maximum and average measurement error are obtained of 0.977% and 0.44% respectively.

Keywords: Non-contact displacement measurement, extrinsicfiber based Fabry-Perot interferometer, interference signal, zerocrossingfringe counting technique.

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1058 Determining the Maximum Lateral Displacement Due to Sever Earthquakes without Using Nonlinear Analysis

Authors: Mussa Mahmoudi

Abstract:

For Seismic design, it is important to estimate, maximum lateral displacement (inelastic displacement) of the structures due to sever earthquakes for several reasons. Seismic design provisions estimate the maximum roof and storey drifts occurring in major earthquakes by amplifying the drifts of the structures obtained by elastic analysis subjected to seismic design load, with a coefficient named “displacement amplification factor" which is greater than one. Here, this coefficient depends on various parameters, such as ductility and overstrength factors. The present research aims to evaluate the value of the displacement amplification factor in seismic design codes and then tries to propose a value to estimate the maximum lateral structural displacement from sever earthquakes, without using non-linear analysis. In seismic codes, since the displacement amplification is related to “force reduction factor" hence; this aspect has been accepted in the current study. Meanwhile, two methodologies are applied to evaluate the value of displacement amplification factor and its relation with the force reduction factor. In the first methodology, which is applied for all structures, the ratio of displacement amplification and force reduction factors is determined directly. Whereas, in the second methodology that is applicable just for R/C moment resisting frame, the ratio is obtained by calculating both factors, separately. The acquired results of these methodologies are alike and estimate the ratio of two factors from 1 to 1.2. The results indicate that the ratio of the displacement amplification factor and the force reduction factor differs to those proposed by seismic provisions such as NEHRP, IBC and Iranian seismic code (standard no. 2800).

Keywords: Displacement amplification factor, Ductility factor, Force reduction factor, Maximum lateral displacement.

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1057 Finite Element Analysis for Damped Vibration Properties of Panels Laminated Porous Media

Authors: Y. Kurosawa, T. Yamaguchi

Abstract:

A numerical method is proposed to calculate damping properties for sound-proof structures involving elastic body, viscoelastic body, and porous media. For elastic and viscoelastic body displacement is modeled using conventional finite elements including complex modulus of elasticity. Both effective density and bulk modulus have complex quantities to represent damped sound fields in the porous media. Particle displacement in the porous media is discretised using finite element method. Displacement vectors as common unknown variables are solved under coupled condition between elastic body, viscoelastic body and porous media. Further, explicit expressions of modal loss factor for the mixed structures are derived using asymptotic method. Eigenvalue analysis and frequency responded were calculated for automotive test panel laminated viscoelastic and porous structures using this technique, the results almost agreed with the experimental results.

Keywords: Damping, Porous Media, Finite Element Method, Computer Aided Engineering.

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1056 A Fiber Optic Interferometric Sensor for Dynamic Measurement

Authors: N. Sathitanon, S. Pullteap

Abstract:

An optical fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (FFPI) is proposed and demonstrated for dynamic measurements in a mechanical vibrating target. A polishing metal with a low reflectance value adhered to a mechanical vibrator was excited via a function generator at various excitation frequencies. Output interference fringes were generated by modulating the reference and sensing signal at the output arm. A fringe-counting technique was used for interpreting the displacement information on the dedicated computer. The fiber interferometer has been found the capability of the displacement measurements of 1.28 μm – 96.01 μm. A commercial displacement sensor was employed as a reference sensor for investigating the measurement errors from the fiber sensor. A maximum percentage measurement error of approximately 1.59 % was obtained.

Keywords: Optical fiber sensors, dynamic displacement, fringe counting, reference displacement sensor.

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1055 Absorption Center of Photophoresis with in Micro-Sized and Spheroidal Particles in a Gaseous Medium

Authors: Wen-Ken Li, Pei-Yuan Tzeng, Chyi-Yeou Soong, Chung-Ho Liu

Abstract:

The present study is concerned with the absorption center of photophoresis within a micro-sized and spheroidal particle in a gaseous medium. A particle subjected to an intense light beam can absorb electromagnetic energy within the particle unevenly, which results in photophoretic force to drive the particle in motion. By evaluating the energy distribution systematically at various conditions, the study focuses on the effects of governing parameters, such as particle aspect ratio, size parameter, refractivity, and absorptivity, on the heat source function within the particle and their potential influences to the photophoresis.

