Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 69

Search results for: p-y curves

69 The Elliptic Curves y2 = x3 - t2x over Fp

Authors: Ahmet Tekcan

Abstract:

Let p be a prime number, Fp be a finite field and t ∈ F*p= Fp- {0}. In this paper we obtain some properties of ellipticcurves Ep,t: y2= y2= x3- t2x over Fp. In the first sectionwe give some notations and preliminaries from elliptic curves. In the second section we consider the rational points (x, y) on Ep,t. Wegive a formula for the number of rational points on Ep,t over Fnp for an integer n ≥ 1. We also give some formulas for the sum of x?andy?coordinates of the points (x, y) on Ep,t. In the third section weconsider the rank of Et: y2= x3- t2x and its 2-isogenous curve Et over Q. We proved that the rank of Etand Etis 2 over Q. In the last section we obtain some formulas for the sums Σt∈F?panp,t for an integer n ≥ 1, where ap,t denote the trace of Frobenius.

Keywords: Elliptic curves over finite fields, rational points onelliptic curves, rank, trace of Frobenius.

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68 Some Characterizations of Isotropic Curves In the Euclidean Space

Authors: Süha Yılmaz, Melih Turgut

Abstract:

The curves, of which the square of the distance between the two points equal to zero, are called minimal or isotropic curves [4]. In this work, first, necessary and sufficient conditions to be a Pseudo Helix, which is a special case of such curves, are presented. Thereafter, it is proven that an isotropic curve-s position vector and pseudo curvature satisfy a vector differential equation of fourth order. Additionally, In view of solution of mentioned equation, position vector of pseudo helices is obtained.

Keywords: Classical Differential Geometry, Euclidean space, Minimal Curves, Isotropic Curves, Pseudo Helix.

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67 The Number of Rational Points on Elliptic Curves y2 = x3 + b2 Over Finite Fields

Authors: Betül Gezer, Hacer Özden, Ahmet Tekcan, Osman Bizim

Abstract:

Let p be a prime number, Fpbe a finite field and let Qpdenote the set of quadratic residues in Fp. In the first section we givesome notations and preliminaries from elliptic curves. In the secondsection, we consider some properties of rational points on ellipticcurves Ep,b: y2= x3+ b2 over Fp, where b ∈ F*p. Recall that theorder of Ep,bover Fpis p + 1 if p ≡ 5(mod 6). We generalize thisresult to any field Fnp for an integer n≥ 2. Further we obtain someresults concerning the sum Σ[x]Ep,b(Fp) and Σ[y]Ep,b(Fp), thesum of x- and y- coordinates of all points (x, y) on Ep,b, and alsothe the sum Σ(x,0)Ep,b(Fp), the sum of points (x, 0) on Ep,b.

Keywords: Elliptic curves over finite fields, rational points on elliptic curves.

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66 New DES based on Elliptic Curves

Authors: Ghada Abdelmouez M., Fathy S. Helail, Abdellatif A. Elkouny

Abstract:

It is known that symmetric encryption algorithms are fast and easy to implement in hardware. Also elliptic curves have proved to be a good choice for building encryption system. Although most of the symmetric systems have been broken, we can create a hybrid system that has the same properties of the symmetric encryption systems and in the same time, it has the strength of elliptic curves in encryption. As DES algorithm is considered the core of all successive symmetric encryption systems, we modified DES using elliptic curves and built a new DES algorithm that is hard to be broken and will be the core for all other symmetric systems.

Keywords: DES, Elliptic Curves, hybrid system, symmetricencryption.

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65 The Number of Rational Points on Elliptic Curves and Circles over Finite Fields

Authors: Betül Gezer, Ahmet Tekcan, Osman Bizim

Abstract:

In elliptic curve theory, number of rational points on elliptic curves and determination of these points is a fairly important problem. Let p be a prime and Fp be a finite field and k ∈ Fp. It is well known that which points the curve y2 = x3 + kx has and the number of rational points of on Fp. Consider the circle family x2 + y2 = r2. It can be interesting to determine common points of these two curve families and to find the number of these common points. In this work we study this problem.

Keywords: Elliptic curves over finite fields, rational points on elliptic curves and circles.

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64 On the Differential Geometry of the Curves in Minkowski Space-Time II

Authors: Süha Yılmaz, Emin Özyılmaz, Melih Turgut

Abstract:

In the first part of this paper [6], a method to determine Frenet apparatus of the space-like curves in Minkowski space-time is presented. In this work, the mentioned method is developed for the time-like curves in Minkowski space-time. Additionally, an example of presented method is illustrated.

