Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 131

Search results for: optic disc

131 Attention Based Fully Convolutional Neural Network for Simultaneous Detection and Segmentation of Optic Disc in Retinal Fundus Images

Authors: Sandip Sadhukhan, Arpita Sarkar, Debprasad Sinha, Goutam Kumar Ghorai, Gautam Sarkar, Ashis K. Dhara

Abstract:

Accurate segmentation of the optic disc is very important for computer-aided diagnosis of several ocular diseases such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and hypertensive retinopathy. The paper presents an accurate and fast optic disc detection and segmentation method using an attention based fully convolutional network. The network is trained from scratch using the fundus images of extended MESSIDOR database and the trained model is used for segmentation of optic disc. The false positives are removed based on morphological operation and shape features. The result is evaluated using three-fold cross-validation on six public fundus image databases such as DIARETDB0, DIARETDB1, DRIVE, AV-INSPIRE, CHASE DB1 and MESSIDOR. The attention based fully convolutional network is robust and effective for detection and segmentation of optic disc in the images affected by diabetic retinopathy and it outperforms existing techniques.

Keywords: Ocular diseases, retinal fundus image, optic disc detection and segmentation, fully convolutional network, overlap measure.

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130 Automated Optic Disc Detection in Retinal Images of Patients with Diabetic Retinopathy and Risk of Macular Edema

Authors: Arturo Aquino, Manuel Emilio Gegundez, Diego Marin

Abstract:

In this paper, a new automated methodology to detect the optic disc (OD) automatically in retinal images from patients with risk of being affected by Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) and Macular Edema (ME) is presented. The detection procedure comprises two independent methodologies. On one hand, a location methodology obtains a pixel that belongs to the OD using image contrast analysis and structure filtering techniques and, on the other hand, a boundary segmentation methodology estimates a circular approximation of the OD boundary by applying mathematical morphology, edge detection techniques and the Circular Hough Transform. The methodologies were tested on a set of 1200 images composed of 229 retinographies from patients affected by DR with risk of ME, 431 with DR and no risk of ME and 540 images of healthy retinas. The location methodology obtained 98.83% success rate, whereas the OD boundary segmentation methodology obtained good circular OD boundary approximation in 94.58% of cases. The average computational time measured over the total set was 1.67 seconds for OD location and 5.78 seconds for OD boundary segmentation.

Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy, macular edema, optic disc, automated detection, automated segmentation.

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129 Vessel Inscribed Trigonometry to Measure the Vessel Progressive Orientations in the Digital Fundus Image

Authors: Pil Un Kim, Yunjung Lee, Gihyoun Lee, Jin Ho Cho, Myoung Nam Kim

Abstract:

In this paper, the vessel inscribed trigonometry (VITM) for the vessel progression orientation (VPO) is proposed in the two-dimensional fundus image. The VPO is a major factor in the optic disc (OD) detection which is a basic process in the retina analysis. To measure the VPO, skeletons of vessel are used. First, the vessels are classified into three classes as vessel end, vessel branch and vessel stem. And the chain code maps of VS are generated. Next, two farthest neighborhoods of each point on VS are searched by the proposed angle restriction. Lastly, a gradient of the straight line between two farthest neighborhoods is estimated to measure the VPO. VITM is validated by comparing with manual results and 2D Gaussian templates. It is confirmed that VPO of the proposed mensuration is correct enough to detect OD from the results of experiment which applied VITM to detect OD in fundus images.

Keywords: Angle measurement, Optic disc, Retina vessel, Vessel progression orientation.

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128 Fiber Optic Sensors

Authors: Bahareh Gholamzadeh, Hooman Nabovati

Abstract:

Fiber optic sensor technology offers the possibility of sensing different parameters like strain, temperature, pressure in harsh environment and remote locations. these kinds of sensors modulates some features of the light wave in an optical fiber such an intensity and phase or use optical fiber as a medium for transmitting the measurement information. The advantages of fiber optic sensors in contrast to conventional electrical ones make them popular in different applications and now a day they consider as a key component in improving industrial processes, quality control systems, medical diagnostics, and preventing and controlling general process abnormalities. This paper is an introduction to fiber optic sensor technology and some of the applications that make this branch of optic technology, which is still in its early infancy, an interesting field.

