Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 585

Search results for: normal distribution

585 Derivation of Monotone Likelihood Ratio Using Two Sided Uniformly Normal Distribution Techniques

Authors: D. A. Farinde

Abstract:

In this paper, two-sided uniformly normal distribution techniques were used in the derivation of monotone likelihood ratio. The approach mainly employed the parameters of the distribution for a class of all size a. The derivation technique is fast, direct and less burdensome when compared to some existing methods.

Keywords: Neyman-Pearson Lemma, Normal distribution

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584 An Estimating Parameter of the Mean in Normal Distribution by Maximum Likelihood, Bayes, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo Methods

Authors: Autcha Araveeporn

Abstract:

This paper is to compare the parameter estimation of the mean in normal distribution by Maximum Likelihood (ML), Bayes, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. The ML estimator is estimated by the average of data, the Bayes method is considered from the prior distribution to estimate Bayes estimator, and MCMC estimator is approximated by Gibbs sampling from posterior distribution. These methods are also to estimate a parameter then the hypothesis testing is used to check a robustness of the estimators. Data are simulated from normal distribution with the true parameter of mean 2, and variance 4, 9, and 16 when the sample sizes is set as 10, 20, 30, and 50. From the results, it can be seen that the estimation of MLE, and MCMC are perceivably different from the true parameter when the sample size is 10 and 20 with variance 16. Furthermore, the Bayes estimator is estimated from the prior distribution when mean is 1, and variance is 12 which showed the significant difference in mean with variance 9 at the sample size 10 and 20.

Keywords: Bayes method, Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, Maximum Likelihood method, normal distribution.

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583 Clustering Mixed Data Using Non-normal Regression Tree for Process Monitoring

Authors: Youngji Yoo, Cheong-Sool Park, Jun Seok Kim, Young-Hak Lee, Sung-Shick Kim, Jun-Geol Baek

Abstract:

In the semiconductor manufacturing process, large amounts of data are collected from various sensors of multiple facilities. The collected data from sensors have several different characteristics due to variables such as types of products, former processes and recipes. In general, Statistical Quality Control (SQC) methods assume the normality of the data to detect out-of-control states of processes. Although the collected data have different characteristics, using the data as inputs of SQC will increase variations of data, require wide control limits, and decrease performance to detect outof- control. Therefore, it is necessary to separate similar data groups from mixed data for more accurate process control. In the paper, we propose a regression tree using split algorithm based on Pearson distribution to handle non-normal distribution in parametric method. The regression tree finds similar properties of data from different variables. The experiments using real semiconductor manufacturing process data show improved performance in fault detecting ability.

Keywords: Semiconductor, non-normal mixed process data, clustering, Statistical Quality Control (SQC), regression tree, Pearson distribution system.

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582 Correspondence Theorem for Anti L-fuzzy Normal Subgroups

Authors: Jian Tang, Yunfei Yao

Abstract:

In this paper the concept of the cosets of an anti Lfuzzy normal subgroup of a group is given. Furthermore, the group G/A of cosets of an anti L-fuzzy normal subgroup A of a group G is shown to be isomorphic to a factor group of G in a natural way. Finally, we prove that if f : G1 -→ G2 is an epimorphism of groups, then there is a one-to-one order-preserving correspondence between the anti L-fuzzy normal subgroups of G2 and those of G1 which are constant on the kernel of f.

Keywords: Group; anti L-fuzzy subgroups; anti L-fuzzy normal subgroups; cosets of an anti L-fuzzy normal subgroup.

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581 Thermoelastic Waves in Anisotropic Platesusing Normal Mode Expansion Method with Thermal Relaxation Time

Authors: K.L. Verma

Abstract:

Analysis for the generalized thermoelastic Lamb waves, which propagates in anisotropic thin plates in generalized thermoelasticity, is presented employing normal mode expansion method. The displacement and temperature fields are expressed by a summation of the symmetric and antisymmetric thermoelastic modes in the surface thermal stresses and thermal gradient free orthotropic plate, therefore the theory is particularly appropriate for waveform analyses of Lamb waves in thin anisotropic plates. The transient waveforms excited by the thermoelastic expansion are analyzed for an orthotropic thin plate. The obtained results show that the theory provides a quantitative analysis to characterize anisotropic thermoelastic stiffness properties of plates by wave detection. Finally numerical calculations have been presented for a NaF crystal, and the dispersion curves for the lowest modes of the symmetric and antisymmetric vibrations are represented graphically at different values of thermal relaxation time. However, the methods can be used for other materials as well

Keywords: Anisotropic, dispersion, frequency, normal, thermoelasticity, wave modes.

