Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 416

Search results for: number of generator units

416 Multi-Objective Optimization of Run-of-River Small-Hydropower Plants Considering Both Investment Cost and Annual Energy Generation

Authors: Amèdédjihundé H. J. Hounnou, Frédéric Dubas, François-Xavier Fifatin, Didier Chamagne, Antoine Vianou

Abstract:

This paper presents the techno-economic evaluation of run-of-river small-hydropower plants. In this regard, a multi-objective optimization procedure is proposed for the optimal sizing of the hydropower plants, and NSGAII is employed as the optimization algorithm. Annual generated energy and investment cost are considered as the objective functions, and number of generator units (n) and nominal turbine flow rate (QT) constitute the decision variables. Site of Yeripao in Benin is considered as the case study. We have categorized the river of this site using its environmental characteristics: gross head, and first quartile, median, third quartile and mean of flow. Effects of each decision variable on the objective functions are analysed. The results gave Pareto Front which represents the trade-offs between annual energy generation and the investment cost of hydropower plants, as well as the recommended optimal solutions. We noted that with the increase of the annual energy generation, the investment cost rises. Thus, maximizing energy generation is contradictory with minimizing the investment cost. Moreover, we have noted that the solutions of Pareto Front are grouped according to the number of generator units (n). The results also illustrate that the costs per kWh are grouped according to the n and rise with the increase of the nominal turbine flow rate. The lowest investment costs per kWh are obtained for n equal to one and are between 0.065 and 0.180 €/kWh. Following the values of n (equal to 1, 2, 3 or 4), the investment cost and investment cost per kWh increase almost linearly with increasing the nominal turbine flowrate while annual generated. Energy increases logarithmically with increasing of the nominal turbine flowrate. This study made for the Yeripao river can be applied to other rivers with their own characteristics.

Keywords: Hydropower plant, investment cost, multi-objective optimization, number of generator units.

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415 A Novel QoS Optimization Architecture for 4G Networks

Authors: Aaqif Afzaal Abbasi, Javaid Iqbal, Akhtar Nawaz Malik

Abstract:

4G Communication Networks provide heterogeneous wireless technologies to mobile subscribers through IP based networks and users can avail high speed access while roaming across multiple wireless channels; possible by an organized way to manage the Quality of Service (QoS) functionalities in these networks. This paper proposes the idea of developing a novel QoS optimization architecture that will judge the user requirements and knowing peak times of services utilization can save the bandwidth/cost factors. The proposed architecture can be customized according to the network usage priorities so as to considerably improve a network-s QoS performance.

Keywords: QoS, Network Coverage Boundary, ServicesArchives Units (SAU), Cumulative Services Archives Units (CSAU).

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414 Deterministic Random Number Generator Algorithm for Cryptosystem Keys

Authors: Adi A. Maaita, Hamza A. A. Al_Sewadi

Abstract:

One of the crucial parameters of digital cryptographic systems is the selection of the keys used and their distribution. The randomness of the keys has a strong impact on the system’s security strength being difficult to be predicted, guessed, reproduced, or discovered by a cryptanalyst. Therefore, adequate key randomness generation is still sought for the benefit of stronger cryptosystems. This paper suggests an algorithm designed to generate and test pseudo random number sequences intended for cryptographic applications. This algorithm is based on mathematically manipulating a publically agreed upon information between sender and receiver over a public channel. This information is used as a seed for performing some mathematical functions in order to generate a sequence of pseudorandom numbers that will be used for encryption/decryption purposes. This manipulation involves permutations and substitutions that fulfill Shannon’s principle of “confusion and diffusion”. ASCII code characters were utilized in the generation process instead of using bit strings initially, which adds more flexibility in testing different seed values. Finally, the obtained results would indicate sound difficulty of guessing keys by attackers.

Keywords: Cryptosystems, Information Security agreement, Key distribution, Random numbers.

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413 A Study of Environmental Test Sequences for Electrical Units

Authors: Jung Ho Yang, Yong Soo Kim

Abstract:

Electrical units are operated by electrical and electronic components. An environmental test sequence is useful for testing electrical units to reduce reliability issues. This study introduces test sequence guidelines based on relevant principles and considerations for electronic testing according to International Standard IEC-60068-1 and the United States Military Standard MIL-STD-810G. Test sequences were then proposed based on the descriptions for each test. Finally, General Motors (GM) specification GMW3172 was interpreted and compared to IEC-60068-1 and MIL-STD-810G.