Keywords: photophoresis, spheroidal particle, aspect ratio, refractivity, absorptivity, heat source function

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1054 Displacement Fields in Footing-Sand Interactions under Cyclic Loading

Authors: S. Joseph Antony, Z. K. Jahanger

Abstract:

Soils are subjected to cyclic loading in situ in situations such as during earthquakes and in the compaction of pavements. Investigations on the local scale measurement of the displacements of the grain and failure patterns within the soil bed under the cyclic loading conditions are rather limited. In this paper, using the digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV), local scale displacement fields of a dense sand medium interacting with a rigid footing are measured under the plane-strain condition for two commonly used types of cyclic loading, and the quasi-static loading condition for the purposes of comparison. From the displacement measurements of the grains, the failure envelopes of the sand media are also presented. The results show that, the ultimate cyclic bearing capacity (qultcyc) occurred corresponding to a relatively higher settlement value when compared with that of under the quasi-static loading. For the sand media under the cyclic loading conditions considered here, the displacement fields in the soil media occurred more widely in the horizontal direction and less deeper along the vertical direction when compared with that of under the quasi-static loading. The 'dead zone' in the sand grains beneath the footing is identified for all types of the loading conditions studied here. These grain-scale characteristics have implications on the resulting bulk bearing capacity of the sand media in footing-sand interaction problems.

Keywords: Cyclic loading, DPIV, settlement, soil-structure interactions, strip footing.

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1053 Cold Model Experimental Research on Particle Velocity Distribution in Gas-Solid Circulating Fluidized Bed for Methanol-to-Olefins Process

Authors: Yongzheng Li, Hongfang Ma, Qiwen Sun, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

Radial profiles of particle velocities were investigated in a 6.1m high methanol-to-olefins cold model experimental device using a TSI laser Doppler velocimeter. The effect of axial height on flow development was not obvious in fully developed region under the same operating condition. Superficial gas velocity and solid circulating rate had significant influence on particle velocity in the center region of the riser. Besides, comparisons among rising, descending and average particle velocity were conducted. The particle average velocity was similar to the rising particle velocity and higher than the descending particle velocity in radial locations except the wall region of riser.

Keywords: Circulating fluidized bed, laser doppler velocimeter, particle velocity, radial profile.

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1052 A Study of the Change of Damping Coefficient Regarding Minimum Displacement

Authors: Tawiwat V., Narongkorn D., Auttapoom L.

Abstract:

This research proposes the change of damping coefficient regarding minimum displacement. From the mass with external forced and damper problem, when is the constant external forced transmitted to the understructure in the difference angle between 30 and 60 degrees. This force generates the vibration as general known; however, the objective of this problem is to have minimum displacement. As the angle is changed and the goal is the same; therefore, the damper of the system must be varied while keeping constant spring stiffness. The problem is solved by using nonlinear programming and the suitable changing of the damping coefficient is provided.

Keywords: Damping coefficient, Optimal control, Minimum Displacement and Vibration

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1051 Particle Swarm Optimization with Reduction for Global Optimization Problems

Authors: Michiharu Maeda, Shinya Tsuda

Abstract:

This paper presents an algorithm of particle swarm optimization with reduction for global optimization problems. Particle swarm optimization is an algorithm which refers to the collective motion such as birds or fishes, and a multi-point search algorithm which finds a best solution using multiple particles. Particle swarm optimization is so flexible that it can adapt to a number of optimization problems. When an objective function has a lot of local minimums complicatedly, the particle may fall into a local minimum. For avoiding the local minimum, a number of particles are initially prepared and their positions are updated by particle swarm optimization. Particles sequentially reduce to reach a predetermined number of them grounded in evaluation value and particle swarm optimization continues until the termination condition is met. In order to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, we examine the minimum by using test functions compared to existing algorithms. Furthermore the influence of best value on the initial number of particles for our algorithm is discussed.

Keywords: Particle swarm optimization, Global optimization, Metaheuristics, Reduction.

