Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 1184

Search results for: normal

974 Effect of Reynolds Number on Wall-normal Turbulence Intensity in a Smooth and Rough Open Channel Using both Outer and Inner Scaling

Authors: Ram Balachandar, Md Abdullah Al Faruque

Abstract:

Sudden change of bed condition is frequent in open channel flow. Change of bed condition affects the turbulence characteristics in both streamwise and wall-normal direction. Understanding the turbulence intensity in open channel flow is of vital importance to the modeling of sediment transport and resuspension, bed formation, entrainment, and the exchange of energy and momentum. A comprehensive study was carried out to understand the extent of the effect of Reynolds number and bed roughness on different turbulence characteristics in an open channel flow. Four different bed conditions (impervious smooth bed, impervious continuous rough bed, pervious rough sand bed, and impervious distributed roughness) and two different Reynolds numbers were adopted for this cause. The effect of bed roughness on different turbulence characteristics is seen to be prevalent for most of the flow depth. Effect of Reynolds number on different turbulence characteristics is also evident for flow over different bed, but the extent varies on bed condition. Although the same sand grain is used to create the different rough bed conditions, the difference in turbulence characteristics is an indication that specific geometry of the roughness has an influence on turbulence characteristics. Roughness increases the contribution of the extreme turbulent events which produces very large instantaneous Reynolds shear stress and can potentially influence the sediment transport, resuspension of pollutant from bed and alter the nutrient composition, which eventually affect the sustainability of benthic organisms.

Keywords: Turbulence, Reynolds number, roughness, open channel flow

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973 Application Reliability Method for Concrete Dams

Authors: Mustapha Kamel Mihoubi, Mohamed Essadik Kerkar

Abstract:

Probabilistic risk analysis models are used to provide a better understanding of the reliability and structural failure of works, including when calculating the stability of large structures to a major risk in the event of an accident or breakdown. This work is interested in the study of the probability of failure of concrete dams through the application of reliability analysis methods including the methods used in engineering. It is in our case, the use of level 2 methods via the study limit state. Hence, the probability of product failures is estimated by analytical methods of the type first order risk method (FORM) and the second order risk method (SORM). By way of comparison, a level three method was used which generates a full analysis of the problem and involves an integration of the probability density function of random variables extended to the field of security using the Monte Carlo simulation method. Taking into account the change in stress following load combinations: normal, exceptional and extreme acting on the dam, calculation of the results obtained have provided acceptable failure probability values which largely corroborate the theory, in fact, the probability of failure tends to increase with increasing load intensities, thus causing a significant decrease in strength, shear forces then induce a shift that threatens the reliability of the structure by intolerable values of the probability of product failures. Especially, in case the increase of uplift in a hypothetical default of the drainage system.

Keywords: Simulation, Probability, Reliability, Monte Carlo Simulation, Failure, sliding, dam, Taylor, limit-state

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972 Computer Modeling and Plant-Wide Dynamic Simulation for Industrial Flare Minimization

Authors: Sujing Wang, Song Wang, Jian Zhang, Qiang Xu

Abstract:

Flaring emissions during abnormal operating conditions such as plant start-ups, shut-downs, and upsets in chemical process industries (CPI) are usually significant. Flare minimization can help to save raw material and energy for CPI plants, and to improve local environmental sustainability. In this paper, a systematic methodology based on plant-wide dynamic simulation is presented for CPI plant flare minimizations under abnormal operating conditions. Since off-specification emission sources are inevitable during abnormal operating conditions, to significantly reduce flaring emission in a CPI plant, they must be either recycled to the upstream process for online reuse, or stored somewhere temporarily for future reprocessing, when the CPI plant manufacturing returns to stable operation. Thus, the off-spec products could be reused instead of being flared. This can be achieved through the identification of viable design and operational strategies during normal and abnormal operations through plant-wide dynamic scheduling, simulation, and optimization. The proposed study includes three stages of simulation works: (i) developing and validating a steady-state model of a CPI plant; (ii) transiting the obtained steady-state plant model to the dynamic modeling environment; and refining and validating the plant dynamic model; and (iii) developing flare minimization strategies for abnormal operating conditions of a CPI plant via a validated plant-wide dynamic model. This cost-effective methodology has two main merits: (i) employing large-scale dynamic modeling and simulations for industrial flare minimization, which involves various unit models for modeling hundreds of CPI plant facilities; (ii) dealing with critical abnormal operating conditions of CPI plants such as plant start-up and shut-down. Two virtual case studies on flare minimizations for start-up operation (over 50% of emission savings) and shut-down operation (over 70% of emission savings) of an ethylene plant have been employed to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed study.

