Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4773

Search results for: optimal control

4623 An Optimal Control of Water Pollution in a Stream Using a Finite Difference Method

Authors: Nopparat Pochai, Rujira Deepana

Abstract:

Water pollution assessment problems arise frequently in environmental science. In this research, a finite difference method for solving the one-dimensional steady convection-diffusion equation with variable coefficients is proposed; it is then used to optimize water treatment costs.

Keywords: Finite difference, One-dimensional, Steady state, Waterpollution control, Optimization, Convection-diffusion equation.

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4622 Optimal Energy Management System for Electrical Vehicles to Further Extend the Range

Authors: M. R. Rouhi, S. Shafiei, A. Taghavipour, H. Adibi-Asl, A. Doosthoseini

Abstract:

This research targets at alleviating the problem of range anxiety associated with the battery electric vehicles (BEVs) by considering mechanical and control aspects of the powertrain. In this way, all the energy consuming components and their effect on reducing the range of the BEV and battery life index are identified. On the other hand, an appropriate control strategy is designed to guarantee the performance of the BEV and the extended electric range which is evaluated by an extensive simulation procedure and a real-world driving schedule.

Keywords: Battery, electric vehicles EV, ultra-capacitor.

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4621 PI Controller for Automatic Generation Control Based on Performance Indices

Authors: Kalyan Chatterjee

Abstract:

The optimal design of PI controller for Automatic Generation Control in two area is presented in this paper. The concept of Dual mode control is applied in the PI controller, such that the proportional mode is made active when the rate of change of the error is sufficiently larger than a specified limit otherwise switched to the integral mode. A digital simulation is used in conjunction with the Hooke-Jeeve’s optimization technique to determine the optimum parameters (individual gain of proportional and integral controller) of the PI controller. Integrated Square of the Error (ISE), Integrated Time multiplied by Absolute Error(ITAE) , and Integrated Absolute Error(IAE) performance indices are considered to measure the appropriateness of the designed controller.  The proposed controller are tested for a two area single nonreheat thermal system considering the practical aspect of the problem such as Deadband and Generation Rate Constraint(GRC). Simulation results show that  dual mode with optimized values of the gains improved the control performance than the commonly used Variable Structure .

Keywords: Load Frequency Control, Area Control Error(ACE), Dual Mode PI Controller, Performance Index

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4620 A Case Study of Limited Dynamic Voltage Frequency Scaling in Low-Power Processors

Authors: Hwan Su Jung, Ahn Jun Gil, Jong Tae Kim

Abstract:

Power management techniques are necessary to save power in the microprocessor. By changing the frequency and/or operating voltage of processor, DVFS can control power consumption. In this paper, we perform a case study to find optimal power state transition for DVFS. We propose the equation to find the optimal ratio between executions of states while taking into account the deadline of processing time and the power state transition delay overhead. The experiment is performed on the Cortex-M4 processor, and average 6.5% power saving is observed when DVFS is applied under the deadline condition.

Keywords: Deadline, Dynamic Voltage Frequency Scaling, Power State Transition.

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4619 Control of Grid Connected PMSG-Based Wind Turbine System with Back-To-Back Converter Topology Using Resonant Controller

Authors: Fekkak Bouazza, Menaa Mohamed, Loukriz Abdelhamid, Krim Mohamed L.

Abstract:

This paper presents modeling and control strategy for the grid connected wind turbine system based on Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG). The considered system is based on back-to-back converter topology. The Grid Side Converter (GSC) achieves the DC bus voltage control and unity power factor. The Machine Side Converter (MSC) assures the PMSG speed control. The PMSG is used as a variable speed generator and connected directly to the turbine without gearbox. The pitch angle control is not either considered in this study. Further, Optimal Tip Speed Ratio (OTSR) based MPPT control strategy is used to ensure the most energy efficiency whatever the wind speed variations. A filter (L) is put between the GSC and the grid to reduce current ripple and to improve the injected power quality. The proposed grid connected wind system is built under MATLAB/Simulink environment. The simulation results show the feasibility of the proposed topology and performance of its control strategies.