Keywords: Frenet Apparatus, Time-like Curves, MinkowskiSpace-time.

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63 Analytical Development of a Failure Limit and Iso-Uplift Curves for Eccentrically Loaded Shallow Foundations

Authors: N. Abbas, S. Lagomarsino, S. Cattari

Abstract:

Examining existing experimental results for shallow rigid foundations subjected to vertical centric load (N), accompanied or not with a bending moment (M), two main non-linear mechanisms governing the cyclic response of the soil-foundation system can be distinguished: foundation uplift and soil yielding. A soil-foundation failure limit, is defined as a domain of resistance in the two dimensional (2D) load space (N, M) inside of which lie all the admissible combinations of loads; these latter correspond to a pure elastic, non-linear elastic or plastic behavior of the soil-foundation system, while the points lying on the failure limit correspond to a combination of loads leading to a failure of the soil-foundation system. In this study, the proposed resistance domain is constructed analytically based on mechanics. Original elastic limit, uplift initiation limit and iso-uplift limits are constructed inside this domain. These limits give a prediction of the mechanisms activated for each combination of loads applied to the foundation. A comparison of the proposed failure limit with experimental tests existing in the literature shows interesting results. Also, the developed uplift initiation limit and iso-uplift curves are confronted with others already proposed in the literature and widely used due to the absence of other alternatives, and remarkable differences are noted, showing evident errors in the past proposals and relevant accuracy for those given in the present work.

Keywords: Foundation uplift, Iso-uplift curves, Resistance domain, Soil yield.

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62 The Use of S Curves in Technology Forecasting and its Application On 3D TV Technology

Authors: Gizem Intepe, Tufan Koc

Abstract:

S-Curves are commonly used in technology forecasting. They show the paths of product performance in relation to time or investment in R&D. It is a useful tool to describe the inflection points and the limit of improvement of a technology. Companies use this information to base their innovation strategies. However inadequate use and some limitations of this technique lead to problems in decision making. In this paper first technology forecasting and its importance for company level strategies will be discussed. Secondly the S-Curve and its place among other forecasting techniques will be introduced. Thirdly its use in technology forecasting will be discussed based on its advantages, disadvantages and limitations. Finally an application of S-curve on 3D TV technology using patent data will also be presented and the results will be discussed.

Keywords: Patent analysis, Technological forecasting. S curves, 3D TV

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61 Finding More Non-Supersingular Elliptic Curves for Pairing-Based Cryptosystems

Authors: Pu Duan, Shi Cui, Choong Wah Chan

Abstract:

Finding suitable non-supersingular elliptic curves for pairing-based cryptosystems becomes an important issue for the modern public-key cryptography after the proposition of id-based encryption scheme and short signature scheme. In previous work different algorithms have been proposed for finding such elliptic curves when embedding degree k ∈ {3, 4, 6} and cofactor h ∈ {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}. In this paper a new method is presented to find more non-supersingular elliptic curves for pairing-based cryptosystems with general embedding degree k and large values of cofactor h. In addition, some effective parameters of these non-supersingular elliptic curves are provided in this paper.

Keywords: Family of group order, kth root of unity, non-supersingular elliptic curves polynomial field.

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60 Classification of the Bachet Elliptic Curves y2 = x3 + a3 in Fp, where p ≡ 1 (mod 6) is Prime

Authors: Nazli Yildiz İkikardes, Gokhan Soydan, Musa Demirci, Ismail Naci Cangul

Abstract:

In this work, we first give in what fields Fp, the cubic root of unity lies in F*p, in Qp and in K*p where Qp and K*p denote the sets of quadratic and non-zero cubic residues modulo p. Then we use these to obtain some results on the classification of the Bachet elliptic curves y2 ≡ x3 +a3 modulo p, for p ≡ 1 (mod 6) is prime.

Keywords: Elliptic curves over finite fields, quadratic residue, cubic residue.

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59 Box Counting Dimension of the Union L of Trinomial Curves When α ≥ 1

Authors: Kaoutar Lamrini Uahabi, Mohamed Atounti

Abstract:

In the present work, we consider one category of curves denoted by L(p, k, r, n). These curves are continuous arcs which are trajectories of roots of the trinomial equation zn = αzk + (1 − α), where z is a complex number, n and k are two integers such that 1 ≤ k ≤ n − 1 and α is a real parameter greater than 1. Denoting by L the union of all trinomial curves L(p, k, r, n) and using the box counting dimension as fractal dimension, we will prove that the dimension of L is equal to 3/2.

Keywords: Feasible angles, fractal dimension, Minkowski sausage, trinomial curves, trinomial equation.