Keywords: flare minimization, large-scale modeling and simulation, plant shut-down, plant start-up

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971 Poststreptococcal Reactive Arthritis in Children: A Serial Case

Authors: A. Lubis, S. S. Pasulu, Z. Hikmah, A. Endaryanto, A. Harsono

Abstract:

Infection by group A streptococci (GAS) can trigger an autoantibody that cause a poststreptococcal reactive arthritis (PSRA). Four patients with PSRA aged 10 years to 14 years old with the main complaint of joint pain for five days to 10 days after suffering a fever and sore throat. The joint pain was persistent, additive, and non migratory. All patients revealed an increase in erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and anti-streptolysin O (ASLO), but the chest x-ray, electrocardiography, and echocardiography were normal. Bone imaging showed no destruction on the affected joint. Jones Criteria were not fulfilled in all patients. Erythromycin and ibuprofen were given in all patients and an improvement was shown. Erythromycin was continued for one year and routine controls were conducted for cardiac evaluation. The prognosis of all the patients was good.

Keywords: arthritis, group a streptococcus, autoantibody, Jones criteria

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970 Further Investigation of α+12C and α+16O Elastic Scattering

Authors: Sh. Hamada

Abstract:

The current work aims to study the rainbow like-structure observed in the elastic scattering of alpha particles on both 12C and 16O nuclei. We reanalyzed the experimental elastic scattering angular distributions data for α+12C and α+16O nuclear systems at different energies using both optical model and double folding potential of different interaction models such as: CDM3Y1, DDM3Y1, CDM3Y6 and BDM3Y1. Potential created by BDM3Y1 interaction model has the shallowest depth which reflects the necessity to use higher renormalization factor (Nr). Both optical model and double folding potential of different interaction models fairly reproduce the experimental data.

Keywords: elastic scattering, optical model, double folding, density distribution, nuclear rainbow

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969 Comparison of Wind Fragility for Window System in the Simplified 10 and 15-Story Building Considering Exposure Category

Authors: Wooyoung Jung, Viriyavudh Sim

Abstract:

Window system in high rise building is occasionally subjected to an excessive wind intensity, particularly during typhoon. The failure of window system did not affect overall safety of structural performance; however, it could endanger the safety of the residents. In this paper, comparison of fragility curves for window system of two residential buildings was studied. The probability of failure for individual window was determined with Monte Carlo Simulation method. Then, lognormal cumulative distribution function was used to represent the fragility. The results showed that windows located on the edge of leeward wall were more susceptible to wind load and the probability of failure for each window panel increased at higher floors.

Keywords: wind fragility, window system, high rise building

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968 Manufacturing of Twist-Free Surfaces by Magnetism Aided Machining Technologies

Authors: Zs. Kovács, Zs. J. Viharos, J. Kodácsy

Abstract:

As a well-known conventional finishing process, the grinding is commonly used to manufacture seal mating surfaces and bearing surfaces, but is also creates twisted surfaces. The machined surfaces by turning or grinding usually have twist structure on the surfaces, which can convey lubricants such as conveyor screw. To avoid this phenomenon, have to use special techniques or machines, for example start-stop turning, tangential turning, ultrasonic protection or special toll geometries. All of these solutions have high cost and difficult usability. In this paper, we describe a system and summarize the results of the experimental research carried out mainly in the field of Magnetic Abrasive Polishing (MAP) and Magnetic Roller Burnishing (MRB). These technologies are simple and also green while able to produce twist-free surfaces. During the tests, C45 normalized steel was used as workpiece material which was machined by simple and Wiper geometrical turning inserts in a CNC turning lathe. After the turning, the MAP and MRB technologies can be used directly to reduce the twist of surfaces. The evaluation was completed by advanced measuring and IT equipment.

Keywords: Magnetism, Finishing, polishing, roller burnishing, twist-free

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967 Motor Coordination and Body Mass Index in Primary School Children

Authors: Piotr Olesniewicz, Ingrid Ruzbarska, Martin Zvonar, Julita Markiewicz-Patkowska, Krzysztof Widawski, Daniel Puciato

Abstract:

Obese children will probably become obese adults, consequently exposed to an increased risk of comorbidity and premature mortality. Body weight may be indirectly determined by continuous development of coordination and motor skills. The level of motor skills and abilities is an important factor that promotes physical activity since early childhood. The aim of the study is to thoroughly understand the internal relations between motor coordination abilities and the somatic development of prepubertal children and to determine the effect of excess body weight on motor coordination by comparing the motor ability levels of children with different body mass index (BMI) values. The data were collected from 436 children aged 7–10 years, without health limitations, fully participating in school physical education classes. Body height was measured with portable stadiometers (Harpenden, Holtain Ltd.), and body mass—with a digital scale (HN-286, Omron). Motor coordination was evaluated with the Kiphard-Schilling body coordination test, Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. The normality test by Shapiro-Wilk was used to verify the data distribution. The correlation analysis revealed a statistically significant negative association between the dynamic balance and BMI, as well as between the motor quotient and BMI (p<0.01) for both boys and girls. The results showed no effect of gender on the difference in the observed trends. The analysis of variance proved statistically significant differences between normal weight children and their overweight or obese counterparts. Coordination abilities probably play an important role in preventing or moderating the negative trajectory leading to childhood overweight and obesity. At this age, the development of coordination abilities should become a key strategy, targeted at long-term prevention of obesity and the promotion of an active lifestyle in adulthood. Motor performance is essential for implementing a healthy lifestyle in childhood already. Physical inactivity apparently results in motor deficits and a sedentary lifestyle in children, which may be accompanied by excess energy intake and overweight.