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580 On the Fp-Normal Subgroups of Finite Groups

Authors: Shitian Liu, Deqin Chen

Abstract:

Let G be a finite group, and let F be a formation of finite group. We say that a subgroup H of G is p F -normal in G if there exists a normal subgroup T of G such that HT is a permutable Hall subgroup of G and G G (H

Keywords: Finite group, Fp -normal subgroup, Sylowsubgroup, Maximal subgroup

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579 On the Perfomance of Multiband OFDM under Log-normal Channel Fading

Authors: N.M. Anas, S.K.S. Yusoff, R. Mohamad

Abstract:

A modified Saleh-Valenzuela channel model has been adapted for Ultra Wideband (UWB) system. The suggested realistic channel is assessed by its distribution of fading amplitude and time of arrivals. Furthermore, the propagation characteristic has been distinct into four channel models, namely CM 1 to 4. Each are differentiate in terms of cluster arrival rates, rays arrival rate within each cluster and its respective constant decay rates. This paper described the multiband OFDM system performance simulates under these multipath conditions. Simulation work described in this paper is based on WiMedia ECMA-368 standard, which has been deployed for practical implementation of low cost and low power UWB devices.

Keywords: Log-Normal, Multiband OFDM, Saleh-Valenzuela

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578 3D Model Retrieval based on Normal Vector Interpolation Method

Authors: Ami Kim, Oubong Gwun, Juwhan Song

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed the distribution of mesh normal vector direction as a feature descriptor of a 3D model. A normal vector shows the entire shape of a model well. The distribution of normal vectors was sampled in proportion to each polygon's area so that the information on the surface with less surface area may be less reflected on composing a feature descriptor in order to enhance retrieval performance. At the analysis result of ANMRR, the enhancement of approx. 12.4%~34.7% compared to the existing method has also been indicated.

Keywords: Interpolated Normal Vector, Feature Descriptor, 3DModel Retrieval.

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577 Analysis of Normal Penetration of Ogive -Nose Projectiles into Thin Metallic Plates

Authors: M. H. Pol, A. Bidi, A.V. Hoseini, G.H. Liaghat

Abstract:

In this note, a theoretical model for analyzing of normal penetration of the ogive – nose projectile into metallic targets is presented .The failure is assumed to be asymmetry petalling and the analysis is performed by using the energy balance and work done .The work done consist of the work required for plastic deformation Wp, the work for transferring the matter to new position Wd and the work for bending of the petals Wb. In several studies, it has been shown that we can neglect the loss of energy by temperature. In this present study, in first, by assuming the crater formation after perforation, the value of work done is calculated during the normal penetration of conical projectiles into thin metallic targets. Then the value of residual velocity and ballistic limit of the projectile is predicated by using the energy balance. In final, theoretical and experimental results is compared.

Keywords: Ogive Projectile, normal impact, penetration, thinmetallic target.

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576 Speed Characteristics of Mixed Traffic Flow on Urban Arterials

Authors: Ashish Dhamaniya, Satish Chandra

Abstract:

Speed and traffic volume data are collected on different sections of four lane and six lane roads in three metropolitan cities in India. Speed data are analyzed to fit the statistical distribution to individual vehicle speed data and all vehicles speed data. It is noted that speed data of individual vehicle generally follows a normal distribution but speed data of all vehicle combined at a section of urban road may or may not follow the normal distribution depending upon the composition of traffic stream. A new term Speed Spread Ratio (SSR) is introduced in this paper which is the ratio of difference in 85th and 50th percentile speed to the difference in 50th and 15th percentile speed. If SSR is unity then speed data are truly normally distributed. It is noted that on six lane urban roads, speed data follow a normal distribution only when SSR is in the range of 0.86 – 1.11. The range of SSR is validated on four lane roads also.