Keywords: Wind, grid, PMSG, MPPT, OTSR.

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4618 Compliance Modelling and Optimization of Kerf during WEDM of Al7075/SiCP Metal Matrix Composite

Authors: Thella Babu Rao, A. Gopala Krishna

Abstract:

This investigation presents the formulation of kerf (width of slit) and optimal control parameter settings of wire electrochemical discharge machining which results minimum possible kerf while machining Al7075/SiCp MMCs. WEDM is proved its efficiency and effectiveness to cut the hard ceramic reinforced MMCs within the permissible budget. Among the distinct performance measures of WEDM process, kerf is an important performance characteristic which determines the dimensional accuracy of the machined component while producing high precision components. The lack of available of the machinability information such advanced MMCs result the more experimentation in the manufacturing industries. Therefore, extensive experimental investigations are essential to provide the database of effect of various control parameters on the kerf while machining such advanced MMCs in WEDM. Literature reviled the significance some of the electrical parameters which are prominent on kerf for machining distinct conventional materials. However, the significance of reinforced particulate size and volume fraction on kerf is highlighted in this work while machining MMCs along with the machining parameters of pulse-on time, pulse-off time and wire tension. Usually, the dimensional tolerances of machined components are decided at the design stage and a machinist pay attention to produce the required dimensional tolerances by setting appropriate machining control variables. However, it is highly difficult to determine the optimal machining settings for such advanced materials on the shop floor. Therefore, in the view of precision of cut, kerf (cutting width) is considered as the measure of performance for the model. It was found from the literature that, the machining conditions of higher fractions of large size SiCp resulting less kerf where as high values of pulse-on time result in a high kerf. A response surface model is used to predict the relative significance of various control variables on kerf. Consequently, a powerful artificial intelligence called genetic algorithms (GA) is used to determine the best combination of the control variable settings. In the next step the conformation test was conducted for the optimal parameter settings and found good agreement between the GA kerf and measured kerf. Hence, it is clearly reveal that the effectiveness and accuracy of the developed model and program to analyze the kerf and to determine its optimal process parameters. The results obtained in this work states that, the resulted optimized parameters are capable of machining the Al7075/SiCp MMCs more efficiently and with better dimensional accuracy.

Keywords: Al7075SiCP MMC, kerf, WEDM, optimization.

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4617 NSGA Based Optimal Volt / Var Control in Distribution System with Dispersed Generation

Authors: P. N. Hrisheekesha, Jaydev Sharma

Abstract:

In this paper, a method based on Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA) has been presented for the Volt / Var control in power distribution systems with dispersed generation (DG). Genetic algorithm approach is used due to its broad applicability, ease of use and high accuracy. The proposed method is better suited for volt/var control problems. A multi-objective optimization problem has been formulated for the volt/var control of the distribution system. The non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm based method proposed in this paper, alleviates the problem of tuning the weighting factors required in solving the multi-objective volt/var control optimization problems. Based on the simulation studies carried out on the distribution system, the proposed scheme has been found to be simple, accurate and easy to apply to solve the multiobjective volt/var control optimization problem of the distribution system with dispersed generation.

Keywords: Dispersed Generation, Distribution System, Non-Dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm, Voltage / Reactive powercontrol.

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4616 Aerodynamics and Optimization of Airfoil Under Ground Effect

Authors: Kyoungwoo Park, Byeong Sam Kim, Juhee Lee, Kwang Soo Kim

Abstract:

The Prediction of aerodynamic characteristics and shape optimization of airfoil under the ground effect have been carried out by integration of computational fluid dynamics and the multiobjective Pareto-based genetic algorithm. The main flow characteristics around an airfoil of WIG craft are lift force, lift-to-drag ratio and static height stability (H.S). However, they show a strong trade-off phenomenon so that it is not easy to satisfy the design requirements simultaneously. This difficulty can be resolved by the optimal design. The above mentioned three characteristics are chosen as the objective functions and NACA0015 airfoil is considered as a baseline model in the present study. The profile of airfoil is constructed by Bezier curves with fourteen control points and these control points are adopted as the design variables. For multi-objective optimization problems, the optimal solutions are not unique but a set of non-dominated optima and they are called Pareto frontiers or Pareto sets. As the results of optimization, forty numbers of non- dominated Pareto optima can be obtained at thirty evolutions.