Keywords: Physical Education, Childhood, KTK test, psychomotor competence

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966 A Failure Criterion for Unsupported Boreholes in Poorly Cemented Granular Formations

Authors: Sam S. Hashemi

Abstract:

The breakage of bonding between sand particles and their dislodgment from the borehole wall are among the main factors resulting in a borehole failure in poorly cemented granular formations. The grain debonding usually precedes the borehole failure and it can be considered as a sign that the onset of the borehole collapse is imminent. Detecting the bonding breakage point and introducing an appropriate failure criterion will play an important role in borehole stability analysis. To study the influence of different factors on the initiation of sand bonding breakage at the borehole wall, a series of laboratory tests was designed and conducted on poorly cemented sand samples. The total absorbed strain energy per volume of material up to the point of the observed particle debonding was computed. The results indicated that the particle bonding breakage point at the borehole wall was reached both before and after the peak strength of the thick-walled hollow cylinder specimens depending on the stress path and cement content. Three different cement contents and two borehole sizes were investigated to study the influence of the bonding strength and scale on the particle dislodgment. Test results showed that the stress path has a significant influence on the onset of the sand bonding breakage. It was shown that for various stress paths, there is a near linear relationship between the absorbed energy and the normal effective mean stress.

Keywords: borehole stability, experimental studies, poorly cemented sands, total strain energy, particle bonding breakage

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965 Methodologies for Crack Initiation in Welded Joints Applied to Inspection Planning

Authors: Guang Zou, Kian Banisoleiman, Arturo González

Abstract:

Crack initiation and propagation threatens structural integrity of welded joints and normally inspections are assigned based on crack propagation models. However, the approach based on crack propagation models may not be applicable for some high-quality welded joints, because the initial flaws in them may be so small that it may take long time for the flaws to develop into a detectable size. This raises a concern regarding the inspection planning of high-quality welded joins, as there is no generally acceptable approach for modeling the whole fatigue process that includes the crack initiation period. In order to address the issue, this paper reviews treatment methods for crack initiation period and initial crack size in crack propagation models applied to inspection planning. Generally, there are four approaches, by: 1) Neglecting the crack initiation period and fitting a probabilistic distribution for initial crack size based on statistical data; 2) Extrapolating the crack propagation stage to a very small fictitious initial crack size, so that the whole fatigue process can be modeled by crack propagation models; 3) Assuming a fixed detectable initial crack size and fitting a probabilistic distribution for crack initiation time based on specimen tests; and, 4) Modeling the crack initiation and propagation stage separately using small crack growth theories and Paris law or similar models. The conclusion is that in view of trade-off between accuracy and computation efforts, calibration of a small fictitious initial crack size to S-N curves is the most efficient approach.

Keywords: Fatigue Reliability, crack initiation, inspection planning, welded joints

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964 Hypertension and Its Association with Oral Health Status in Adults: A Pilot Study in Padusunan Adults Community

Authors: Murniwati, Nurul Khairiyah, Putri Ovieza Maizar

Abstract:

The association between general and oral health is clearly important, particularly in adults with medical conditions. Many of the medical systemic conditions are either caused or aggravated by poor oral hygiene and vice versa. Hypertension is one of common medical systemic problem which has been a public health concern worldwide due to its known consequences. Those consequences must be related to oral health status as well, whether it may cause or worsen the oral health conditions. The objective of this study was to find out the association between hypertension and oral health status in adults. This study was an analytical observational study by using cross-sectional method. A total of 42 adults both male and female in Padusunan Village, Pariaman, West Sumatra, Indonesia were selected as subjects by using purposive sampling. Manual sphygmomanometer was used to measure blood pressure and dental examination was performed to calculate the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) scores in order to represent oral health status. The data obtained was analyzed statistically using One Way ANOVA to determine the association between hypertensive adults and their oral health status. The result showed that majority age of the subjects was ranging from 51-70 years (40.5%). Based on blood pressure examination, 57.1% of subjects were classified to prehypertension. Overall, the mean of DMFT score calculated in normal, prehypertension and hypertension group was not considered statistically significant. There was no significant association (p>0.05) between hypertension and oral health status in adults.