Keywords: Normal distribution, percentile speed, speed spread ratio, traffic volume.

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575 I-Vague Normal Groups

Authors: Zelalem Teshome Wale

Abstract:

The notions of I-vague normal groups with membership and non-membership functions taking values in an involutary dually residuated lattice ordered semigroup are introduced which generalize the notions with truth values in a Boolean algebra as well as those usual vague sets whose membership and non-membership functions taking values in the unit interval [0, 1]. Various operations and properties are established.

Keywords: Involutary dually residuated lattice ordered semigroup, I-vague set, I-vague group and I-vague normal group.

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574 A Forward Automatic Censored Cell-Averaging Detector for Multiple Target Situations in Log-Normal Clutter

Authors: Musa'ed N. Almarshad, Saleh A. Alshebeili, Mourad Barkat

Abstract:

A challenging problem in radar signal processing is to achieve reliable target detection in the presence of interferences. In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm for automatic censoring of radar interfering targets in log-normal clutter. The proposed algorithm, termed the forward automatic censored cell averaging detector (F-ACCAD), consists of two steps: removing the corrupted reference cells (censoring) and the actual detection. Both steps are performed dynamically by using a suitable set of ranked cells to estimate the unknown background level and set the adaptive thresholds accordingly. The F-ACCAD algorithm does not require any prior information about the clutter parameters nor does it require the number of interfering targets. The effectiveness of the F-ACCAD algorithm is assessed by computing, using Monte Carlo simulations, the probability of censoring and the probability of detection in different background environments.

Keywords: CFAR, Log-normal clutter, Censoring, Probabilityof detection, Probability of false alarm, Probability of falsecensoring.

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573 Deformation Characteristics of Fire Damaged and Rehabilitated Normal Strength Concrete Beams

Authors: Yeo Kyeong Lee, Hae Won Min, Ji Yeon Kang, Hee Sun Kim, Yeong Soo Shin

Abstract:

In recent years, fire accidents have been steadily increased and the amount of property damage caused by the accidents has gradually raised. Damaging building structure, fire incidents bring about not only such property damage but also strength degradation and member deformation. As a result, the building structure undermines its structural ability. Examining the degradation and the deformation is very important because reusing the building is more economical than reconstruction. Therefore, engineers need to investigate the strength degradation and member deformation well, and make sure that they apply right rehabilitation methods. This study aims at evaluating deformation characteristics of fire damaged and rehabilitated normal strength concrete beams through both experiments and finite element analyses. For the experiments, control beams, fire damaged beams and rehabilitated beams are tested to examine deformation characteristics. Ten test beam specimens with compressive strength of 21MPa are fabricated and main test variables are selected as cover thickness of 40mm and 50mm and fire exposure time of 1 hour or 2 hours. After heating, fire damaged beams are air-recurred for 2 months and rehabilitated beams are repaired with polymeric cement mortar after being removed the fire damaged concrete cover. All beam specimens are tested under four points loading. FE analyses are executed to investigate the effects of main parameters applied to experimental study. Test results show that both maximum load and stiffness of the rehabilitated beams are higher than those of the fire damaged beams. In addition, predicted structural behaviors from the analyses also show good rehabilitation effect and the predicted load-deflection curves are similar to the experimental results. For the further, the proposed analytical method can be used to predict deformation characteristics of fire damaged and rehabilitated concrete beams without suffering from time and cost consuming of experimental process.

Keywords: Fire, Normal strength concrete, Rehabilitation, Reinforced concrete beam.