Keywords: Aerodynamics, Shape optimization, Airfoil on WIGcraft, Genetic algorithm, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

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4615 Analytical Solutions for Corotational Maxwell Model Fluid Arising in Wire Coating inside a Canonical Die

Authors: Muhammad Sohail Khan, Rehan Ali Shah

Abstract:

The present paper applies the optimal homotopy perturbation method (OHPM) and the optimal homotopy asymptotic method (OHAM) introduced recently to obtain analytic approximations of the non-linear equations modeling the flow of polymer in case of wire coating of a corotational Maxwell fluid. Expression for the velocity field is obtained in non-dimensional form. Comparison of the results obtained by the two methods at different values of non-dimensional parameter l10, reveal that the OHPM is more effective and easy to use. The OHPM solution can be improved even working in the same order of approximation depends on the choices of the auxiliary functions.

Keywords: Wire coating die, Corotational Maxwell model, optimal homotopy asymptotic method, optimal homotopy perturbation method.

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4614 A Model Predictive Control Based Virtual Active Power Filter Using V2G Technology

Authors: Mahdi Zolfaghari, Seyed Hossein Hosseinian, Hossein Askarian Abyaneh, Mehrdad Abedi

Abstract:

This paper presents a virtual active power filter (VAPF) using vehicle to grid (V2G) technology to maintain power quality requirements. The optimal discrete operation of the power converter of electric vehicle (EV) is based on recognizing desired switching states using the model predictive control (MPC) algorithm. A fast dynamic response, lower total harmonic distortion (THD) and good reference tracking performance are realized through the presented control strategy. The simulation results using MATLAB/Simulink validate the effectiveness of the scheme in improving power quality as well as good dynamic response in power transferring capability.

Keywords: Virtual active power filter, V2G technology, model predictive control, electric vehicle, power quality.

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4613 Hidden Markov Model for the Simulation Study of Neural States and Intentionality

Authors: R. B. Mishra

Abstract:

Hidden Markov Model (HMM) has been used in prediction and determination of states that generate different neural activations as well as mental working conditions. This paper addresses two applications of HMM; one to determine the optimal sequence of states for two neural states: Active (AC) and Inactive (IA) for the three emission (observations) which are for No Working (NW), Waiting (WT) and Working (W) conditions of human beings. Another is for the determination of optimal sequence of intentionality i.e. Believe (B), Desire (D), and Intention (I) as the states and three observational sequences: NW, WT and W. The computational results are encouraging and useful.

Keywords: BDI, HMM, neural activation, optimal states, working conditions.

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4612 Kinematic Optimal Design on a New Robotic Platform for Stair Climbing

Authors: Byung Hoon Seo, Hyun Gyu Kim, Tae Won Seo

Abstract:

Stair climbing is one of critical issues for field robots to widen applicable areas. This paper presents optimal design on kinematic parameters of a new robotic platform for stair climbing. The robotic platform climbs various stairs by body flip locomotion with caterpillar type main platform. Kinematic parameters such as platform length, platform height, and caterpillar rotation speed are optimized to maximize stair climbing stability. Three types of stairs are used to simulate typical user conditions. The optimal design process is conducted based on Taguchi methodology, and resulting parameters with optimized objective function are presented. In near future, a prototype is assembled for real environment testing.

Keywords: Stair climbing robot, Optimal design, Taguchi methodology, Caterpillar, Kinematic parameters.