Keywords: Fiber optic sensors, distributed sensors, sensorapplication, crack sensor.

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127 Optic Disc Detection by Earth Mover's Distance Template Matching

Authors: Fernando C. Monteiro, Vasco Cadavez

Abstract:

This paper presents a method for the detection of OD in the retina which takes advantage of the powerful preprocessing techniques such as the contrast enhancement, Gabor wavelet transform for vessel segmentation, mathematical morphology and Earth Mover-s distance (EMD) as the matching process. The OD detection algorithm is based on matching the expected directional pattern of the retinal blood vessels. Vessel segmentation method produces segmentations by classifying each image pixel as vessel or nonvessel, based on the pixel-s feature vector. Feature vectors are composed of the pixel-s intensity and 2D Gabor wavelet transform responses taken at multiple scales. A simple matched filter is proposed to roughly match the direction of the vessels at the OD vicinity using the EMD. The minimum distance provides an estimate of the OD center coordinates. The method-s performance is evaluated on publicly available DRIVE and STARE databases. On the DRIVE database the OD center was detected correctly in all of the 40 images (100%) and on the STARE database the OD was detected correctly in 76 out of the 81 images, even in rather difficult pathological situations.

Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy, Earth Mover's distance, Gabor wavelets, optic disc detection, retinal images

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126 Creep Transition in a Thin Rotating Disc Having Variable Density with Inclusion

Authors: Pankaj, Sonia R. Bansal

Abstract:

Creep stresses and strain rates have been obtained for a thin rotating disc having variable density with inclusion by using Seth-s transition theory. The density of the disc is assumed to vary radially, i.e. ( ) 0 ¤ü ¤ü r/b m - = ; ¤ü 0 and m being real positive constants. It has been observed that a disc, whose density increases radially, rotates at higher angular speed, thus decreasing the possibility of a fracture at the bore, whereas for a disc whose density decreases radially, the possibility of a fracture at the bore increases.

Keywords: Elastic-Plastic, Inclusion, Rotating disc, Stress, Strain rates, Transition, variable density.

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125 An Efficient Pixel Based Cervical Disc Localization

Authors: J. Preetha, S. Selvarajan

Abstract:

When neck pain is associated with pain, numbness, or weakness in the arm, shoulder, or hand, further investigation is needed as these are symptoms indicating pressure on one or more nerve roots. Evaluation necessitates a neurologic examination and imaging using an MRI/CT scan. A degenerating disc loses some thickness and is less flexible, causing inter-vertebrae space to narrow. A radiologist diagnoses an Intervertebral Disc Degeneration (IDD) by localizing every inter-vertebral disc and identifying the pathology in a disc based on its geometry and appearance. Accurate localizing is necessary to diagnose IDD pathology. But, the underlying image signal is ambiguous: a disc’s intensity overlaps the spinal nerve fibres. Even the structure changes from case to case, with possible spinal column bending (scoliosis). The inter-vertebral disc pathology’s quantitative assessment needs accurate localization of the cervical region discs. In this work, the efficacy of multilevel set segmentation model, to segment cervical discs is investigated. The segmented images are annotated using a simple distance matrix.

Keywords: Intervertebral Disc Degeneration (IDD), Cervical Disc Localization, multilevel set segmentation.