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572 Effect of Assumptions of Normal Shock Location on the Design of Supersonic Ejectors for Refrigeration

Authors: Payam Haghparast, Mikhail V. Sorin, Hakim Nesreddine

Abstract:

The complex oblique shock phenomenon can be simply assumed as a normal shock at the constant area section to simulate a sharp pressure increase and velocity decrease in 1-D thermodynamic models. The assumed normal shock location is one of the greatest sources of error in ejector thermodynamic models. Most researchers consider an arbitrary location without justifying it. Our study compares the effect of normal shock place on ejector dimensions in 1-D models. To this aim, two different ejector experimental test benches, a constant area-mixing ejector (CAM) and a constant pressure-mixing (CPM) are considered, with different known geometries, operating conditions and working fluids (R245fa, R141b). In the first step, in order to evaluate the real value of the efficiencies in the different ejector parts and critical back pressure, a CFD model was built and validated by experimental data for two types of ejectors. These reference data are then used as input to the 1D model to calculate the lengths and the diameters of the ejectors. Afterwards, the design output geometry calculated by the 1D model is compared directly with the corresponding experimental geometry. It was found that there is a good agreement between the ejector dimensions obtained by the 1D model, for both CAM and CPM, with experimental ejector data. Furthermore, it is shown that normal shock place affects only the constant area length as it is proven that the inlet normal shock assumption results in more accurate length. Taking into account previous 1D models, the results suggest the use of the assumed normal shock location at the inlet of the constant area duct to design the supersonic ejectors.

Keywords: 1D model, constant area-mixing, constant pressure-mixing, normal shock location, ejector dimensions.

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571 Analysis of the Gait Characteristics of Soldier between the Normal and Loaded Gait

Authors: Ji-il Park, Min Kyu Yu, Jong-woo Lee, Sam-hyeon Yoo

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to analyze the gait strategy between the normal and loaded gait. To this end, five male participants satisfied two conditions: the normal and loaded gait (backpack load 25.2 kg). As expected, results showed that additional loads elicited not a proportional increase in vertical and shear ground reaction force (GRF) parameters but also increase of the impulse, momentum and mechanical work. However, in case of the loaded gait, the time duration of the double support phase was increased unexpectedly. It is because the double support phase which is more stable than the single support phase can reduce instability of the loaded gait. Also, the directions of the pre-collision and after-collision were moved upward and downward compared to the normal gait. As a result, regardless of the additional backpack load, the impulse-momentum diagram during the step-to-step transition was maintained such as the normal gait. It means that human walk efficiently to keep stability and minimize total net works in case of the loaded gait.

Keywords: Normal gait, loaded gait, impulse, collision, gait analysis, mechanical work, backpack load.

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570 The Study of Magnetic and Transport Properties in Normal State Eu1.85+yCe0.15-yCu1-yFeyO4+α-δ

Authors: Risdiana, D. Suhendar, S. Pratiwi, W. A. Somantri, T. Saragi

Abstract:

The effect of partially substitution of magnetic impurity Fe for Cu to the magnetic and transport properties in electron-doped superconducting cuprates of Eu1.85+yCe0.15-yCu1-yFeyO4+α-δ (ECCFO) with y = 0, 0.010, 0.020, and 0.050 has been studied, in order to investigate the mechanism of magnetic and transport properties of ECCFO in normal-state. Magnetic properties are investigated by DC magnetic-susceptibility measurements that carried out at low temperatures down to 2 K using a standard SQUID magnetometer in a magnetic field of 5 Oe on field cooling. Transport properties addressed to electron mobility, are extracted from radius of electron localization calculated from temperature dependence of resistivity. For y = 0, temperature dependence of dc magnetic-susceptibility (χ) indicated the change of magnetic behavior from paramagnetic to diamagnetic below 15 K. Above 15 K, all samples show paramagnetic behavior with the values of magnetic moment in every volume unit increased with increasing y. Electron mobility decreased with increasing y.

Keywords: DC magnetic-susceptibility, electron mobility, Eu1.85+yCe0.15-yCu1-yFeyO4+α-δ, normal state.

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569 A New Distribution and Application on the Lifetime Data

Authors: Gamze Ozel, Selen Cakmakyapan

Abstract:

We introduce a new model called the Marshall-Olkin Rayleigh distribution which extends the Rayleigh distribution using Marshall-Olkin transformation and has increasing and decreasing shapes for the hazard rate function. Various structural properties of the new distribution are derived including explicit expressions for the moments, generating and quantile function, some entropy measures, and order statistics are presented. The model parameters are estimated by the method of maximum likelihood and the observed information matrix is determined. The potentiality of the new model is illustrated by means of a simulation study. 