Keywords: Reliability, Environmental test sequence, Electrical units, IEC 60068-1, MIL-STD-810G.

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412 Study on the Addition of Solar Generating and Energy Storage Units to a Power Distribution System

Authors: T. Costa, D. Narvaez, K. Melo, M. Villalva

Abstract:

Installation of micro-generators based on renewable energy in power distribution system has increased in recent years, with the main renewable sources being solar and wind. Due to the intermittent nature of renewable energy sources, such micro-generators produce time-varying energy which does not correspond at certain times of the day to the peak energy consumption of end users. For this reason, the use of energy storage units next to the grid contributes to the proper leveling of the buses’ voltage level according to Brazilian energy quality standards. In this work, the effect of the addition of a photovoltaic solar generator and a store of energy in the busbar voltages of an electric system is analyzed. The consumption profile is defined as the average hourly use of appliances in a common residence, and the generation profile is defined as a function of the solar irradiation available in a locality. The power summation method is validated with analytical calculation and is used to calculate the modules and angles of the voltages in the buses of an electrical system based on the IEEE standard, at each hour of the day and with defined load and generation profiles. The results show that bus 5 presents the worst voltage level at the power consumption peaks and stabilizes at the appropriate range with the inclusion of the energy storage during the night time period. Solar generator maintains improvement of the voltage level during the period when it receives solar irradiation, having peaks of production during the 12 pm (without exceeding the appropriate maximum levels of tension).

Keywords: Energy storage, power distribution system, solar generator, voltage level.

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411 State Estimation Solution with Optimal Allocation of Phasor Measurement Units Considering Zero Injection Bus Modeling

Authors: M. Ravindra, R. Srinivasa Rao, V. Shanmukha Naga Raju

Abstract:

This paper presents state estimation with Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) allocation to obtain complete observability of network. A matrix is designed with modeling of zero injection constraints to minimize PMU allocations. State estimation algorithm is developed with optimal allocation of PMUs to find accurate states of network. The incorporation of PMU into traditional state estimation process improves accuracy and computational performance for large power systems. The nonlinearity integrated with zero injection (ZI) constraints is remodeled to linear frame to optimize number of PMUs. The problem of optimal PMU allocation is regarded with modeling of ZI constraints, PMU loss or line outage, cost factor and redundant measurements. The proposed state estimation with optimal PMU allocation has been compared with traditional state estimation process to show its importance. MATLAB programming on IEEE 14, 30, 57, and 118 bus networks is implemented out by Binary Integer Programming (BIP) method and compared with other methods to show its effectiveness.

Keywords: Observability, phasor measurement units, synchrophasors, SCADA measurements, zero injection bus.

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410 Possible Number of Dwelling Units Using Waste Plastic Bottle for Construction

Authors: Dibya Jivan Pati, Kazuhisa Iki, Riken Homma

Abstract:

Unlike other metro cities of India, Bhubaneswar–the capital city of Odisha, is expected to reach 1-million-mark population by now. The demands of dwelling unit requirement mostly among urban poor belonging to Economically Weaker section (EWS) and Low Income groups (LIG) is becoming a challenge due to high housing cost and rents. As a matter of fact, it’s also noted that, with increase in population, the solid waste generation also increases subsequently affecting the environment due to inefficiency in collection of waste by local government bodies. Methods of utilizing Solid Waste - especially in form of Plastic bottles, Glass bottles and Metal cans (PGM) are now widely used as an alternative material for construction of low-cost building by Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) in developing countries like India to help the urban poor afford a shelter. The application of disposed plastic bottle used in construction of single dwelling significantly reduces the overall cost of construction to as much as 14% compared to traditional construction material. Therefore, considering its cost-benefit result, it’s possible to provide housing to EWS and LIGs at an affordable price. In this paper, we estimated the quantity of plastic bottles generated in Bhubaneswar which further helped to estimate the possible number of single dwelling unit that can be constructed on yearly basis so as to refrain from further housing shortage. The estimation results will be practically used for planning and managing low-cost housing business by local government and NGOs.

Keywords: Construction, dwelling unit, plastic bottle, solid waste generation, groups.