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1050 Self Organizing Analysis Platform for Wear Particle

Authors: Qurban A. Memon, Mohammad S. Laghari

Abstract:

Integration of system process information obtained through an image processing system with an evolving knowledge database to improve the accuracy and predictability of wear particle analysis is the main focus of the paper. The objective is to automate intelligently the analysis process of wear particle using classification via self organizing maps. This is achieved using relationship measurements among corresponding attributes of various measurements for wear particle. Finally, visualization technique is proposed that helps the viewer in understanding and utilizing these relationships that enable accurate diagnostics.

Keywords: Neural Network, Relationship Measurement, Selforganizing Clusters, Wear Particle Analysis.

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1049 Simulation of Particle Damping under Centrifugal Loads

Authors: Riaz A. Bhatti, Wang Yanrong

Abstract:

Particle damping is a technique to reduce the structural vibrations by means of placing small metallic particles inside a cavity that is attached to the structure at location of high vibration amplitudes. In this paper, we have presented an analytical model to simulate the particle damping of two dimensional transient vibrations in structure operating under high centrifugal loads. The simulation results show that this technique remains effective as long as the ratio of the dynamic acceleration of the structure to the applied centrifugal load is more than 0.1. Particle damping increases with the increase of particle to structure mass ratio. However, unlike to the case of particle damping in the absence of centrifugal loads where the damping efficiency strongly depends upon the size of the cavity, here this dependence becomes very weak. Despite the simplicity of the model, the simulation results are considerably in good agreement with the very scarce experimental data available in the literature for particle damping under centrifugal loads.

Keywords: Impact damping, particle damping, vibration control, vibration suppression.

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1048 An Empirical Formula for Seismic Test of Telecommunication Equipments

Authors: Young Hoon Lee, Bong Jin Kang, Won Ho Kang

Abstract:

Antiseismic property of telecommunication equipment is very important for the grasp of the damage and the restoration after earthquake. Telecommunication business operators are regulating seismic standard for their equipments. These standards are organized to simulate the real seismic situations and usually define the minimum value of first natural frequency of the equipments or the allowable maximum displacement of top of the equipments relative to bottom. Using the finite element analysis, natural frequency can be obtained with high accuracy but the relative displacement of top of the equipments is difficult to predict accurately using the analysis. Furthermore, in the case of simulating the equipments with access floor, predicting the relative displacement of top of the equipments become more difficult. In this study, using enormous experimental datum, an empirical formula is suggested to forecast the relative displacement of top of the equipments. Also it can be known that which physical quantities are related with the relative displacement.

Keywords: Empirical formula, First natural frequency, Seismic test, Telecommunication equipments.

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1047 Dependence of Particle Initiated PD Characteristics on Size and Position of Metallic Particle Adhering to the Spacer Surface in GIS

Authors: F. N. Budiman, Y. Khan, A. A. Khan, A. Beroual, N. H. Malik, A. A. Al-Arainy

Abstract:

It is well known that metallic particles reduce the reliability of Gas-Insulated Substation (GIS) equipments by initiating partial discharge (PDs) that can lead to breakdown and complete failure of GIS. This paper investigates the characteristics of PDs caused by metallic particle adhering to the solid spacer. The PD detection and measurement were carried out by using IEC 60270 method with particles of different sizes and at different positions on the spacer surface. The results show that a particle of certain size at certain position possesses a unique PD characteristic as compared to those caused by particles of different sizes and/or at different positions. Therefore PD characteristics may be useful for the particle size and position identification.

Keywords: Particle, partial discharge, GIS, spacer.

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1046 Effect of Particle Gravity on the Fractal Dimension of Particle Line in three-dimensional Turbulent Flows using Kinematic Simulation

Authors: A. Abou El-Azm Aly, F. Nicolleau, T. M. Michelitsch, A. F. Nowakowski

Abstract:

In this study, the dispersion of heavy particles line in an isotropic and incompressible three-dimensional turbulent flow has been studied using the Kinematic Simulation techniques to find out the evolution of the line fractal dimension. The fractal dimension of the line is found in the case of different particle gravity (in practice, different values of particle drift velocity) in the presence of small particle inertia with a comparison with that obtained in the diffusion case of material line at the same Reynolds number. It can be concluded for the dispersion of heavy particles line in turbulent flow that the particle gravity affect the fractal dimension of the line for different particle gravity velocities in the range 0.2 < W < 2. With the increase of the particle drift velocity, the fractal dimension of the line decreases which may be explained as the particles pass many scales in their journey in the direction of the gravity and the particles trajectories do not affect by these scales at high particle drift velocities.