Keywords: Marshall-Olkin distribution, Rayleigh distribution, estimation, maximum likelihood.

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568 CFD Study for Normal and Rifled Tube with a Convergence Check

Authors: Sharfi Dirar, Shihab Elhaj, Ahmed El Fatih

Abstract:

Computational fluid dynamics were used to simulate and study the heated water boiler tube for both normal and rifled tube with a refinement of the mesh to check the convergence. The operation condition was taken from GARRI power station and used in a boundary condition accordingly. The result indicates the rifled tube has higher heat transfer efficiency than the normal tube.

Keywords: Boiler tube, Convergence Check, Normal Tube, Rifled Tube.

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567 Loss Analysis by Loading Conditions of Distribution Transformers

Authors: A. Bozkurt, C. Kocatepe, R. Yumurtaci, İ. C. Tastan, G. Tulun

Abstract:

Efficient use of energy, the increase in demand of energy and also with the reduction of natural energy sources, has improved its importance in recent years. Most of the losses in the system from electricity produced until the point of consumption is mostly composed by the energy distribution system. In this study, analysis of the resulting loss in power distribution transformer and distribution power cable is realized which are most of the losses in the distribution system. Transformer losses in the real distribution system are analyzed by CYME Power Engineering Software program. These losses are disclosed for different voltage levels and different loading conditions.

Keywords: Distribution system, distribution transformer, power cable, technical losses.

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566 A Study on Behaviour of Normal Strength Concrete and High Strength Concrete Subjected to Elevated Temperatures

Authors: C. B. K.Rao, Rooban Kumar

Abstract:

Cement concrete is a complex mixture of different materials. Behaviour of concrete depends on its mix proportions and constituents when it is subjected to elevated temperatures. Principal effects due to elevated temperatures are loss in compressive strength, loss in weight or mass, change in colour and spall of concrete. The experimental results of normal concrete and high strength concrete subjected elevated temperatures at 200°C, 400°C, 600°C, and 800°C and different cooling regimes viz. air cooling, water quenching on different grade of concrete are reported in this paper.

Keywords: High strength concrete, Normal strength concrete, Elevated Temperature, Loss of mass.

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565 Influential Effect of Self-Healing Treatment on Water Absorption and Electrical Resistance of Normal and Light Weight Aggregate Concretes

Authors: B. Tayebani, N. Hosseinibalam, D. Mostofinejad

Abstract:

Interest in using bacteria in cement materials due to its positive influences has been increased. Cement materials such as mortar and concrete basically suffer from higher porosity and water absorption compared to other building materials such as steel materials. Because of the negative side-effects of certain chemical techniques, biological methods have been proposed as a desired and environmentally friendly strategy for reducing concrete porosity and diminishing water absorption. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation carried out to evaluate the influence of Sporosarcina pasteurii bacteria on the behaviour of two types of concretes (light weight aggregate concrete and normal weight concrete). The resistance of specimens to water penetration by testing water absorption and evaluating the electrical resistance of those concretes was examined and compared. As a conclusion, 20% increase in electrical resistance and 10% reduction in water absorption of lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC) and for normal concrete the results show 7% decrease in water absorption and almost 10% increase in electrical resistance.

Keywords: Bacteria, biological method, normal weight concrete, lightweight aggregate concrete, water absorption, electrical resistance.

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564 Statistical Analysis for Overdispersed Medical Count Data

Authors: Y. N. Phang, E. F. Loh

Abstract:

Many researchers have suggested the use of zero inflated Poisson (ZIP) and zero inflated negative binomial (ZINB) models in modeling overdispersed medical count data with extra variations caused by extra zeros and unobserved heterogeneity. The studies indicate that ZIP and ZINB always provide better fit than using the normal Poisson and negative binomial models in modeling overdispersed medical count data. In this study, we proposed the use of Zero Inflated Inverse Trinomial (ZIIT), Zero Inflated Poisson Inverse Gaussian (ZIPIG) and zero inflated strict arcsine models in modeling overdispered medical count data. These proposed models are not widely used by many researchers especially in the medical field. The results show that these three suggested models can serve as alternative models in modeling overdispersed medical count data. This is supported by the application of these suggested models to a real life medical data set. Inverse trinomial, Poisson inverse Gaussian and strict arcsine are discrete distributions with cubic variance function of mean. Therefore, ZIIT, ZIPIG and ZISA are able to accommodate data with excess zeros and very heavy tailed. They are recommended to be used in modeling overdispersed medical count data when ZIP and ZINB are inadequate.