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409 Relationship between Communication Effectiveness and the Extent of Communication among Organizational Units

Authors: D. Charvatova

Abstract:

This contribution deals with the relationship between communication effectiveness and the extent of communication among organizational units. To facilitate communication between employees and to increase the level of understanding, the knowledge of communication tools is necessary. Recent experience has shown that personal communication is critical for smooth running of companies and cannot be fully replaced by any form of technical communication devices. Below are presented the outcomes of the research on the relationship between the extent of communication among organisational units and its efficiency.

Keywords: Company meetings, corporate culture, efficiency, effective communication, form of communication, information, organizational units, quality of communication, strategy, subordinates, superiors.

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408 A Very Efficient Pseudo-Random Number Generator Based On Chaotic Maps and S-Box Tables

Authors: M. Hamdi, R. Rhouma, S. Belghith

Abstract:

Generating random numbers are mainly used to create secret keys or random sequences. It can be carried out by various techniques. In this paper we present a very simple and efficient pseudo random number generator (PRNG) based on chaotic maps and S-Box tables. This technique adopted two main operations one to generate chaotic values using two logistic maps and the second to transform them into binary words using random S-Box tables. The simulation analysis indicates that our PRNG possessing excellent statistical and cryptographic properties.

Keywords: Chaotic map, Cryptography, Random Numbers, Statistical tests, S-box.

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407 Studying the Effect of Froude Number and Densimetric Froude Number on Local Scours around Circular Bridge Piers

Authors: Md Abdullah Al Faruque

Abstract:

A very large percentage of bridge failures are attributed to scouring around bridge piers and this directly influences public safety. Experiments are carried out in a 12-m long rectangular open channel flume made of transparent tempered glass. A 300 mm thick bed made up of sand particles is leveled horizontally to create the test bed and a 50 mm hollow plastic cylinder is used as a model bridge pier. Tests are carried out with varying flow depths and velocities. Data points of various scour parameters such as scour depth, width, and length are collected based on different flow conditions and visual observations of changes in the stream bed downstream the bridge pier are also made as the scour progresses. Result shows that all three major flow characteristics (flow depth, Froude number and densimetric Froude number) have one way or other affect the scour profile.

Keywords: Bridge pier scour, densimetric Froude number, flow depth, Froude Number, sand.

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406 Integration of Fixed and Variable Speed Wind Generator Dynamics with Multimachine AC Systems

Authors: A.H.M.A.Rahim

Abstract:

The impact of fixed speed squirrel cage type as well as variable speed doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) on dynamic performance of a multimachine power system has been investigated. Detailed models of the various components have been presented and the integration of asynchronous and synchronous generators has been carried out through a rotor angle based transform. Simulation studies carried out considering the conventional dynamic model of squirrel cage asynchronous generators show that integration, as such, could degrade to the AC system performance transiently. This article proposes a frequency or power controller which can effectively control the transients and restore normal operation of fixed speed induction generator quickly. Comparison of simulation results between classical cage and doubly-fed induction generators indicate that the doubly fed induction machine is more adaptable to multimachine AC system. Frequency controller installed in the DFIG system can also improve its transient profile.

Keywords: Doubly-fed generator, Induction generator, Multimachine system modeling, Wind energy systems

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405 Determination of Regimes of the Equivalent Generator Based On Projective Geometry: The Generalized Equivalent Generator

Authors: A. A. Penin

Abstract:

Requirements that should be met when determining the regimes of circuits with variable elements are formulated. The interpretation of the variations in the regimes, based on projective geometry, enables adequate expressions for determining and comparing the regimes to be derived. It is proposed to use as the parameters of a generalized equivalent generator of an active two-pole with changeable resistor such load current and voltage which provide the current through this resistor equal to zero.

Keywords: Equivalent generator, geometric circuits theory, circuits regimes, load characteristics, variable elements.

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404 Influence of Vortex Generator on Flow Behavior of Air Stream

Authors: Chakkapong Supasri, Tanongkiat Kiatsiriroat, Atipoang Nuntaphan

Abstract:

 

This research studied the influence of delta wing and delta winglet vortex generators on air flow characteristic. Normally, the vortex generator has been used for enhancing the heat transfer performance by promote the helical flow of air stream. The vortex generator was setup in the wind tunnel and the flow pattern of air stream passing the vortex generator was observed by using smoke generator. The Reynolds number of air stream was between 30,000 and 80,000. It is found that the delta winglet having 20mm fin height and 30 degree of air stream contact angle generates the maximum helical flow of air stream.

Keywords: Vortex generator, Flow behavior, Visual study, Delta wing, Delta winglet, Smoke generator.