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58 Circular Approximation by Trigonometric Bézier Curves

Authors: Maria Hussin, Malik Zawwar Hussain, Mubashrah Saddiqa

Abstract:

We present a trigonometric scheme to approximate a circular arc with its two end points and two end tangents/unit tangents. A rational cubic trigonometric Bézier curve is constructed whose end control points are defined by the end points of the circular arc. Weight functions and the remaining control points of the cubic trigonometric Bézier curve are estimated by variational approach to reproduce a circular arc. The radius error is calculated and found less than the existing techniques.

Keywords: Control points, rational trigonometric Bézier curves, radius error, shape measure, weight functions.

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57 Entropy based Expeditive Methodology for Rating Curves Assessment

Authors: D. Mirauda, M. Greco, P. Moscarelli

Abstract:

The river flow forecasting represents a crucial point to employ for improving a management policy addressed to the right use of water resources as well as for conjugating prevention and defense actions against environmental degradation. The difficulties occurring during the field activities encourage the development and implementation of operative computation and measuring methods addressed to time reduction for data acquisition and processing maintaining a good level of accuracy. Therefore, the aim of the present work is to test a new entropy based expeditive methodology for the evaluation of the rating curves on three gauged sections with different geometric and morphological characteristics. The methodology requires the choice of only three verticals along the measure section and the sampling of only the maximum velocity. The results underline how in most conditions the rating curves drawn can replace those built with classic methodologies, simplifying thus the procedures of data monitoring and calculation.

Keywords: gauged station, entropic approach, expeditive methodology, rating curves.

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56 Positive Definite Quadratic Forms, Elliptic Curves and Cubic Congruences

Authors: Ahmet Tekcan

Abstract:

Let F(x, y) = ax2 + bxy + cy2 be a positive definite binary quadratic form with discriminant Δ whose base points lie on the line x = -1/m for an integer m ≥ 2, let p be a prime number and let Fp be a finite field. Let EF : y2 = ax3 + bx2 + cx be an elliptic curve over Fp and let CF : ax3 + bx2 + cx ≡ 0(mod p) be the cubic congruence corresponding to F. In this work we consider some properties of positive definite quadratic forms, elliptic curves and cubic congruences.

Keywords: Binary quadratic form, elliptic curves, cubic congruence.

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55 Rational Points on Elliptic Curves 2 3 3y = x + a inF , where p 5(mod 6) is Prime

Authors: Gokhan Soydan, Musa Demirci, Nazli Yildiz Ikikardes, Ismail Naci Cangul

Abstract:

In this work, we consider the rational points on elliptic curves over finite fields Fp where p ≡ 5 (mod 6). We obtain results on the number of points on an elliptic curve y2 ≡ x3 + a3(mod p), where p ≡ 5 (mod 6) is prime. We give some results concerning the sum of the abscissae of these points. A similar case where p ≡ 1 (mod 6) is considered in [5]. The main difference between two cases is that when p ≡ 5 (mod 6), all elements of Fp are cubic residues.

Keywords: Elliptic curves over finite fields, rational points.

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54 Improved of Elliptic Curves Cryptography over a Ring

Authors: A. Chillali, A. Tadmori, M. Ziane

Abstract:

In this article we will study the elliptic curve defined over the ring An and we define the mathematical operations of ECC, which provides a high security and advantage for wireless applications compared to other asymmetric key cryptosystem.

Keywords: Elliptic Curves, Finite Ring, Cryptography.

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53 A Method to Calculate Frenet Apparatus of W-Curves in the Euclidean 6-Space

Authors: Süha Yılmaz, Melih Turgut

Abstract:

These In this work, a regular unit speed curve in six dimensional Euclidean space, whose Frenet curvatures are constant, is considered. Thereafter, a method to calculate Frenet apparatus of this curve is presented.

Keywords: Classical Differential Geometry, Euclidean 6-space, Frenet Apparatus of the curves.

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52 The Number of Rational Points on Elliptic Curves y2 = x3 + a3 on Finite Fields

Authors: Musa Demirci, Nazlı Yıldız İkikardeş, Gökhan Soydan, İsmail Naci Cangül

Abstract:

In this work, we consider the rational points on elliptic curves over finite fields Fp. We give results concerning the number of points Np,a on the elliptic curve y2 ≡ x3 +a3(mod p) according to whether a and x are quadratic residues or non-residues. We use two lemmas to prove the main results first of which gives the list of primes for which -1 is a quadratic residue, and the second is a result from [1]. We get the results in the case where p is a prime congruent to 5 modulo 6, while when p is a prime congruent to 1 modulo 6, there seems to be no regularity for Np,a.