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124 Wear Measuring and Wear Modelling Based On Archard, ASTM, and Neural Network Models

Authors: A. Shebani, C. Pislaru

Abstract:

The wear measuring and wear modelling are fundamental issues in the industrial field, mainly correlated to the economy and safety. Therefore, there is a need to study the wear measurements and wear estimation. Pin-on-disc test is the most common test which is used to study the wear behaviour. In this paper, the pin-on-disc (AEROTECH UNIDEX 11) is used for the investigation of the effects of normal load and hardness of material on the wear under dry and sliding conditions. In the pin-on-disc rig, two specimens were used; one, a pin is made of steel with a tip, positioned perpendicular to the disc, where the disc is made of aluminium. The pin wear and disc wear were measured by using the following instruments: The Talysurf instrument, a digital microscope, and the alicona instrument. The Talysurf profilometer was used to measure the pin/disc wear scar depth, digital microscope was used to measure the diameter and width of wear scar, and the alicona was used to measure the pin wear and disc wear. After that, the Archard model, American Society for Testing and Materials model (ASTM), and neural network model were used for pin/disc wear modelling. Simulation results were implemented by using the Matlab program. This paper focuses on how the alicona can be used for wear measurements and how the neural network can be used for wear estimation.

Keywords: Wear measuring, Wear modelling, Neural Network, Alicona.

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123 Eigenwave Analysis and Simulation of Disc Loaded Interaction Structure for Wideband Gyro-TWT Amplifier

Authors: R. K. Singh, P. K. Jain

Abstract:

In the present paper, disc loaded interaction structure for potential application in wideband Gyro-TWT amplifier has been analyzed, taking all the space and modal harmonics into consideration, for the eigenwave solutions. The analysis has been restricted to azimuthally symmetric TE0,n mode. Dispersion characteristics have been plotted by varying the structure parameters and have been validated against HFSS simulation results. The variation of eigenvalue with respect to different structure parameters has also been presented. It has been observed that disc periodicity plays very important role for wideband operation of disc-loaded Gyro-TWT.

Keywords: Broadbanding, Disc-loaded interaction structure, Eigenvalue, Gyro-TWT, HFSS.

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122 Temperature Field Study of Brake Disc in a Belt Conveyor Brake

Authors: Hou Youfu, Wang Daoming, Meng Qingrui

Abstract:

To reveal the temperature field distribution of disc brake in downward belt conveyor, mathematical models of heat transfer for disc brake were established combined with heat transfer theory. Then, the simulation process was stated in detail and the temperature field of disc brake under conditions of dynamic speed and dynamic braking torque was numerically simulated by using ANSYS software. Finally the distribution and variation laws of temperature field in the braking process were analyzed. Results indicate that the maximum surface temperature occurs at a time before the brake end and there exist large temperature gradients in both radial and axial directions, while it is relatively small in the circumferential direction.

Keywords: Downward belt conveyor, Disc brake, Temperature field, Numerical simulation.

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121 Elastic-Plastic Transition in a Thin Rotating Disc with Inclusion

Authors: Pankaj, Sonia R. Bansal

Abstract:

Stresses for the elastic-plastic transition and fully plastic state have been derived for a thin rotating disc with inclusion and results have been discussed numerically and depicted graphically. It has been observed that the rotating disc with inclusion and made of compressible material requires lesser angular speed to yield at the internal surface whereas it requires higher percentage increase in angular speed to become fully plastic as compare to disc made of incompressible material.

Keywords: Angular speed, Elastic-Plastic, Inclusion, Rotatingdisc, Stress, Transition.

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120 Bridging Quantitative and Qualitative of Glaucoma Detection

Authors: Noor Elaiza Abdul Khalid, Noorhayati Mohamed Noor, Zamalia Mahmud, Saadiah Yahya, and Norharyati Md Ariff

Abstract:

Glaucoma diagnosis involves extracting three features of the fundus image; optic cup, optic disc and vernacular. Present manual diagnosis is expensive, tedious and time consuming. A number of researches have been conducted to automate this process. However, the variability between the diagnostic capability of an automated system and ophthalmologist has yet to be established. This paper discusses the efficiency and variability between ophthalmologist opinion and digital technique; threshold. The efficiency and variability measures are based on image quality grading; poor, satisfactory or good. The images are separated into four channels; gray, red, green and blue. A scientific investigation was conducted on three ophthalmologists who graded the images based on the image quality. The images are threshold using multithresholding and graded as done by the ophthalmologist. A comparison of grade from the ophthalmologist and threshold is made. The results show there is a small variability between result of ophthalmologists and digital threshold.