Keywords: Heavy particles, two-phase flow, Kinematic Simulation, Fractal dimension.

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1045 Endothelial-Cell-Mediated Displacement of Extracellular Matrix during Angiogenesis

Authors: Yue Du, Sahan C. B. Herath, Qing-Guo Wang, Harry Asada, Peter C. Y. Chen

Abstract:

Mechanical interaction between endothelial cells (ECs) and the extracellular matrix (or collagen gel) is known to influence the sprouting response of endothelial cells during angiogenesis. This influence is believed to impact on the capability of endothelial cells to sense soluble chemical cues. Quantitative analysis of endothelial-cell-mediated displacement of the collagen gel provides a means to explore this mechanical interaction. Existing analysis in this context is generally limited to 2D settings. In this paper, we investigate the mechanical interaction between endothelial cells and the extracellular matrix in terms of the endothelial-cellmediated displacement of the collagen gel in both 2D and 3D. Digital image correlation and Digital volume correlation are applied on confocal reflectance image stacks to analyze cell-mediated displacement of the gel. The skeleton of the sprout is extracted from phase contrast images and superimposed on the displacement field to further investigate the link between the development of the sprout and the displacement of the gel.

Keywords: Angiogenesis, digital image correlation, digital volume correlation, interaction between ECs and ECM.

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1044 Unified Gas-Kinetic Scheme for Gas-Particle Flow in Shock-Induced Fluidization of Particles Bed

Authors: Zhao Wang, Hong Yan

Abstract:

In this paper, a unified-gas kinetic scheme (UGKS) for the gas-particle flow is constructed. UGKS is a direct modeling method for both continuum and rarefied flow computations. The dynamics of particle and gas are described as rarefied and continuum flow, respectively. Therefore, we use the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) equation for the particle distribution function. For the gas phase, the gas kinetic scheme for Navier-Stokes equation is solved. The momentum transfer between gas and particle is achieved by the acceleration term added to the BGK equation. The new scheme is tested by a 2cm-in-thickness dense bed comprised of glass particles with 1.5mm in diameter, and reasonable agreement is achieved.

Keywords: Gas-particle flow, unified gas-kinetic scheme, momentum transfer, shock-induced fluidization.

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1043 The Effect of Displacement on Indigenous Tribes’ Socio-Culture and Food Practices

Authors: M. Salehuddin Mohd Zahari, N. Mohd Shahril Nik Mohd Nor, H. Abdul Hadi, M. Zulhilmi Suhaimi

Abstract:

This paper reports the empirical investigation on the effect of involuntary displacement of indigenous tribes on their sociocultural and food practices. A descriptive research design using the quantitative approach was applied and individual of indigenous tribes as unit of analysis. Through a self-administered survey among two selected Malaysia indigenous tribes, one hundred fifty questionnaires were successfully collected. With the application of descriptive and inferential statistic some useful insights pertaining to the issue investigated was significantly obtained. Findings revealed that improvement on the socio-culture, economy and knowledge is apparent on the indigenous groups’ resulted from displacement program. Displacement also has a slight impact on indigenous groups’ food practices. These positive indications provide significant implications, not only for the indigenous groups themselves, but also for the responsible authorities.

Keywords: Displacement, indigenous tribes, Socio-culture, Food, Practices.

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1042 Modeling of Cross Flow Classifier with Water Injection

Authors: E. Pikushchak, J. Dueck, L. Minkov

Abstract:

In hydrocyclones, the particle separation efficiency is limited by the suspended fine particles, which are discharged with the coarse product in the underflow. It is well known that injecting water in the conical part of the cyclone reduces the fine particle fraction in the underflow. This paper presents a mathematical model that simulates the water injection in the conical component. The model accounts for the fluid flow and the particle motion. Particle interaction, due to hindered settling caused by increased density and viscosity of the suspension, and fine particle entrainment by settling coarse particles are included in the model. Water injection in the conical part of the hydrocyclone is performed to reduce fine particle discharge in the underflow. The model demonstrates the impact of the injection rate, injection velocity, and injection location on the shape of the partition curve. The simulations are compared with experimental data of a 50-mm cyclone.