Keywords: Elliptic curves over finite fields, rational points, quadratic residue.

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51 On Frenet-Serret Invariants of Non-Null Curves in Lorentzian Space L5

Authors: Melih Turgut, José Luis López-Bonilla, Süha Yılmaz

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to determine Frenet-Serret invariants of non-null curves in Lorentzian 5-space. First, we define a vector product of four vectors, by this way, we present a method to calculate Frenet-Serret invariants of the non-null curves. Additionally, an algebraic example of presented method is illustrated.

Keywords: Lorentzian 5-space, Frenet-Serret Invariants, Nonnull Curves

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50 Contributions to Differential Geometry of Pseudo Null Curves in Semi-Euclidean Space

Authors: Melih Turgut, Süha Yılmaz

Abstract:

In this paper, first, a characterization of spherical Pseudo null curves in Semi-Euclidean space is given. Then, to investigate position vector of a pseudo null curve, a system of differential equation whose solution gives the components of the position vector of a pseudo null curve on the Frenet axis is established by means of Frenet equations. Additionally, in view of some special solutions of mentioned system, characterizations of some special pseudo null curves are presented.

Keywords: Semi-Euclidean Space, Pseudo Null Curves, Position Vectors.

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49 Elliptic Divisibility Sequences over Finite Fields

Authors: Betül Gezer, Ahmet Tekcan, Osman Bizim

Abstract:

In this work, we study elliptic divisibility sequences over finite fields. Morgan Ward in [14], [15] gave arithmetic theory of elliptic divisibility sequences and formulas for elliptic divisibility sequences with rank two over finite field Fp. We study elliptic divisibility sequences with rank three, four and five over a finite field Fp, where p > 3 is a prime and give general terms of these sequences and then we determine elliptic and singular curves associated with these sequences.

Keywords: Elliptic divisibility sequences, singular elliptic divisibilitysequences, elliptic curves, singular curves.

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48 Regionalization of IDF Curves with L-Moments for Storm Events

Authors: Noratiqah Mohd Ariff, Abdul Aziz Jemain, Mohd Aftar Abu Bakar

Abstract:

The construction of Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves is one of the most common and useful tools in order to design hydraulic structures and to provide a mathematical relationship between rainfall characteristics. IDF curves, especially those in Peninsular Malaysia, are often built using moving windows of rainfalls. However, these windows do not represent the actual rainfall events since the duration of rainfalls is usually prefixed. Hence, instead of using moving windows, this study aims to find regionalized distributions for IDF curves of extreme rainfalls based on storm events. Homogeneity test is performed on annual maximum of storm intensities to identify homogeneous regions of storms in Peninsular Malaysia. The L-moment method is then used to regionalized Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution of these annual maximums and subsequently. IDF curves are constructed using the regional distributions. The differences between the IDF curves obtained and IDF curves found using at-site GEV distributions are observed through the computation of the coefficient of variation of root mean square error, mean percentage difference and the coefficient of determination. The small differences implied that the construction of IDF curves could be simplified by finding a general probability distribution of each region. This will also help in constructing IDF curves for sites with no rainfall station.

Keywords: IDF curves, L-moments, regionalization, storm events.

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47 Arabic Character Recognition Using Regression Curves with the Expectation Maximization Algorithm

Authors: Abdullah A. AlShaher

Abstract:

In this paper, we demonstrate how regression curves can be used to recognize 2D non-rigid handwritten shapes. Each shape is represented by a set of non-overlapping uniformly distributed landmarks. The underlying models utilize 2nd order of polynomials to model shapes within a training set. To estimate the regression models, we need to extract the required coefficients which describe the variations for a set of shape class. Hence, a least square method is used to estimate such modes. We then proceed by training these coefficients using the apparatus Expectation Maximization algorithm. Recognition is carried out by finding the least error landmarks displacement with respect to the model curves. Handwritten isolated Arabic characters are used to evaluate our approach.

Keywords: Shape recognition, Arabic handwritten characters, regression curves, expectation maximization algorithm.

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46 A Study of General Attacks on Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problem over Prime Field and Binary Field

Authors: Tun Myat Aung, Ni Ni Hla

Abstract:

This paper begins by describing basic properties of finite field and elliptic curve cryptography over prime field and binary field. Then we discuss the discrete logarithm problem for elliptic curves and its properties. We study the general common attacks on elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem such as the Baby Step, Giant Step method, Pollard’s rho method and Pohlig-Hellman method, and describe in detail experiments of these attacks over prime field and binary field. The paper finishes by describing expected running time of the attacks and suggesting strong elliptic curves that are not susceptible to these attacks.c

Keywords: Discrete logarithm problem, general attacks, elliptic curves, strong curves, prime field, binary field, attack experiments.