Keywords: Digital Fundus Image, Glaucoma Detection, Multithresholding, Segmentation.

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119 The Effect of the Disc Coulters Forms on Cutting of Spring Barley Residues in No-Tillage

Authors: E. Šarauskis, L. Masilionytė, K. Romaneckas, Z. Kriaučiūnienė, A. Jasinskas

Abstract:

The introduction of sowing technologies into minimum- or no-tillage soil has a number of economical and environmental virtues, such as improving soil properties, decreasing soil erosion and degradation, and saving working time and fuel. However, the main disadvantage of these technologies is that plant residues on the soil surface reduce the quality of the planted crop seeds, thus requiring plant residues to be removed or cut. This paper presents a analysis of disc coulter parameters and an experimental investigation of cutting spring barley straw containing various amounts of moisture with different disc coulters (smooth and notched).

Keywords: Disc coulter, Spring barley residue, No-till, Straw moisture

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118 Capture and Feedback in Flying Disc Throw with use of Kinect

Authors: Yasuhisa Tamura, Koji Yamaoka, Masataka Uehara, Takeshi Shima

Abstract:

This paper proposes a three-dimensional motion capture and feedback system of flying disc throwing action learners with use of Kinect device. Rather than conventional 3-D motion capture system, Kinect has advantages of cost merit, easy system development and operation. A novice learner of flying disc is trained to keep arm movement in steady height, to twist the waist, and to stretch the elbow according to the waist angle. The proposing system captures learners- body movement, checks their skeleton positions in pre-motion / motion / post-motion in several ways, and displays feedback messages to refine their actions.

Keywords: Flying disc, throwing movement, Kinect, capture, feedback

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117 Three Dimensional Analysis of Sequential Quasi Isotropic Composite Disc for Rotating Machine Application

Authors: Amin Almasi

Abstract:

Composite laminates are relatively weak in out of plane loading, inter-laminar stress, stress concentration near the edge and stress singularities. This paper develops a new analytical formulation for laminated composite rotating disc fabricated from symmetric sequential quasi isotropic layers to predict three dimensional stress and deformation. This analysis is necessary to evaluate mechanical integrity of fiber reinforced multi-layer laminates used for high speed rotating applications such as high speed impellers. Three dimensional governing equations are written for rotating composite disc. Explicit solution is obtained with "Frobenius" expansion series. Based on analytical results, there are two separate zones of three dimensional stress fields in centre and edge of rotating disc. For thin discs, out of plane deformations and stresses are small in comparison with plane ones. For relatively thick discs deformation and stress fields are three dimensional.

Keywords: Composite Disc, Rotating Machine.

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116 Online Optic Disk Segmentation Using Fractals

Authors: Srinivasan Aruchamy, Partha Bhattacharjee, Goutam Sanyal

Abstract:

Optic disk segmentation plays a key role in the mass screening of individuals with diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma ailments. An efficient hardware-based algorithm for optic disk localization and segmentation would aid for developing an automated retinal image analysis system for real time applications. Herein, TMS320C6416DSK DSP board pixel intensity based fractal analysis algorithm for an automatic localization and segmentation of the optic disk is reported. The experiment has been performed on color and fluorescent angiography retinal fundus images. Initially, the images were pre-processed to reduce the noise and enhance the quality. The retinal vascular tree of the image was then extracted using canny edge detection technique. Finally, a pixel intensity based fractal analysis is performed to segment the optic disk by tracing the origin of the vascular tree. The proposed method is examined on three publicly available data sets of the retinal image and also with the data set obtained from an eye clinic. The average accuracy achieved is 96.2%. To the best of the knowledge, this is the first work reporting the use of TMS320C6416DSK DSP board and pixel intensity based fractal analysis algorithm for an automatic localization and segmentation of the optic disk. This will pave the way for developing devices for detection of retinal diseases in the future.