Keywords: Classification, fine particle processing, hydrocyclone, water injection.

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1041 Feasibility Investigation of Near Infrared Spectrometry for Particle Size Estimation of Nano Structures

Authors: A. Bagheri Garmarudi, M. Khanmohammadi, N. Khoddami, K. Shabani

Abstract:

Determination of nano particle size is substantial since the nano particle size exerts a significant effect on various properties of nano materials. Accordingly, proposing non-destructive, accurate and rapid techniques for this aim is of high interest. There are some conventional techniques to investigate the morphology and grain size of nano particles such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). Vibrational spectroscopy is utilized to characterize different compounds and applied for evaluation of the average particle size based on relationship between particle size and near infrared spectra [1,4] , but it has never been applied in quantitative morphological analysis of nano materials. So far, the potential application of nearinfrared (NIR) spectroscopy with its ability in rapid analysis of powdered materials with minimal sample preparation, has been suggested for particle size determination of powdered pharmaceuticals. The relationship between particle size and diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra in near infrared region has been applied to introduce a method for estimation of particle size. Back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) as a nonlinear model was applied to estimate average particle size based on near infrared diffuse reflectance spectra. Thirty five different nano TiO2 samples with different particle size were analyzed by DR-FTNIR spectrometry and the obtained data were processed by BP- ANN.

Keywords: near infrared, particle size, chemometrics, neuralnetwork, nano structure.

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1040 An Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Press Force and Weld Line Displacement of Tailor Welded Blanks in Conventional and Rubber Pad Sheet Metal Forming

Authors: Amir Ansari, Ehsan Shahrjerdi, Ehsan Amini

Abstract:

To investigate the behavior of sheet metals during forming tailor welded blanks (TWB) of various thickness made via Co2 Laser welding are under consideration. These blanks are formed used two different forming methods of rubber as well as the conventional punch and die methods. The main research objective is the effects of using a rubber die instead of a solid one the displacement of the weld line and the press force needed for forming. Specimens with thicknesses of 0.5, 0.6, 0.8 and 1mm are subjected to Erichsen two dimensional tests and the resulted force for each case are compared. This is followed by a theoretical and numerical study of press force and weld line displacement. It is concluded that using rubber pad forming (RPF) causes a reduction in weld line displacement and an increase in the press force.

Keywords: Rubber pad forming, Tailor welded blank, Thickness ratio, Weld line displacement.

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1039 Oil Displacement by Water in Hauterivian Sandstone Reservoir of Kashkari Oil Field

Authors: A. J. Nazari, S. Honma

Abstract:

This paper evaluates oil displacement by water in Hauterivian sandstone reservoir of Kashkari oil field in North of Afghanistan. The core samples of this oil field were taken out from well No-21st, and the relative permeability and fractional flow are analyzed. Steady state flow laboratory experiments are performed to empirically obtain the fractional flow curves and relative permeability in different water saturation ratio. The relative permeability represents the simultaneous flow behavior in the reservoir. The fractional flow approach describes the individual phases as fractional of the total flow. The fractional flow curve interprets oil displacement by water, and from the tangent of fractional flow curve can find out the average saturation behind the water front flow saturation. Therefore, relative permeability and fractional flow curves are suitable for describing the displacement of oil by water in a petroleum reservoir. The effects of irreducible water saturation, residual oil saturation on the displaceable amount of oil are investigated through Buckley-Leveret analysis.

Keywords: Fractional flow, oil displacement, relative permeability, simultaneously flow.

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1038 Automated Particle Picking based on Correlation Peak Shape Analysis and Iterative Classification

Authors: Hrabe Thomas, Beck Florian, Nickell Stephan

Abstract:

Cryo-electron microscopy (CEM) in combination with single particle analysis (SPA) is a widely used technique for elucidating structural details of macromolecular assemblies at closeto- atomic resolutions. However, development of automated software for SPA processing is still vital since thousands to millions of individual particle images need to be processed. Here, we present our workflow for automated particle picking. Our approach integrates peak shape analysis to the classical correlation and an iterative approach to separate macromolecules and background by classification. This particle selection workflow furthermore provides a robust means for SPA with little user interaction. Processing simulated and experimental data assesses performance of the presented tools.