Keywords: Hypertension, Blood Pressure, DMFT, oral health status

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963 Effect of the Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Ficus exasperata on Biochemical Indices of Albino Mice Experimentally Infected with Plasmodium berghei (NK 65)

Authors: Lebari B. Gboeloh

Abstract:

Ficus exasperata is a plant used in the traditional management of malaria in south-south Nigeria. An investigation into the effects of the ethanolic extract of the leaf of the plant on some biochemical indices in albino mice infected with Plasmodium berghei (NK 65) was conducted. 48 mice with weight range of 13-23 g were grouped into six (A, B, C, D, E, and F). Each group contained 8 mice. Groups A, B, C, D and E were infected with blood containing the parasite. Group F was not infected and served as the normal control. On the 6th day after infection, 4 mice from each group were sacrificed and blood samples are collected for investigation. The remaining mice in each group were treated. Mice in Groups A, B and C were administered orally with 200, 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight of Ficus exasperata respectively for six days. Group D was not treated while Group F was given distilled water. Group E was treated with 5 mg/kg body weight of chloroquine. On the 6th day post treatment, these mice were sacrificed and blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis. The results indicated that on the 6th day post inoculation, the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in all the mice infected with the parasite were significantly (p < 0.05) elevated. However, on the 6th day post administration of extract, the increased levels of AST, ALP and ALT were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced in groups administered with 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight of the extract compared with groups D and F. The reduction in the levels of these enzymes is an indication that F. exasperata have no hepatotoxic effect on the mice at the dose levels administered.

Keywords: biochemical parameters, albino mice, Ficus exasperata, Plasmodium berghei

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962 Stochastic Risk Analysis Framework for Building Construction Projects

Authors: Abdulkadir Abu Lawal

Abstract:

The study was carried out to establish the probability density function of some selected building construction projects of similar complexity delivered using Bill of Quantities (BQ) and Lump Sum (LS) forms of contract, and to draw a reliability scenario for each form of contract. 30 of such delivered projects are analyzed for each of the contract forms using Weibull Analysis, and their Weibull functions (α, and β) are determined based on their completion times. For the BQ form of contract delivered projects, α is calculated as 1.6737E20 and β as + 0.0115 and for the LS form, α is found to be 5.6556E03 and β is determined as + 0.4535. Using these values, respective probability density functions are calculated and plotted, as handy tool for risk analysis of future projects of similar characteristics. By input of variables from other projects, decision making processes can be made for a whole project or its components using EVM Analysis in project evaluation and review techniques. This framework, as a quantitative approach, depends on the assumption of normality in projects completion time, it can help greatly in determining the completion time probability for veritable projects using any of the contract forms under consideration. Projects aspects that are not amenable to measurement, on the other hand, can be analyzed using fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic. This scenario can be drawn for different types of building construction projects, and using different suitable forms of contract in projects delivery.

Keywords: Building Construction, projects, probability density function, forms of contract, Reliability scenario

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961 CBIR Using Multi-Resolution Transform for Brain Tumour Detection and Stages Identification

Authors: R. Balasubramanian, H. Benjamin Fredrick David, A. Anbarasa Pandian

Abstract:

Image retrieval is the most interesting technique which is being used today in our digital world. CBIR, commonly expanded as Content Based Image Retrieval is an image processing technique which identifies the relevant images and retrieves them based on the patterns that are extracted from the digital images. In this paper, two research works have been presented using CBIR. The first work provides an automated and interactive approach to the analysis of CBIR techniques. CBIR works on the principle of supervised machine learning which involves feature selection followed by training and testing phase applied on a classifier in order to perform prediction. By using feature extraction, the image transforms such as Contourlet, Ridgelet and Shearlet could be utilized to retrieve the texture features from the images. The features extracted are used to train and build a classifier using the classification algorithms such as Naïve Bayes, K-Nearest Neighbour and Multi-class Support Vector Machine. Further the testing phase involves prediction which predicts the new input image using the trained classifier and label them from one of the four classes namely 1- Normal brain, 2- Benign tumour, 3- Malignant tumour and 4- Severe tumour. The second research work includes developing a tool which is used for tumour stage identification using the best feature extraction and classifier identified from the first work. Finally, the tool will be used to predict tumour stage and provide suggestions based on the stage of tumour identified by the system. This paper presents these two approaches which is a contribution to the medical field for giving better retrieval performance and for tumour stages identification.