Keywords: Color retinal fundus images, Diabetic retinopathy, Fluorescein angiography retinal fundus images, Fractal analysis.

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115 Single-qubit Quantum Gates using Magneto-optic Kerr Effect

Authors: Pradeep Kumar K

Abstract:

We propose the use of magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) to realize single-qubit quantum gates. We consider longitudinal and polar MOKE in reflection geometry in which the magnetic field is parallel to both the plane of incidence and surface of the film. MOKE couples incident TE and TM polarized photons and the Hamiltonian that represents this interaction is isomorphic to that of a canonical two-level quantum system. By varying the phase and amplitude of the magnetic field, we can realize Hadamard, NOT, and arbitrary phase-shift single-qubit quantum gates. The principal advantage is operation with magnetically non-transparent materials.

Keywords: Quantum computing, qubit, magneto-optic kerr effect (MOKE), magneto-optical interactions, continuous variables.

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114 Effect of Linear Thermal Gradient on Steady-State Creep Behavior of Isotropic Rotating Disc

Authors: Minto Rattan, Tania Bose, Neeraj Chamoli

Abstract:

The present paper investigates the effect of linear thermal gradient on the steady-state creep behavior of rotating isotropic disc using threshold stress based Sherby’s creep law. The composite discs made of aluminum matrix reinforced with silicon carbide particulate has been taken for analysis. The stress and strain rate distributions have been calculated for discs rotating at linear thermal gradation using von Mises’ yield criterion. The material parameters have been estimated by regression fit of the available experimental data. The results are displayed and compared graphically in designer friendly format for the above said temperature profile with the disc operating under uniform temperature profile. It is observed that radial and tangential stresses show minor variation and the strain rates vary significantly in the presence of thermal gradation as compared to disc having uniform temperature.

Keywords: Creep, isotropic, steady-state, thermal gradient.

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113 Design of Non-Blocking and Rearrangeable Modified Banyan Network with Electro-Optic MZI Switching Elements

Authors: Ghanshyam Singh, Tirtha Pratim Bhattacharjee, R. P. Yadav, V. Janyani

Abstract:

Banyan networks are really attractive for serving as the optical switching architectures due to their unique properties of small depth and absolute signal loss uniformity. The fact has been established that the limitations of blocking nature and the nonavailability of proper connections due to non-rearrangeable property can be easily ruled out using electro-optic MZI switches as basic switching elements. Combination of the horizontal expansion and vertical stacking of optical banyan networks is an appropriate scheme for constructing non-blocking banyan-based optical switching networks. The interconnected banyan switching fabrics (IBSF) have been considered and analyzed to best serve the purpose of optical switching with electro-optic MZI basic elements. The cross/bar state interchange for the switches has been facilitated by appropriate voltage switching or the by the switching of operating wavelength. The paper is dedicated to the modification of the basic switching element being used as well as the architecture of the switching network.

Keywords: MZI switch, Banyan network, Reconfigurable switches.

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112 Modeling the Effect of Thermal Gradation on Steady-State Creep Behavior of Isotropic Rotating Disc Made of Functionally Graded Material

Authors: Tania Bose, Minto Rattan, Neeraj Chamoli

Abstract:

In this paper, an attempt has been made to study the effect of thermal gradation on the steady-state creep behavior of rotating isotropic disc made of functionally graded material using threshold stress based Sherby’s creep law. The composite discs made of aluminum matrix reinforced with silicon carbide particulate have been taken for analysis. The stress and strain rate distributions have been calculated for the discs rotating at elevated temperatures having thermal gradation. The material parameters of creep vary radially and have been estimated by regression fit of the available experimental data. Investigations for discs made up of linearly increasing particle content operating under linearly decreasing temperature from inner to outer radii have been done using von Mises’ yield criterion. The results are displayed and compared graphically in designer friendly format for the above said disc profile with the disc made of particle reinforced composite operating under uniform temperature profile. It is observed that radial and tangential stresses show minor variation and the strain rates vary significantly in the presence of thermal gradation as compared to disc having uniform temperature.