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403 Comparison of an Interior Mounted Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator with a Synchronous Reluctance Generator for a Wind Application

Authors: Poopak Roshanfekr, Torbjörn Thiringer, Sonja Lundmark, Mikael Alatalo

Abstract:

This article presents a performance comparison of an interior mounted permanent magnet synchronous generator (IPMSG) with a synchronous reluctance generator (SynRG) with the same size for a wind application. It is found that using the same geometrical dimensions, a SynRG can convert 74 % of the power that an IPMSG can convert, while it has 80% of the IPMSG weight. Moreover it is found that the efficieny for the IMPSG is 99% at rated power compared to 98.7% for the SynRG.

Keywords: Interior mounted permanent magnet synchronous generator (IPMSG), synchronous reluctance generator (SynRG), wind energy, annual energy efficiency.

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402 Theoretical Isotope Generator: An Alternative towards Isotope Pattern Calculator

Authors: K. Massila, R. D. Stein, S. M. Suhaizan, A. A. Azlianor

Abstract:

A number of mass spectrometry applications are already available as web-based and windows-based systems to calculate isotope pattern and to display the mass spectrum based on the specific molecular formula besides providing necessary information. These applications were evaluated and compared with our new alternative application called Theoretical Isotope Generator (TIG) in terms of its functionality and features provided to prove this new application is working better and performing well. TIG provides extra features than others, complete with several functionality such as drawing, normalizing and zooming the generated graph that convey with the molecular information in a number of formats by providing the details of the calculation and molecules. Thus, any chemist, students, lecturers and researchers from anywhere could use TIG to gain related information on molecules and their relative intensity.

Keywords: Isotope pattern calculator, mass number, massspectrum, relative intensity.

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401 Design and Performance Analysis of a Hydro-Power Rim-Driven Superconducting Synchronous Generator

Authors: A. Hassannia, S. Ramezani

Abstract:

The technology of superconductivity has developed in many power system devices such as transmission cable, transformer, current limiter, motor and generator. Superconducting wires can carry high density current without loss, which is the capability that is used to design the compact, lightweight and more efficient electrical machines. Superconducting motors have found applications in marine and air propulsion systems as well as superconducting generators are considered in low power hydraulic and wind generators. This paper presents a rim-driven superconducting synchronous generator for hydraulic power plant. The rim-driven concept improves the performance of hydro turbine. Furthermore, high magnetic field that is produced by superconducting windings allows replacing the rotor core. As a consequent, the volume and weight of the machine is decreased significantly. In this paper, a 1 MW coreless rim-driven superconducting synchronous generator is designed. Main performance characteristics of the proposed machine are then evaluated using finite elements method and compared to an ordinary similar size synchronous generator.

Keywords: Coreless machine, electrical machine design, hydraulic generator, rim-driven machine, superconducting generator.

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400 Analyses of Natural Convection Heat Transfer from a Heated Cylinder Mounted in Vertical Duct

Authors: H. Bhowmik, A. Faisal, Ahmed Al Yaarubi, Nabil Al Alawi

Abstract:

Experiments are conducted to analyze the steady-state and the power-on transient natural convection heat transfer from a horizontal cylinder mounted in a vertical up flow circular duct. The heat flux ranges from 177 W/m2 to 2426 W/m2 and the Rayleigh number ranges from 1×104 to 4.35×104. For natural air flow and constant heat flux condition, the effects of heat transfer around the cylinder under steady-state condition are investigated. The steady-state results compare favorably with that of the available data. The effects of transient heat transfer data on different angular position of the thermocouple (0o, 90o, 180o) are also reported. It is observed that the transient heat transfer around the cylinder is strongly affected by the position of thermocouples. In the transient region, the rate of heat transfer obtained at 90o and 180o are higher than that of stagnation point (0o). Finally, the dependence of the average Nusselt number on Rayleigh number for steady and transient natural convection heat transfer are analyzed, and a correlation equation is presented.

Keywords: Steady-state, transient, natural convection, Rayleigh number, Nusselt number, Fourier Number.