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4611 Numerical Investigation of the Chilling of Food Products by Air-Mist Spray

Authors: Roy J. Issa

Abstract:

Spray chilling using air-mist nozzles has received much attention in the food processing industry because of the benefits it has shown over forced air convection. These benefits include an increase in the heat transfer coefficient and a reduction in the water loss by the product during cooling. However, few studies have simulated the heat transfer and aerodynamics phenomena of the air-mist chilling process for optimal operating conditions. The study provides insight into the optimal conditions for spray impaction, heat transfer efficiency and control of surface flooding. A computational fluid dynamics model using a two-phase flow composed of water droplets injected with air is developed to simulate the air-mist chilling of food products. The model takes into consideration droplet-to-surface interaction, water-film accumulation and surface runoff. The results of this study lead to a better understanding of the heat transfer enhancement, water conservation, and to a clear direction for the optimal design of air-mist chilling systems that can be used in commercial applications in the food and meat processing industries.

Keywords: Droplets impaction efficiency, Droplet size, Heat transfer enhancement factor, Water runoff.

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4610 Optimal DG Placement in Distribution systems Using Cost/Worth Analysis

Authors: M Ahmadigorji, A. Abbaspour, A Rajabi-Ghahnavieh, M. Fotuhi- Firuzabad

Abstract:

DG application has received increasing attention during recent years. The impact of DG on various aspects of distribution system operation, such as reliability and energy loss, depend highly on DG location in distribution feeder. Optimal DG placement is an important subject which has not been fully discussed yet. This paper presents an optimization method to determine optimal DG placement, based on a cost/worth analysis approach. This method considers technical and economical factors such as energy loss, load point reliability indices and DG costs, and particularly, portability of DG. The proposed method is applied to a test system and the impacts of different parameters such as load growth rate and load forecast uncertainty (LFU) on optimum DG location are studied.

Keywords: Distributed generation, optimal placement, cost/worthanalysis, customer interruption cost, Dynamic programming

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4609 A New Approach to the Approximate Solutions of Hamilton-Jacobi Equations

Authors: Joe Imae, Kenjiro Shinagawa, Tomoaki Kobayashi, Guisheng Zhai

Abstract:

We propose a new approach on how to obtain the approximate solutions of Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equations. The process of the approximation consists of two steps. The first step is to transform the HJ equations into the virtual time based HJ equations (VT-HJ) by introducing a new idea of ‘virtual-time’. The second step is to construct the approximate solutions of the HJ equations through a computationally iterative procedure based on the VT-HJ equations. It should be noted that the approximate feedback solutions evolve by themselves as the virtual-time goes by. Finally, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our approximation approach by means of simulations with linear and nonlinear control problems.

Keywords: Nonlinear Control, Optimal Control, Hamilton-Jacobi Equation, Virtual-Time

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4608 Fuzzy Control of Macroeconomic Models

Authors: Andre A. Keller

Abstract:

The optimal control is one of the possible controllers for a dynamic system, having a linear quadratic regulator and using the Pontryagin-s principle or the dynamic programming method . Stochastic disturbances may affect the coefficients (multiplicative disturbances) or the equations (additive disturbances), provided that the shocks are not too great . Nevertheless, this approach encounters difficulties when uncertainties are very important or when the probability calculus is of no help with very imprecise data. The fuzzy logic contributes to a pragmatic solution of such a problem since it operates on fuzzy numbers. A fuzzy controller acts as an artificial decision maker that operates in a closed-loop system in real time. This contribution seeks to explore the tracking problem and control of dynamic macroeconomic models using a fuzzy learning algorithm. A two inputs - single output (TISO) fuzzy model is applied to the linear fluctuation model of Phillips and to the nonlinear growth model of Goodwin.

Keywords: fuzzy control, macroeconomic model, multiplier - accelerator, nonlinear accelerator, stabilization policy.

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4607 Automatic Generation Control of an Interconnected Power System with Capacitive Energy Storage

Authors: Rajesh Joseph Abraham, D. Das, Amit Patra

Abstract:

This paper is concerned with the application of small rating Capacitive Energy Storage units for the improvement of Automatic Generation Control of a multiunit multiarea power system. Generation Rate Constraints are also considered in the investigations. Integral Squared Error technique is used to obtain the optimal integral gain settings by minimizing a quadratic performance index. Simulation studies reveal that with CES units, the deviations in area frequencies and inter-area tie-power are considerably improved in terms of peak deviations and settling time as compared to that obtained without CES units.