Keywords: Creep, functionally graded isotropic material, steady-state, thermal gradation.

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111 Influence of Calcium Intake Level to Osteoporptic Vertebral bone and Degenerated Disc in Biomechanical Study

Authors: Dae Gon Woo, Ji Hyung Park, Chi Hoon Kim, Tae Woo Lee, Beob Yi Lee, Han Sung Kim

Abstract:

The aim of the present study is to analyze the generation of osteoporotic vertebral bone induced by lack of calcium during growth period and analyze its effects for disc degeneration, based on biomechanical and histomorphometrical study. Mechanical and histomorphological characteristics of lumbar vertebral bones and discs of rats with calcium free diet (CFD) were detected and tracked by using high resolution in-vivo micro-computed tomography (in-vivo micro-CT), finite element (FE) and histological analysis. Twenty female Sprague-Dawley rats (6 weeks old, approximate weight 170g) were randomly divided into two groups (CFD group: 10, NOR group: 10). The CFD group was maintained on a refmed calcium-controlled semisynthetic diet without added calcium, to induce osteoporosis. All lumbar (L 1-L6) were scanned by using in vivo micro-CT with 35i.un resolution at 0, 4, 8 weeks to track the effects of CFD on the generation of osteoporosis. The fmdings of the present study indicated that calcium insufficiency was the main factor in the generation of osteoporosis and it induced lumbar vertebral disc degeneration. This study is a valuable experiment to firstly evaluate osteoporotic vertebral bone and disc degeneration induced by lack of calcium during growth period from a biomechanical and histomorphometrical point of view.

Keywords: Calcium free diet, Disc degeneration, Osteoporosis, in-vivo micro-CT, Finite element analysis, Histology.

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110 Fiber Optic Sensors for Hydrogen Peroxide Vapor Measurement

Authors: H. Akbari Khorami, P. Wild, N. Djilali

Abstract:

This paper reports on the response of a fiber-optic sensing probe to small concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) vapor at room temperature. H2O2 has extensive applications in industrial and medical environments. Conversely, H2O2 can be a health hazard by itself. For example, H2O2 induces cellular damage in human cells and its presence can be used to diagnose illnesses such as asthma and human breast cancer. Hence, development of reliable H2O2 sensor is of vital importance to detect and measure this species. Ferric ferrocyanide, referred to as Prussian Blue (PB), was deposited on the tip of a multimode optical fiber through the single source precursor technique and served as an indicator of H2O2 in a spectroscopic manner. Sensing tests were performed in H2O2-H2O vapor mixtures with different concentrations of H2O2. The results of sensing tests show the sensor is able to detect H2O2 concentrations in the range of 50.6 ppm to 229.5 ppm. Furthermore, the sensor response to H2O2 concentrations is linear in a log-log scale with the adjacent R-square of 0.93. This sensing behavior allows us to detect and quantify the concentration of H2O2 in the vapor phase.

Keywords: Chemical deposition, fiber-optic sensors, hydrogen peroxide vapor, prussian blue.

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109 Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Epoxy-Rubber Dust Composites

Authors: Antaryami Mishra

Abstract:

Composite pins of rubber dust collected from tyre retreading centres of trucks, cars and buses etc.and epoxy with weight percentages of 10. 15, and 20 % of rubber (weight fractions of 9, 13 and 17 % respectively) have been prepared in house with the help of a split wooden mould. The pins were tested in a pin-on-disc wear monitor to determine the co-efficient of friction and weight losses with varying speeds, loads and time. The wear volume and wear rates have also been found out for all these three specimens.. It is observed that all the specimens have exhibited very low coefficient of friction and low wear rates under dry sliding condition. Out of the above three samples tested, the specimen with 10 % rubber dust by weight has shown lowest wear rates. However a peculiar result i.e decreasing trend has been obtained with 20% reinforcement of rubber in epoxy while rubbed against steel at varying speeds. This might have occurred due to high surface finish of the disc and formation of a thin transfer layer from the composite

Keywords: epoxy, rubber dust, composites, weight fractions, pin-on-disc wear tests, wear volume and wear rate calculations.