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399 Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer Structures of Oscillating Pipe Flows

Authors: Yan Su, Jane H. Davidson, F. A. Kulacki

Abstract:

The RANS method with Saffman-s turbulence model was employed to solve the time-dependent turbulent Navier-Stokes and energy equations for oscillating pipe flows. The method of partial sums of the Fourier series is used to analyze the harmonic velocity and temperature results. The complete structures of the oscillating pipe flows and the averaged Nusselt numbers on the tube wall are provided by numerical simulation over wide ranges of ReA and ReR. Present numerical code is validated by comparing the laminar flow results to analytic solutions and turbulence flow results to published experimental data at lower and higher Reynolds numbers respectively. The effects of ReA and ReR on the velocity, temperature and Nusselt number distributions have been di scussed. The enhancement of the heat transfer due to oscillating flows has also been presented. By the way of analyzing the overall Nusselt number over wide ranges of the Reynolds number Re and Keulegan- Carpenter number KC, the optimal ratio of the tube diameter over the oscillation amplitude is obtained based on the existence of a nearly constant optimal KC number. The potential application of the present results in sea water cooling has also been discussed.

Keywords: Keulegan-Carpenter number, Nusselt number, Oscillating pipe flows, Reynolds number

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398 Techno-Economic Analysis of Motor-Generator Pair System and Virtual Synchronous Generator for Providing Inertia of Power System

Authors: Zhou Yingkun, Xu Guorui, Wei Siming, Huang Yongzhang

Abstract:

With the increasing of the penetration of renewable energy in power system, the whole inertia of the power system is declining, which will endanger the frequency stability of the power system. In order to enhance the inertia, virtual synchronous generator (VSG) has been proposed. In addition, the motor-generator pair (MGP) system is proposed to enhance grid inertia. Both of them need additional equipment to provide instantaneous energy, so the economic problem should be considered. In this paper, the basic working principle of MGP system and VSG are introduced firstly. Then, the technical characteristics and economic investment of MGP/VSG are compared by calculation and simulation. The results show that the MGP system can provide same inertia with less cost than VSG.

Keywords: High renewable energy penetration, inertia of power system, virtual synchronous generator, motor-generator pair system, techno-economic analysis.

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397 A PN Sequence Generator based on Residue Arithmetic for Multi-User DS-CDMA Applications

Authors: Chithra R, Pallab Maji, Sarat Kumar Patra, Girija Sankar Rath

Abstract:

The successful use of CDMA technology is based on the construction of large families of encoding sequences with good correlation properties. This paper discusses PN sequence generation based on Residue Arithmetic with an effort to improve the performance of existing interference-limited CDMA technology for mobile cellular systems. All spreading codes with residual number system proposed earlier did not consider external interferences, multipath propagation, Doppler effect etc. In literature the use of residual arithmetic in DS-CDMA was restricted to encoding of already spread sequence; where spreading of sequence is done by some existing techniques. The novelty of this paper is the use of residual number system in generation of the PN sequences which is used to spread the message signal. The significance of cross-correlation factor in alleviating multi-access interference is also discussed. The RNS based PN sequence has superior performance than most of the existing codes that are widely used in DS-CDMA applications. Simulation results suggest that the performance of the proposed system is superior to many existing systems.

Keywords: Direct-Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DSCDMA), Multiple-Access Interference (MAI), PN Sequence, Residue Number System (RNS).

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396 Investigation on a Wave-Powered Electrical Generator Consisted of a Geared Motor-Generator Housed by a Double-Cone Rolling on Concentric Circular Rails

Authors: Barenten Suciu

Abstract:

An electrical generator able to harness energy from the water waves and designed as a double-cone geared motor-generator (DCGMG), is proposed and theoretically investigated. Similar to a differential gear mechanism, used in the transmission system of the auto vehicle wheels, an angular speed differential is created between the cones rolling on two concentric circular rails. Water wave acting on the floating DCGMG produces and a gear-box amplifies the speed differential to gain sufficient torque for power generation. A model that allows computation of the speed differential, torque, and power of the DCGMG is suggested. Influence of various parameters, regarding the construction of the DCGMG, as well as the contact between the double-cone and rails, on the electro-mechanical output, is emphasized. Results obtained indicate that the generated electrical power can be increased by augmenting the mass of the double-cone, the span of the rails, the apex angle of the cones, the friction between cones and rails, the amplification factor of the gear-box, and the efficiency of the motor-generator. Such findings are useful to formulate a design methodology for the proposed wave-powered generator.

Keywords: Wave-powered electrical generator, double-cone, circular concentric rails, amplification of angular speed differential.