Keywords: Image Retrieval, content based image retrieval, Brain tumour detection, classification of tumours

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960 Hydrogeological Factors of the Ore Genesis in the Sedimentary Basins

Authors: L. Abukova, O. Abramova, A. Goreva, G. Isaeva

Abstract:

The present work was made for the purpose of evaluating the interstitial water’s role in the mobilization of metal elements of clay deposits and occurrences in sedimentary formation in the hydro-geological basins. The experiments were performed by using a special facility, which allows adjusting the pressure, temperature, and the frequency of the acoustic vibrations. The dates for study were samples of the oil shales (Baltic career, O2kk) and clay rocks, mainly montmorillonite composition (Borehole SG-12000, the depth of selection 1000–3600 m, the Azov-Kuban trough, N1). After interstitial water squeezing from the rock samples, decrease in the original content of the rock forming components including trace metals V, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Zr, Mo, Pb, W, Ti, and others was recorded. The experiments made it possible to evaluate the ore elements output and organic matters with the interstitial waters. Calculations have shown that, in standard conditions, from each ton of the oil shales, 5-6 kg of ore elements and 9-10 kg of organic matter can be escaped. A quantity of matter, migrating from clays in the process of solidification, is changed depending on the lithogenesis stage: more recent unrealized deposits lose more ore and organic materials than the clay rocks, selected from depth over 3000 m. Each ton of clays in the depth interval 1000-1500 m is able to generate 3-5 kg of the ore elements and 6-8 kg of the organic matters. The interstitial waters are a freight forwarder over transferring these matters in the reservoir beds. It was concluded that the interstitial waters which escaped from the study samples are solutions with abnormal high concentrations of the metals and organic matters. In the discharge zones of the sediment basins, such fluids can create paragenetic associations of the sedimentary-catagenetic ore and hydrocarbon mineral resources accumulations.

Keywords: Hydrocarbons, ore genesis, paragenesis, interstitial waters

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959 Factors Affecting General Practitioners’ Transfer of Specialized Self-Care Knowledge to Patients

Authors: Weidong Xia, Malgorzata Kolotylo, Xuan Tan

Abstract:

This study examines the key factors that influence general practitioners’ learning and transfer of specialized arthritis knowledge and self-care techniques to patients during normal patient visits. Drawing on the theory of planed behavior and using matched survey data collected from general practitioners before and after training sessions provided by specialized orthopedic physicians, the study suggests that the general practitioner’s intention to use and transfer learned knowledge was influenced mainly by intrinsic motivation, organizational learning culture and absorptive capacity, but was not influenced by extrinsic motivation. The results provide both theoretical and practical implications.

Keywords: empirical study, healthcare knowledge management, patient self-care, physician knowledge transfer

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958 Image Retrieval Based on Multi-Feature Fusion for Heterogeneous Image Databases

Authors: N. W. U. D. Chathurani, Shlomo Geva, Vinod Chandran, Proboda Rajapaksha

Abstract:

Selecting an appropriate image representation is the most important factor in implementing an effective Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) system. This paper presents a multi-feature fusion approach for efficient CBIR, based on the distance distribution of features and relative feature weights at the time of query processing. It is a simple yet effective approach, which is free from the effect of features' dimensions, ranges, internal feature normalization and the distance measure. This approach can easily be adopted in any feature combination to improve retrieval quality. The proposed approach is empirically evaluated using two benchmark datasets for image classification (a subset of the Corel dataset and Oliva and Torralba) and compared with existing approaches. The performance of the proposed approach is confirmed with the significantly improved performance in comparison with the independently evaluated baseline of the previously proposed feature fusion approaches.

Keywords: Image Retrieval, membership function, normalization, feature fusion

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957 Application of Recycled Tungsten Carbide Powder for Fabrication of Iron Based Powder Metallurgy Alloy

Authors: Yukinori Taniguchi, Kazuyoshi Kurita, Kohei Mizuta, Keigo Nishitani, Ryuichi Fukuda

Abstract:

Tungsten carbide is widely used as a tool material in metal manufacturing process. Since tungsten is typical rare metal, establishment of recycle process of tungsten carbide tools and restore into cemented carbide material bring great impact to metal manufacturing industry. Recently, recycle process of tungsten carbide has been developed and established gradually. However, the demands for quality of cemented carbide tool are quite severe because hardness, toughness, anti-wear ability, heat resistance, fatigue strength and so on should be guaranteed for precision machining and tool life. Currently, it is hard to restore the recycled tungsten carbide powder entirely as raw material for new processed cemented carbide tool. In this study, to suggest positive use of recycled tungsten carbide powder, we have tried to fabricate a carbon based sintered steel which shows reinforced mechanical properties with recycled tungsten carbide powder. We have made set of newly designed sintered steels. Compression test of sintered specimen in density ratio of 0.85 (which means 15% porosity inside) has been conducted. As results, at least 1.7 times higher in nominal strength in the amount of 7.0 wt.% was shown in recycled WC powder. The strength reached to over 600 MPa for the Fe-WC-Co-Cu sintered alloy. Wear test has been conducted by using ball-on-disk type friction tester using 5 mm diameter ball with normal force of 2 N in the dry conditions. Wear amount after 1,000 m running distance shows that about 1.5 times longer life was shown in designed sintered alloy. Since results of tensile test showed that same tendency in previous testing, it is concluded that designed sintered alloy can be used for several mechanical parts with special strength and anti-wear ability in relatively low cost due to recycled tungsten carbide powder.