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108 Design of Electromagnetic Drive Module for Micro-gyroscope

Authors: Nan-Chyuan Tsai, Jiun-Sheng Liou, Chih-Che Lin, Tuan Li

Abstract:

For micro-gyroscopes, the angular rate detection components have to oscillate forwards and backwards alternatively. An innovative design of micro-electromagnetic drive module is proposed to make a Π-type disc reciprocally and efficiently rotate within a certain of angular interval. Twelve Electromagnetic poles enclosing the thin disc are designed to provide the magnetic drive power. Isotropic etching technique is employed to fabricate the high-aspect-ratio trench, so that the contact angle of wire against trench can be increased and the potential defect of cavities and pores within the wire can be prevented. On the other hand, a Π-type thin disc is designed to conduct the pitch motion as an angular excitation, in addition to spinning, is exerted on the gyroscope. The efficacy of the micro-magnetic drive module is verified by the commercial software, Ansoft Maxewll. In comparison with the conventional planar windings in micro-scale systems, the magnetic drive force is increased by 150%.

Keywords: Micro-gyroscope, micro-electromagnetic, micro actuator.

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107 Automatic Method for Exudates and Hemorrhages Detection from Fundus Retinal Images

Authors: A. Biran, P. Sobhe Bidari, K. Raahemifar

Abstract:

Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) is an eye disease that leads to blindness. The earliest signs of DR are the appearance of red and yellow lesions on the retina called hemorrhages and exudates. Early diagnosis of DR prevents from blindness; hence, many automated algorithms have been proposed to extract hemorrhages and exudates. In this paper, an automated algorithm is presented to extract hemorrhages and exudates separately from retinal fundus images using different image processing techniques including Circular Hough Transform (CHT), Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE), Gabor filter and thresholding. Since Optic Disc is the same color as the exudates, it is first localized and detected. The presented method has been tested on fundus images from Structured Analysis of the Retina (STARE) and Digital Retinal Images for Vessel Extraction (DRIVE) databases by using MATLAB codes. The results show that this method is perfectly capable of detecting hard exudates and the highly probable soft exudates. It is also capable of detecting the hemorrhages and distinguishing them from blood vessels.

Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy, fundus, CHT, exudates, hemorrhages.

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106 Turbulence Modeling of Source and Sink Flows

Authors: Israt Jahan Eshita

Abstract:

Flows developed between two parallel disks have many engineering applications. Two types of non-swirling flows can be generated in such a domain. One is purely source flow in disc type domain (outward flow). Other is purely sink flow in disc type domain (inward flow). This situation often appears in some turbo machinery components such as air bearings, heat exchanger, radial diffuser, vortex gyroscope, disc valves, and viscosity meters. The main goal of this paper is to show the mesh convergence, because mesh convergence saves time, and economical to run and increase the efficiency of modeling for both sink and source flow. Then flow field is resolved using a very fine mesh near-wall, using enhanced wall treatment. After that we are going to compare this flow using standard k-epsilon, RNG k-epsilon turbulence models. Lastly compare some experimental data with numerical solution for sink flow. The good agreement of numerical solution with the experimental works validates the current modeling.

Keywords: Hydraulic diameter, k-epsilon model, meshes convergence, Reynolds number, RNG model, sink flow, source flow and wall y+.