Keywords: Automatic Generation Control, Capacitive EnergyStorage, Integral Squared Error.

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4606 An Efficient Approach for Optimal Placement of TCSC in Double Auction Power Market

Authors: Prashant Kumar Tiwari, Yog Raj Sood

Abstract:

This paper proposes an investment cost recovery based efficient and fast sequential optimization approach to optimal allocation of thyristor controlled series compensator (TCSC) in competitive power market. The optimization technique has been used with an objective to maximizing the social welfare and minimizing the device installation cost by suitable location and rating of TCSC in the system. The effectiveness of proposed approach for location of TCSC has been compared with some existing methods of TCSC placement, in terms of its impact on social welfare, TCSC investment recovery and optimal generation as well as load patterns. The results have been obtained on modified IEEE 14-bus system.

Keywords: Double auction market, Investment cost recovery, Optimal location, Social welfare, TCSC

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4605 Intelligent ABS Fuzzy Controller for Diverse RoadSurfaces

Authors: Roozbeh Keshmiri, Alireza Mohamad Shahri

Abstract:

Fuzzy controllers are potential candidates for the control of nonlinear, time variant and also complicated systems. Anti lock brake system (ABS) which is a nonlinear system, may not be easily controlled by classical control methods. An intelligent Fuzzy control method is very useful for this kind of nonlinear system. A typical antilock brake system (ABS) by sensing the wheel lockup, releases the brakes for a short period of time, and then reapplies again the brakes when the wheel spins up. In this paper, an intelligent fuzzy ABS controller is designed to adjust slipping performance for variety of roads. There are tow major sections in the proposing control system. First section consists of tow Fuzzy-Logic Controllers (FLC) providing optimal brake torque for both front and rear wheels. Second section which is also a FLC provides required amount of slip and torque references properties for different kind of roads. Simulation results of our proposed intelligent ABS for three different kinds of road show more reliable and better performance in compare with two other break systems.

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic Control, ABS, Anti lock BrakingSystem.

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4604 Optimal Risk Reduction in the Railway Industry by Using Dynamic Programming

Authors: Michael Todinov, Eberechi Weli

Abstract:

The paper suggests for the first time the use of dynamic programming techniques for optimal risk reduction in the railway industry. It is shown that by using the concept ‘amount of removed risk by a risk reduction option’, the problem related to optimal allocation of a fixed budget to achieve a maximum risk reduction in the railway industry can be reduced to an optimisation problem from dynamic programming. For n risk reduction options and size of the available risk reduction budget B (expressed as integer number), the worst-case running time of the proposed algorithm is O (n x (B+1)), which makes the proposed method a very efficient tool for solving the optimal risk reduction problem in the railway industry. 

Keywords: Optimisation, railway risk reduction, budget constraints, dynamic programming.

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4603 A Distributed Topology Control Algorithm to Conserve Energy in Heterogeneous Wireless Mesh Networks

Authors: F. O. Aron, T. O. Olwal, A. Kurien, M. O. Odhiambo

Abstract:

A considerable amount of energy is consumed during transmission and reception of messages in a wireless mesh network (WMN). Reducing per-node transmission power would greatly increase the network lifetime via power conservation in addition to increasing the network capacity via better spatial bandwidth reuse. In this work, the problem of topology control in a hybrid WMN of heterogeneous wireless devices with varying maximum transmission ranges is considered. A localized distributed topology control algorithm is presented which calculates the optimal transmission power so that (1) network connectivity is maintained (2) node transmission power is reduced to cover only the nearest neighbours (3) networks lifetime is extended. Simulations and analysis of results are carried out in the NS-2 environment to demonstrate the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: Topology Control, Wireless Mesh Networks, Backbone, Energy Efficiency, Localized Algorithm.