Keywords: powder metallurgy, compression test, tungsten carbide, recycle process, anti-wear ability

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956 Fractional Order Controller Design for Vibration Attenuation in an Airplane Wing

Authors: Birs Isabela, Muresan Cristina, Folea Silviu, Prodan Ovidiu

Abstract:

The wing is one of the most important parts of an airplane because it ensures stability, sustenance and maneuverability of the airplane. Because of its shape, the airplane wing can be simplified to a smart beam. Active vibration suppression is realized using piezoelectric actuators that are mounted on the surface of the beam. This work presents a tuning procedure of fractional order controllers based on a graphical approach of the frequency domain representation. The efficacy of the method is proven by practically testing the controller on a laboratory scale experimental stand.

Keywords: Piezoelectric Actuators, Vibration Suppression, smart beam, fractional order controller

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955 Stability Analysis for an Extended Model of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis

Authors: Beata Jackowska-Zduniak

Abstract:

We formulate and analyze a mathematical model describing dynamics of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid homoeostatic mechanism in endocrine system. We introduce to this system two types of couplings and delay. In our model, feedback controls the secretion of thyroid hormones and delay reflects time lags required for transportation of the hormones. The influence of delayed feedback on the stability behaviour of the system is discussed. Analytical results are illustrated by numerical examples of the model dynamics. This system of equations describes normal activity of the thyroid and also a couple of types of malfunctions (e.g. hyperthyroidism).

Keywords: Mathematical Modeling, endocrine system, Stability Analysis, ordinary differential equations

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954 Legal Doctrine on Rylands v. Fletcher: One more time on Feasibility of a General Clause of Strict Liability in the UK

Authors: Maria Lubomira Kubica

Abstract:

The paper reveals the birth and evolution of the British precedent Rylands v. Fletcher that, once adopted on the other side of the Ocean (in United States), gave rise to a general clause of liability for abnormally dangerous activities recognized by the §20 of the American Restatements of the Law Third, Liability for Physical and Emotional Harm. The main goal of the paper was to analyze the development of the legal doctrine and of the case law posterior to the precedent together with the intent of the British judicature to leapfrog from the traditional rule contained in Rylands v. Fletcher to a general clause similar to that introduced in the United States and recently also on the European level. As it is well known, within the scope of tort law two different initiatives compete with the aim of harmonizing the European laws: European Group on Tort Law with its Principles of European Tort Law (hereinafter PETL) in which article 5:101 sets forth a general clause for strict liability for abnormally dangerous activities and Study Group on European Civil Code with its Common Frame of Reference (CFR) which promotes rather ad hoc model of listing out determined cases of strict liability. Very narrow application scope of the art. 5:101 PETL, restricted only to abnormally dangerous activities, stays in opposition to very broad spectrum of strict liability cases governed by the CFR. The former is a perfect example of a general clause that offers a minimum and basic standard, possibly acceptable also in those countries in which, like in the United Kingdom, this regime of liability is completely marginalized.

Keywords: Rylands v. Fletcher, strict liability, general clause, abnormally dangerous activities

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953 The Crack Propagation on Glass in Laser Thermal Cleavage

Authors: Jehnming Lin

Abstract:

In the laser cleavage of glass, the laser is mostly adopted as a heat source to generate a thermal stress state on the substrates. The crack propagation of the soda-lime glass in the laser thermal cleavage with the straight-turning paths was investigated in this study experimentally and numerically. The crack propagation was visualized by a high speed camera with the off-line examination on the micro-crack propagation. The temperature and stress distributions induced by the laser heat source were calculated by ANSYS software based on the finite element method (FEM). With the cutting paths in various turning directions, the experimental and numerical results were in comparison and verified. The fracture modes due to the normal and shear stresses were verified at the turning point of the laser cleavage path. It shows a significant variation of the stress profiles along the straight-turning paths and causes a change on the fracture modes.

Keywords: fracture, Glass, stress analysis, laser cleavage

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952 Artificial Generation of Visual Evoked Potential to Enhance Visual Ability

Authors: A. Vani, M. N. Mamatha

Abstract:

Visual signal processing in human beings occurs in the occipital lobe of the brain. The signals that are generated in the brain are universal for all the human beings and they are called Visual Evoked Potential (VEP). Generally, the visually impaired people lose sight because of severe damage to only the eyes natural photo sensors, but the occipital lobe will still be functioning. In this paper, a technique of artificially generating VEP is proposed to enhance the visual ability of the subject. The system uses the electrical photoreceptors to capture image, process the image, to detect and recognize the subject or object. This voltage is further processed and can transmit wirelessly to a BIOMEMS implanted into occipital lobe of the patient’s brain. The proposed BIOMEMS consists of array of electrodes that generate the neuron potential which is similar to VEP of normal people. Thus, the neurons get the visual data from the BioMEMS which helps in generating partial vision or sight for the visually challenged patient. 