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105 Study of the Tribological Behavior of a Pin on Disc Type of Contact

Authors: S. Djebali, S. Larbi, A. Bilek

Abstract:

The present work aims at contributing to the study of the complex phenomenon of wear of pin on disc contact in dry sliding friction between two material couples (bronze/steel and unsaturated polyester virgin and charged with graphite powder/steel). The work consists of the determination of the coefficient of friction, the study of the influence of the tribological parameters on this coefficient and the determination of the mass loss and the wear rate of the pin. This study is also widened to the highlighting of the influence of the addition of graphite powder on the tribological properties of the polymer constituting the pin. The experiments are carried out on a pin-disc type tribometer that we have designed and manufactured. Tests are conducted according to the standards DIN 50321 and DIN EN 50324. The discs are made of annealed XC48 steel and quenched and tempered XC48 steel. The main results are described here after. The increase of the normal load and the sliding speed causes the increase of the friction coefficient, whereas the increase of the percentage of graphite and the hardness of the disc surface contributes to its reduction. The mass loss also increases with the normal load. The influence of the normal load on the friction coefficient is more significant than that of the sliding speed. The effect of the sliding speed decreases for large speed values. The increase of the amount of graphite powder leads to a decrease of the coefficient of friction, the mass loss and the wear rate. The addition of graphite to the UP resin is beneficial; it plays the role of solid lubricant.

Keywords: Friction coefficients, mass loss, wear rate, bronze, polyester, graphite.

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104 The Effect of Surface Conditions on Wear of a Railway Wheel and Rail

Authors: A. Shebani, S. Iwnicki

Abstract:

Understanding the nature of wheel and rail wear in the railway field is of fundamental importance to the safe and cost effective operation of the railways. Twin disc wear testing is used extensively for studying wear of wheel and rail materials. The University of Huddersfield twin disc rig was used in this paper to examine the effect of surface conditions on wheel and rail wear measurement under a range of wheel/rail contact conditions, with and without contaminants. This work focuses on an investigation of the effect of dry, wet, and lubricated conditions and the effect of contaminants such as sand on wheel and rail wear. The wheel and rail wear measurements were carried out by using a replica material and an optical profilometer that allows measurement of wear in difficult location with high accuracy. The results have demonstrated the rate at which both water and oil reduce wheel and rail wear. Scratches and other damage were seen on the wheel and rail surfaces after the addition of sand and consequently both wheel and rail wear damage rates increased under these conditions. This work introduced the replica material and an optical instrument as effective tools to study the effect of surface conditions on wheel and rail wear.

Keywords: Railway wheel/rail wear, surface conditions, twin disc test rig, replica material, Alicona profilometer.

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103 The Impact of NICTBB in Facilitating the E-Services and M-Services in Tanzania

Authors: S. Pazi, C. Chatwin

Abstract:

ICT services are a key element of communications and important for socio-economic development. In recognition of the importance of this, the Tanzanian Government started to implement a National ICT Broadband Infrastructure Fibre Optic Backbone (NICTBB) in 2009; this development was planned to be implemented in four phases using an optical dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) network technology in collaboration with the Chinese Government through the Chinese International Telecommunications Construction Corporation (CITCC) under a bilateral agreement. This paper briefly explores the NICTBB network technologies implementation, operations and Internet bandwidth costs. It also provides an in depth assessment of the delivery of ICT services such as e-services and m-services in both urban and rural areas following commissioning of the NICTBB system. Following quantitative and qualitative approaches, the study shows that there have been significant improvements in utilization efficiency, effectiveness and the reliability of the ICT service such as e-services and m-services the NICTCBB was commissioned.

Keywords: NICTBB, DWDM, Optic Fibre, Internet, ICT services, e-services, m-services.

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102 Problem-based Learning Approach to Human Computer Interaction

Authors: Oon-Seng Tan

Abstract:

Human Computer Interaction (HCI) has been an emerging field that draws in the experts from various fields to enhance the application of computer programs and the ease of computer users. HCI has much to do with learning and cognition and an emerging approach to learning and problem-solving is problembased learning (PBL). The processes of PBL involve important cognitive functions in the various stages. This paper will illustrate how closely related fields to HCI, PBL and cognitive psychology can benefit from informing each other through analysing various cognitive functions. Several cognitive functions from cognitive function disc (CFD) would be presented and discussed in relation to human-computer interface. This paper concludes with the implications of bridging the gaps amongst these disciplines.

Keywords: problem-based learning, human computerinteraction, cognitive psychology, Cognitive Function Disc (CFD)

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