Keywords: Cryo-electron Microscopy, Single Particle Analysis, Image Processing.

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1037 Prediction of Soil Hydraulic Conductivity from Particle-Size Distribution

Authors: A.F. Salarashayeri, M. Siosemarde

Abstract:

Hydraulic conductivity is one parameter important for predicting the movement of water and contaminants dissolved in the water through the soil. The hydraulic conductivity is measured on soil samples in the lab and sometimes tests carried out in the field. The hydraulic conductivity has been related to soil particle diameter by a number of investigators. In this study, 25 set of soil samples with sand texture. The results show approximately success in predicting hydraulic conductivity from particle diameters data. The following relationship obtained from multiple linear regressions on data (R2 = 0.52): Where d10, d50 and d60, are the soil particle diameter (mm) that 10%, 50% and 60% of all soil particles are finer (smaller) by weight and Ks, saturated hydraulic conductivity is expressed in m/day. The results of regression analysis showed that d10 play a more significant role with respect to Ks, saturated hydraulic conductivity (m/day), and has been named as the effective parameter in Ks calculation.

Keywords: hydraulic conductivity, particle diameter, particle-size distribution and soil

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1036 Influence of Bra Band Tension and Underwire Angles on Breast Motion

Authors: Cheuk Wing Lee, Kit Lun Yick, Sun Pui Ng, Joanne Yip

Abstract:

Daily activities and exercise may result in large displacements of the breasts, which lead to breast pain and discomfort. Therefore, a proper bra design and fit can help to control excessive breast motion to prevent the over-stretching of the connective tissues. Nevertheless, bra fit problems, such as excessively high tension of the shoulder straps and a tight underband could have substantially negative effects on the wear comfort and health of the wearer. The purpose of this study is to, therefore, examine the effects of bra band tension on breast displacement. Usually, human wear trials are carried out, but there are inconsistencies during testing. Therefore, a soft manikin torso is used to examine breast displacement at walking speeds of 2.30 km/h and 4.08 km/h. The breast displacement itself is determined by using a VICON motion capture system. The 3D geometric changes of the underwire bra band tension and the corresponding control of breast movement are also analyzed by using a 3D handheld scanner along with Rapidform software. The results indicate that an appropriate bra band tension can help to reduce breast displacement and provide a comfortable angle for the underwire. The findings can be used by designers and bra engineers as a reference source to advance bra design and development.

Keywords: Bra band, bra features, breast displacement, underwire angle.

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1035 A Comparative Study between Displacement and Strain Based Formulated Finite Elements Applied to the Analysis of Thin Shell Structures

Authors: Djamal Hamadi, Oussama Temami, Abdallah Zatar, Sifeddine Abderrahmani

Abstract:

The analysis and design of thin shell structures is a topic of interest in a variety of engineering applications. In structural mechanics problems the analyst seeks to determine the distribution of stresses throughout the structure to be designed. It is also necessary to calculate the displacements of certain points of the structure to ensure that specified allowable values are not exceeded. In this paper a comparative study between displacement and strain based finite elements applied to the analysis of some thin shell structures is presented. The results obtained from some examples show the efficiency and the performance of the strain based approach compared to the well known displacement formulation.

Keywords: Displacement formulation, Finite elements, Strain based approach, Shell structures.

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1034 Study on the Particle Removal Efficiency of Multi Inner Stage Cyclone by CFD Simulation

Authors: Sang Won Han, Won Joo Lee, Sang Jun Lee

Abstract:

A new multi inner stage (MIS) cyclone was designed to remove the acidic gas and fine particles produced from electronic industry. To characterize gas flow in MIS cyclone, pressure and velocity distribution were calculated by means of CFD program. Also, the flow locus of fine particles and particle removal efficiency were analyzed by Lagrangian method. When outlet pressure condition was –100mmAq, the efficiency was the best in this study.

Keywords: Cyclone, SiO2 particle, Particle removal efficiency, CFD simulation

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