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395 A Dynamically Reconfigurable Arithmetic Circuit for Complex Number and Double Precision Number

Authors: Haruo Shimada, Akinori Kanasugi

Abstract:

This paper proposes an architecture of dynamically reconfigurable arithmetic circuit. Dynamic reconfiguration is a technique to realize required functions by changing hardware construction during operations. The proposed circuit is based on a complex number multiply-accumulation circuit which is used frequently in the field of digital signal processing. In addition, the proposed circuit performs real number double precision arithmetic operations. The data formats are single and double precision floating point number based on IEEE754. The proposed circuit is designed using VHDL, and verified the correct operation by simulations and experiments.

Keywords: arithmetic circuit, complex number, double precision, dynamic reconfiguration

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394 Stimulus-Dependent Polyrhythms of Central Pattern Generator Hardware

Authors: Le Zhao, Alain Nogaret

Abstract:

We have built universal central pattern generator (CPG) hardware by interconnecting Hodgkin-Huxley neurons with reciprocally inhibitory synapses. We investigate the dynamics of neuron oscillations as a function of the time delay between current steps applied to individual neurons. We demonstrate stimulus dependent switching between spiking polyrhythms and map the phase portraits of the neuron oscillations to reveal the basins of attraction of the system. We experimentally study the dependence of the attraction basins on the network parameters: The neuron response time and the strength of inhibitory connections.

Keywords: Central pattern generator, winnerless competition principle.

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393 Numerical Study of Transient Laminar Natural Convection Cooling of high Prandtl Number Fluids in a Cubical Cavity: Influence of the Prandtl Number

Authors: O. Younis, J. Pallares, F. X. Grau

Abstract:

This paper presents and discusses the numerical simulations of transient laminar natural convection cooling of high Prandtl number fluids in cubical cavities, in which the six walls of the cavity are subjected to a step change in temperature. The effect of the fluid Prandtl number on the heat transfer coefficient is studied for three different fluids (Golden Syrup, Glycerin and Glycerin-water solution 50%). The simulations are performed at two different Rayleigh numbers (5·106 and 5·107) and six different Prandtl numbers (3 · 105 ≥Pr≥ 50). Heat conduction through the cavity glass walls is also considered. The propsed correlations of the averaged heat transfer coefficient (N u) showed that it is dependant on the initial Ra and almost independent on P r. The instantaneous flow patterns, temperature contours and time evolution of volume averaged temperature and heat transfer coefficient are presented and analyzed.

Keywords: Transient natural convection, High Prandtl number, variable viscosity.

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392 A New Design of Permanent Magnets Reluctance Generator

Authors: Andi Pawawoi, Syafii

Abstract:

Instantaneous electromagnetic torque of simple reflectance generator can be positive at a time and negative at other time. It is utilized to design a permanent magnet reluctance generator specifically. Generator is designed by combining two simple reluctance generators, consists of two rotors mounted on the same shaft, two output-windings and a field source of the permanent magnet. By this design, the electromagnetic torque on both rotor will be eliminated each other, so the input torque generator can be smaller. Rotor is expected only to regulate the flux flow to both output windings alternately, until the magnetic energy is converted into electrical energy, such as occurs in the transformer energy conversion. ​​The prototype trials have been made to test this design. The test result show that the new design of permanent magnets reluctance generator able to convert energy from permanent magnets into electrical energy, this is proven by the existence 167% power output compared to the shaft input power.

Keywords: Energy, Magnet permanent, Reluctance generator.

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391 Natural Convection Heat Transfer from Inclined Cylinders: A Unified Correlation

Authors: Neetu Rani, Hema Setia, Marut Dutt. R.K. Wanchoo

Abstract:

An empirical correlation for predicting the heat transfer coefficient for a cylinder under free convection, inclined at any arbitrary angle with the horizontal has been developed in terms of Nusselt number, Prandtl number and Grashof number. Available experimental data was used to determine the parameters for the proposed correlation. The proposed correlation predicts the available data well within ±10%, for Prandtl number in the range 0.68-0.72 and Grashof number in the range 1.4×104–1.2×1010.

Keywords: Heat transfer, inclined cylinders, natural convection, Nusselt number, Prandtl number, Grashof number.