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4602 DEMO Based Optimal Power Purchase Planning Under Electricity Price Uncertainty

Authors: Tulika Bhattacharjee, A. K.Chakraborty

Abstract:

Due to the deregulation of the Electric Supply Industry and the resulting emergence of electricity market, the volumes of power purchases are on the rise all over the world. In a bid to meet the customer-s demand in a reliable and yet economic manner, utilities purchase power from the energy market over and above its own production. This paper aims at developing an optimal power purchase model with two objectives viz economy and environment ,taking various functional operating constraints such as branch flow limits, load bus voltage magnitudes limits, unit capacity constraints and security constraints into consideration.The price of purchased power being an uncertain variable is modeled using fuzzy logic. DEMO (Differential Evolution For Multi-objective Optimization) is used to obtain the pareto-optimal solution set of the multi-objective problem formulated. Fuzzy set theory has been employed to extract the best compromise non-dominated solution. The results obtained on IEEE 30 bus system are presented and compared with that of NSGAII.

Keywords: Deregulation, Differential Evolution, Multi objective Optimization, Pareto Optimal Set, Optimal Power Flow

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4601 Takagi-Sugeno Fuzzy Control of Induction Motor

Authors: Allouche Moez, Souissi Mansour, Chaabane Mohamed, Mehdi Driss

Abstract:

This paper deals with the synthesis of fuzzy state feedback controller of induction motor with optimal performance. First, the Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model is employed to approximate a non linear system in the synchronous d-q frame rotating with electromagnetic field-oriented. Next, a fuzzy controller is designed to stabilise the induction motor and guaranteed a minimum disturbance attenuation level for the closed-loop system. The gains of fuzzy control are obtained by solving a set of Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI). Finally, simulation results are given to demonstrate the controller-s effectiveness.

Keywords: Rejection disturbance, fuzzy modelling, open-loop control, Fuzzy feedback controller, fuzzy observer, Linear Matrix Inequality (LMI)

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4600 Optimal Embedded Generation Allocation in Distribution System Employing Real Coded Genetic Algorithm Method

Authors: Mohd Herwan Sulaiman, Omar Aliman, Siti Rafidah Abdul Rahim

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new methodology for the optimal allocation and sizing of Embedded Generation (EG) employing Real Coded Genetic Algorithm (RCGA) to minimize the total power losses and to improve voltage profiles in the radial distribution networks. RCGA is a method that uses continuous floating numbers as representation which is different from conventional binary numbers. The RCGA is used as solution tool, which can determine the optimal location and size of EG in radial system simultaneously. This method is developed in MATLAB. The effect of EG units- installation and their sizing to the distribution networks are demonstrated using 24 bus system.

Keywords: Embedded generation (EG), load flow study, optimal allocation, real coded genetic algorithm (RCGA).

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4599 Optimal Solution of Constraint Satisfaction Problems

Authors: Jeffrey L. Duffany

Abstract:

An optimal solution for a large number of constraint satisfaction problems can be found using the technique of substitution and elimination of variables analogous to the technique that is used to solve systems of equations. A decision function f(A)=max(A2) is used to determine which variables to eliminate. The algorithm can be expressed in six lines and is remarkable in both its simplicity and its ability to find an optimal solution. However it is inefficient in that it needs to square the updated A matrix after each variable elimination. To overcome this inefficiency the algorithm is analyzed and it is shown that the A matrix only needs to be squared once at the first step of the algorithm and then incrementally updated for subsequent steps, resulting in significant improvement and an algorithm complexity of O(n3).

Keywords: Algorithm, complexity, constraint, np-complete.