Keywords: Biomems, OpenViBE, visual evoked potential, Neuro prosthesis

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951 An Estimating Parameter of the Mean in Normal Distribution by Maximum Likelihood, Bayes, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods

Authors: Autcha Araveeporn

Abstract:

This paper is to compare the parameter estimation of the mean in normal distribution by Maximum Likelihood (ML), Bayes, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. The ML estimator is estimated by the average of data, the Bayes method is considered from the prior distribution to estimate Bayes estimator, and MCMC estimator is approximated by Gibbs sampling from posterior distribution. These methods are also to estimate a parameter then the hypothesis testing is used to check a robustness of the estimators. Data are simulated from normal distribution with the true parameter of mean 2, and variance 4, 9, and 16 when the sample sizes is set as 10, 20, 30, and 50. From the results, it can be seen that the estimation of MLE, and MCMC are perceivably different from the true parameter when the sample size is 10 and 20 with variance 16. Furthermore, the Bayes estimator is estimated from the prior distribution when mean is 1, and variance is 12 which showed the significant difference in mean with variance 9 at the sample size 10 and 20.

Keywords: Normal Distribution, maximum likelihood method, Bayes method, Markov chain Monte Carlo method

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950 Investigation on Choosing the Suitable Geometry of the Solar Air Heater to Certain Conditions

Authors: Abdulrahman M. Homadi

Abstract:

This study focuses on how to control the outlet temperature of a solar air heater in a way simpler than the existing methods. In this work, five cases have been studied by using ANSYS Fluent based on a CFD numerical method. All the cases have been simulated by utilizing the same criteria and conditions like the temperature, materials, areas except the geometry. The case studies are conducted in Little Rock (LR), AR, USA during the winter time supposedly on 15th of December. A fresh air that is flowing with a velocity of 0.5 m/s and a flow rate of 0.009 m3/s. The results prove the possibility of achieving a controlled temperature just by changing the geometric shape of the heater. This geometry guarantees that the absorber plate always has a normal component of the solar radiation at any time during the day. The heater has a sectarian shape with a radius of 150 mm where the outlet temperature remains almost constant for six hours.

Keywords: Solar energy, CFD, air heater, control of temperature

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949 Role of Inflammatory Markers in Arthritic Rats Treated with Ethanolic Bark Extract of Albizia procera

Authors: M. Sangeetha, D. Chamundeeswari, C. Saravanababu, C. Rose, V. Gopal

Abstract:

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, progressive, systemic inflammatory disorder affecting the synovial joints and typically producing symmetrical arthritis that leads to joint destruction, which is responsible for the deformity and disability. Despite improvements in the treatment of RA over the past decade, there still is a need for new therapeutic agents that are efficacious, less expensive, and free of severe adverse reactions. The present study aimed to investigate role of inflammatory markers in arthritic rats treated with ethanolic bark extract of Albizia procera. The protective effect of ethanolic bark extract of Albizia procera against complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA) induced arthritis in rats. Arthritis was induced by an intradermal injection of 0.1 ml FCA in the foot pad of left hind limb of rats. ETBE (100 and 200 mg/kg b.wt./p.o) and the reference drug diclofenac (25 mg/kg b.wt./p.o) were administered to arthritic rats. Paw volume was measured for all the animals before inducing arthritis and thereafter once in seven days by using plethysmometer for 42 days. Gene expression of inflammatory markers such as IL-1β and IL-10 were investigated in paw tissues. Up regulation of IL-1β and Down regulation IL-10 were observed in CFA injected rats when compared to normal rats. ETBE attenuated these alterations dose dependently when compared to the vehicle treated rats. These results provide insights into the mechanism of anti-arthritic activity, and unravel potential therapeutic use of Albizia procera in arthritis.

Keywords: CFA-Complete Freund’s adjuvant, IL- interleukins, RA-rheumatoid arthritis, ETBE, Ethanolic Bark Extract

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948 A Spatial Repetitive Controller Applied to an Aeroelastic Model for Wind Turbines

Authors: Riccardo Fratini, Riccardo Santini, Jacopo Serafini, Massimo Gennaretti, Stefano Panzieri

Abstract:

This paper presents a nonlinear differential model, for a three-bladed horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) suited for control applications. It is based on a 8-dofs, lumped parameters structural dynamics coupled with a quasi-steady sectional aerodynamics. In particular, using the Euler-Lagrange Equation (Energetic Variation approach), the authors derive, and successively validate, such model. For the derivation of the aerodynamic model, the Greenbergs theory, an extension of the theory proposed by Theodorsen to the case of thin airfoils undergoing pulsating flows, is used. Specifically, in this work, the authors restricted that theory under the hypothesis of low perturbation reduced frequency k, which causes the lift deficiency function C(k) to be real and equal to 1. Furthermore, the expressions of the aerodynamic loads are obtained using the quasi-steady strip theory (Hodges and Ormiston), as a function of the chordwise and normal components of relative velocity between flow and airfoil Ut, Up, their derivatives, and section angular velocity ε˙. For the validation of the proposed model, the authors carried out open and closed-loop simulations of a 5 MW HAWT, characterized by radius R =61.5 m and by mean chord c = 3 m, with a nominal angular velocity Ωn = 1.266rad/sec. The first analysis performed is the steady state solution, where a uniform wind Vw = 11.4 m/s is considered and a collective pitch angle θ = 0.88◦ is imposed. During this step, the authors noticed that the proposed model is intrinsically periodic due to the effect of the wind and of the gravitational force. In order to reject this periodic trend in the model dynamics, the authors propose a collective repetitive control algorithm coupled with a PD controller. In particular, when the reference command to be tracked and/or the disturbance to be rejected are periodic signals with a fixed period, the repetitive control strategies can be applied due to their high precision, simple implementation and little performance dependency on system parameters. The functional scheme of a repetitive controller is quite simple and, given a periodic reference command, is composed of a control block Crc(s) usually added to an existing feedback control system. The control block contains and a free time-delay system eτs in a positive feedback loop, and a low-pass filter q(s). It should be noticed that, while the time delay term reduces the stability margin, on the other hand the low pass filter is added to ensure stability. It is worth noting that, in this work, the authors propose a phase shifting for the controller and the delay system has been modified as e^(−(T−γk)), where T is the period of the signal and γk is a phase shifting of k samples of the same periodic signal. It should be noticed that, the phase shifting technique is particularly useful in non-minimum phase systems, such as flexible structures. In fact, using the phase shifting, the iterative algorithm could reach the convergence also at high frequencies. Notice that, in our case study, the shifting of k samples depends both on the rotor angular velocity Ω and on the rotor azimuth angle Ψ: we refer to this controller as a spatial repetitive controller. The collective repetitive controller has also been coupled with a C(s) = PD(s), in order to dampen oscillations of the blades. The performance of the spatial repetitive controller is compared with an industrial PI controller. In particular, starting from wind speed velocity Vw = 11.4 m/s the controller is asked to maintain the nominal angular velocity Ωn = 1.266rad/s after an instantaneous increase of wind speed (Vw = 15 m/s). Then, a purely periodic external disturbance is introduced in order to stress the capabilities of the repetitive controller. The results of the simulations show that, contrary to a simple PI controller, the spatial repetitive-PD controller has the capability to reject both external disturbances and periodic trend in the model dynamics. Finally, the nominal value of the angular velocity is reached, in accordance with results obtained with commercial software for a turbine of the same type.

Keywords: Aeroelasticity, Wind turbines, repetitive control, periodic systems

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947 (λ, μ)-Intuitionistic Fuzzy Subgroups of Groups with Operators

Authors: Shaoquan Sun, Chunxiang Liu

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to introduce the concepts of the (λ, μ)-intuitionistic fuzzy subgroups and (λ, μ)-intuitionistic fuzzy normal subgroups of groups with operators, and to investigate their properties and characterizations based on M-group homomorphism.

Keywords: Intuitionistic fuzzy group, , μ)-intuitionistic fuzzy subgroup of groups with operators, μ)-intuitionistic fuzzy normal subgroup of groups with operators, M-group homomorphism

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946 Effect of Fire on Structural Behavior of Normal and High Strength Concrete Beams

Authors: Alaa I. Arafa, Hemdan O. A. Said. Marwa A. M. Ali

Abstract:

This paper investigates and evaluates experimentally the structural behavior of high strength concrete (HSC) beams under fire and compares it with that of Normal strength concrete (NSC) beams. The main investigated parameters are: concrete compressive strength (300 or 600 kg/cm2); the concrete cover thickness (3 or 5 cm); the degree of temperature (room temperature or 600 oC); the type of cooling (air or water); and the fire exposure time (3 or 5 hours). Test results showed that the concrete compressive strength decreases significantly as the exposure time to fire increases.

Keywords: Experimental, Fire, monotonic loading, high strength concrete beams

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945 Planning a Supply Chain with Risk and Environmental Objectives

Authors: Ghanima Al-Sharrah, Haitham M. Lababidi, Yusuf I. Ali

Abstract:

The main objective of the current work is to introduce sustainability factors in optimizing the supply chain model for process industries. The supply chain models are normally based on purely economic considerations related to costs and profits. To account for sustainability, two additional factors have been introduced; environment and risk. A supply chain for an entire petroleum organization has been considered for implementing and testing the proposed optimization models. The environmental and risk factors were introduced as indicators reflecting the anticipated impact of the optimal production scenarios on sustainability. The aggregation method used in extending the single objective function to multi-objective function is proven to be quite effective in balancing the contribution of each objective term. The results indicate that introducing sustainability factor would slightly reduce the economic benefit while improving the environmental and risk reduction performances of the process industries.

Keywords: Supply Chain, Optimization, Risk, Environmental Indicators, multi-objective, LP models

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