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390 Cascaded ANN for Evaluation of Frequency and Air-gap Voltage of Self-Excited Induction Generator

Authors: Raja Singh Khela, R. K. Bansal, K. S. Sandhu, A. K. Goel

Abstract:

Self-Excited Induction Generator (SEIG) builds up voltage while it enters in its magnetic saturation region. Due to non-linear magnetic characteristics, the performance analysis of SEIG involves cumbersome mathematical computations. The dependence of air-gap voltage on saturated magnetizing reactance can only be established at rated frequency by conducting a laboratory test commonly known as synchronous run test. But, there is no laboratory method to determine saturated magnetizing reactance and air-gap voltage of SEIG at varying speed, terminal capacitance and other loading conditions. For overall analysis of SEIG, prior information of magnetizing reactance, generated frequency and air-gap voltage is essentially required. Thus, analytical methods are the only alternative to determine these variables. Non-existence of direct mathematical relationship of these variables for different terminal conditions has forced the researchers to evolve new computational techniques. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are very useful for solution of such complex problems, as they do not require any a priori information about the system. In this paper, an attempt is made to use cascaded neural networks to first determine the generated frequency and magnetizing reactance with varying terminal conditions and then air-gap voltage of SEIG. The results obtained from the ANN model are used to evaluate the overall performance of SEIG and are found to be in good agreement with experimental results. Hence, it is concluded that analysis of SEIG can be carried out effectively using ANNs.

Keywords: Self-Excited Induction Generator, Artificial NeuralNetworks, Exciting Capacitance and Saturated magnetizingreactance.

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389 Modular Harmonic Cancellation in a Multiplier High Voltage Direct Current Generator

Authors: Ahmad Zahran, Ahmed Herzallah, Ahmad Ahmad, Mahran Quraan

Abstract:

Generation of high DC voltages is necessary for testing the insulation material of high voltage AC transmission lines with long lengths. The harmonic and ripple contents of the output DC voltage supplied by high voltage DC circuits require the use of costly capacitors to smooth the output voltage after rectification. This paper proposes a new modular multiplier high voltage DC generator with embedded Cockcroft-Walton circuits that achieve a negligible harmonic and ripple contents of the output DC voltage without the need for costly filters to produce a nearly constant output voltage. In this new topology, Cockcroft-Walton modules are connected in series to produce a high DC output voltage. The modules are supplied by low input AC voltage sources that have the same magnitude and frequency and shifted from each other by a certain angle to eliminate the harmonics from the output voltage. The small ripple factor is provided by the smoothing column capacitors and the phase shifted input voltages of the cascaded modules. The constituent harmonics within each module are determined using Fourier analysis. The viability of the proposed DC generator for testing purposes and the effectiveness of the cascaded connection are confirmed by numerical simulations using MATLAB/Simulink.

Keywords: Cockcroft-Walton circuit, Harmonics, Ripple factor, HVDC generator.

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388 Generator Damage Recognition Based on Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Chang-Hung Hsu, Chun-Yao Lee, Guan-Lin Liao, Yung-Tsan Jou, Jin-Maun Ho, Yu-Hua Hsieh, Yi-Xing Shen

Abstract:

This article simulates the wind generator set which has two fault bearing collar rail destruction and the gear box oil leak fault. The electric current signal which produced by the generator, We use Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) as well as Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) obtains the frequency range-s signal figure and characteristic value. The last step is use a kind of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) classifies which determination fault signal's type and reason. The ANN purpose of the automatic identification wind generator set fault..

Keywords: Wind-driven generator, Fast Fourier Transform, Neural network

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387 Sinusoidal Roughness Elements in a Square Cavity

Authors: M. Yousaf, S. Usman

Abstract:

Numerical studies were conducted using Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) to study the natural convection in a square cavity in the presence of roughness. An algorithm based on a single relaxation time Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) model of Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) was developed. Roughness was introduced on both the hot and cold walls in the form of sinusoidal roughness elements. The study was conducted for a Newtonian fluid of Prandtl number (Pr) 1.0. The range of Ra number was explored from 10^3 to 10^6 in a laminar region. Thermal and hydrodynamic behavior of fluid was analyzed using a differentially heated square cavity with roughness elements present on both the hot and cold wall. Neumann boundary conditions were introduced on horizontal walls with vertical walls as isothermal. The roughness elements were at the same boundary condition as corresponding walls. Computational algorithm was validated against previous benchmark studies performed with different numerical methods, and a good agreement was found to exist. Results indicate that the maximum reduction in the average heat transfer was 16.66 percent at Ra number 10^5.

Keywords: Lattice Boltzmann Method Natural convection, Nusselt Number Rayleigh number, Roughness.

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