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45 A New Method for Computing the Inverse Ideal in a Coordinate Ring

Authors: Abdolali Basiri

Abstract:

In this paper we present an efficient method for inverting an ideal in the ideal class group of a Cab curve by extending the method which is presented in [3]. More precisely we introduce a useful generator for the inverse ideal as a K[X]-module.

Keywords: Cab Curves, Ideal Class Group

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44 Development of Machinable Ellipses by NURBS Curves

Authors: Yuan L. Lai, Jian H. Chen, Jui P. Hung

Abstract:

Owning to the high-speed feed rate and ultra spindle speed have been used in modern machine tools, the tool-path generation plays a key role in the successful application of a High-Speed Machining (HSM) system. Because of its importance in both high-speed machining and tool-path generation, approximating a contour by NURBS format is a potential function in CAD/CAM/CNC systems. It is much more convenient to represent an ellipse by parametric form than to connect points laboriously determined in a CNC system. A new approximating method based on optimum processes and NURBS curves of any degree to the ellipses is presented in this study. Such operations can be the foundation of tool-radius compensation interpolator of NURBS curves in CNC system. All operating processes for a CAD tool is presented and demonstrated by practical models.

Keywords: Ellipse, Approximation, NURBS, Optimum.

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43 The Control Vector Scheme for Design of Planar Primitive PH curves

Authors: Ching-Shoei Chiang, Sheng-Hsin Tsai, James Chen

Abstract:

The PH curve can be constructed by given parameters, but the shape of the curve is not so easy to image from the value of the parameters. On the contract, Bézier curve can be constructed by the control polygon, and from the control polygon, we can image the figure of the curve. In this paper, we want to use the hodograph of Bézier curve to construct PH curve by selecting part of the control vectors, and produce other control vectors, so the property of PH curve exists.

Keywords: PH curve, hodograph, Bézier curve.

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42 Dynamic Optimization of Industrial Servomechanisms using Motion Laws Based On Bezier Curves

Authors: Giovanni Incerti

Abstract:

The motion planning procedure described in this paper has been developed in order to eliminate or reduce the residual vibrations of electromechanical positioning systems, without augmenting the motion time (usually imposed by production requirements), nor introducing overtime for vibration damping. The proposed technique is based on a suitable choice of the motion law assigned to the servomotor that drives the mechanism. The reference profile is defined by a Bezier curve, whose shape can be easily changed by modifying some numerical parameters. By means of an optimization technique these parameters can be modified without altering the continuity conditions imposed on the displacement and on its time derivatives at the initial and final time instants.

Keywords: Servomechanism, residual vibrations, motion optimization.

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41 Deniable Authentication Protocol Resisting Man-in-the-Middle Attack

Authors: Song Han, Wanquan Liu, Elizabeth Chang

Abstract:

Deniable authentication is a new protocol which not only enables a receiver to identify the source of a received message but also prevents a third party from identifying the source of the message. The proposed protocol in this paper makes use of bilinear pairings over elliptic curves, as well as the Diffie-Hellman key exchange protocol. Besides the security properties shared with previous authentication protocols, the proposed protocol provides the same level of security with smaller public key sizes.

Keywords: Deniable Authentication, Man-in-the-middleAttack, Cryptography, Elliptic Curves.

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40 Simulation of Kinetic Friction in L-Bending of Sheet Metals

Authors: Maziar Ramezani, Thomas Neitzert, Timotius Pasang

Abstract:

This paper aims at experimental and numerical investigation of springback behavior of sheet metals during L-bending process with emphasis on Stribeck-type friction modeling. The coefficient of friction in Stribeck curve depends on sliding velocity and contact pressure. The springback behavior of mild steel and aluminum alloy 6022-T4 sheets was studied experimentally and using numerical simulations with ABAQUS software with two types of friction model: Coulomb friction and Stribeck friction. The influence of forming speed on springback behavior was studied experimentally and numerically. The results showed that Stribeck-type friction model has better results in predicting springback in sheet metal forming. The FE prediction error for mild steel and 6022-T4 AA is 23.8%, 25.5% respectively, using Coulomb friction model and 11%, 13% respectively, using Stribeck friction model. These results show that Stribeck model is suitable for simulation of sheet metal forming especially at higher forming speed.

Keywords: Friction, L-bending, Springback, Stribeck curves.

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