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4598 Optimal Dynamic Economic Load Dispatch Using Artificial Immune System

Authors: I. A. Farhat

Abstract:

The The dynamic economic dispatch (DED) problem is one of the complex constrained optimization problems that have nonlinear, con-convex and non-smooth objective functions. The purpose of the DED is to determine the optimal economic operation of the committed units while meeting the load demand. Associated to this constrained problem there exist highly nonlinear and non-convex practical constraints to be satisfied. Therefore, classical and derivative-based methods are likely not to converge to an optimal or near optimal solution to such a dynamic and large-scale problem. In this paper, an Artificial Immune System technique (AIS) is implemented and applied to solve the DED problem considering the transmission power losses and the valve-point effects in addition to the other operational constraints. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique, two case studies are considered. The results obtained using the AIS are compared to those obtained by other methods reported in the literature and found better.

Keywords: Artificial Immune System (AIS), Dynamic Economic Dispatch (DED).

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4597 Optimized Calculation of Hourly Price Forward Curve (HPFC)

Authors: Ahmed Abdolkhalig

Abstract:

This paper examines many mathematical methods for molding the hourly price forward curve (HPFC); the model will be constructed by numerous regression methods, like polynomial regression, radial basic function neural networks & a furrier series. Examination the models goodness of fit will be done by means of statistical & graphical tools. The criteria for choosing the model will depend on minimize the Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE), using the correlation analysis approach for the regression analysis the optimal model will be distinct, which are robust against model misspecification. Learning & supervision technique employed to determine the form of the optimal parameters corresponding to each measure of overall loss. By using all the numerical methods that mentioned previously; the explicit expressions for the optimal model derived and the optimal designs will be implemented.

Keywords: Forward curve, furrier series, regression, radial basic function neural networks.

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4596 Optimal Dynamic Economic Load Dispatch Using Artificial Immune System

Authors: I. A. Farhat

Abstract:

The dynamic economic dispatch (DED) problem is one of the complex constrained optimization problems that have nonlinear, con-convex and non-smooth objective functions. The purpose of the DED is to determine the optimal economic operation of the committed units while meeting the load demand.  Associated to this constrained problem there exist highly nonlinear and non-convex practical constraints to be satisfied. Therefore, classical and derivative-based methods are likely not to converge to an optimal or near optimal solution to such a dynamic and large-scale problem. In this paper, an Artificial Immune System technique (AIS) is implemented and applied to solve the DED problem considering the transmission power losses and the valve-point effects in addition to the other operational constraints. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique, two case studies are considered. The results obtained using the AIS are compared to those obtained by other methods reported in the literature and found better.

Keywords: Artificial Immune System (AIS), Dynamic Economic Dispatch (DED).

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4595 CACSC tool for Automatic Design of Robust Controllers for Hydropower Plants

Authors: Jose J.CarreñoZagarra, Rodolfo Villamizar Mejía

Abstract:

This work describes a CACSD tool for automatic design of robust controllers for hydraulic turbines. The tool calculates the optimal  controller using the MATLAB hinfopt function and it serves as a practical and effective solution for the laborious task of designing a different controller for each type of turbine and generator, and different parameters and conditions of the plant. Results of the simulation of a generating unit subject to parameters variation show the accuracy and efficiency of the obtained robust controllers.

Keywords: Robust Control, Hydroelectric System Turbine, Control H∞, CACSD

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4594 Modeling Erosion Control in Oil Production Wells

Authors: Kenneth I.Eshiet, Yong Sheng

Abstract:

The sand production problem has led researchers into making various attempts to understand the phenomenon. The generally accepted concept is that the occurrence of sanding is due to the in-situ stress conditions and the induced changes in stress that results in the failure of the reservoir sandstone during hydrocarbon production from wellbores. By using a hypothetical cased (perforated) well, an approach to the problem is presented here by using Finite Element numerical modelling techniques. In addition to the examination of the erosion problem, the influence of certain key parameters is studied in order to ascertain their effect on the failure and subsequent erosion process. The major variables investigated include: drawdown, perforation depth, and the erosion criterion. Also included is the determination of the optimal mud pressure for given operational and reservoir conditions. The improved understanding between parameters enables the choice of optimal values to minimize sanding during oil production.

Keywords: Equivalent Plastic Strain, Erosion, Hydrocarbon Production.

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