Keywords: Zero inflated, inverse trinomial distribution, Poisson inverse Gaussian distribution, strict arcsine distribution, Pearson’s goodness of fit.

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563 Compressive Strength Development of Normal Concrete and Self-Consolidating Concrete Incorporated with GGBS

Authors: M. Nili, S. Tavasoli, A. R. Yazdandoost

Abstract:

In this paper, an experimental investigation on the effect of Isfahan Ground Granulate Blast Furnace Slag (GGBS) on the compressive strength development of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) and normal concrete (NC) was performed. For this purpose, Portland cement type I was replaced with GGBS in various Portions. For NC and SCC Mixes, 10*10*10 cubic cm specimens were tested in 7, 28 and 91 days. It must be stated that in this research water to cement ratio was 0.44, cement used in cubic meter was 418 Kg/m³ and Superplasticizer (SP) Type III used in SCC based on Poly-Carboxylic acid. The results of experiments have shown that increasing GGBS Percentages in both types of concrete reduce Compressive strength in early ages.

Keywords: Compressive strength, GGBS, normal concrete, self-consolidating concrete.

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562 Confidence Interval for the Inverse of a Normal Mean with a Known Coefficient of Variation

Authors: Arunee Wongkha, Suparat Niwitpong, Sa-aat Niwitpong

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose two new confidence intervals for the inverse of a normal mean with a known coefficient of variation. One of new confidence intervals for the inverse of a normal mean with a known coefficient of variation is constructed based on the pivotal statistic Z where Z is a standard normal distribution and another confidence interval is constructed based on the generalized confidence interval, presented by Weerahandi. We examine the performance of these confidence intervals in terms of coverage probabilities and average lengths via Monte Carlo simulation.

Keywords: The inverse of a normal mean, confidence interval, generalized confidence intervals, known coefficient of variation.

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561 Application of a New Efficient Normal Parameter Reduction Algorithm of Soft Sets in Online Shopping

Authors: Xiuqin Ma, Hongwu Qin

Abstract:

A new efficient normal parameter reduction algorithm of soft set in decision making was proposed. However, up to the present, few documents have focused on real-life applications of this algorithm. Accordingly, we apply a New Efficient Normal Parameter Reduction algorithm into real-life datasets of online shopping, such as Blackberry Mobile Phone Dataset. Experimental results show that this algorithm is not only suitable but feasible for dealing with the online shopping.

Keywords: Normal parameter reduction, Online shopping, Parameter reduction, Soft sets.

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560 Simplified Models to Determine Nodal Voltagesin Problems of Optimal Allocation of Capacitor Banks in Power Distribution Networks

Authors: A. Pereira, S. Haffner, L. V. Gasperin

Abstract:

This paper presents two simplified models to determine nodal voltages in power distribution networks. These models allow estimating the impact of the installation of reactive power compensations equipments like fixed or switched capacitor banks. The procedure used to develop the models is similar to the procedure used to develop linear power flow models of transmission lines, which have been widely used in optimization problems of operation planning and system expansion. The steady state non-linear load flow equations are approximated by linear equations relating the voltage amplitude and currents. The approximations of the linear equations are based on the high relationship between line resistance and line reactance (ratio R/X), which is valid for power distribution networks. The performance and accuracy of the models are evaluated through comparisons with the exact results obtained from the solution of the load flow using two test networks: a hypothetical network with 23 nodes and a real network with 217 nodes.

Keywords: Distribution network models, distribution systems, optimization, power system planning.

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559 An Effective Approach for Distribution System Power Flow Solution

Authors: A. Alsaadi, B. Gholami

Abstract:

An effective approach for unbalanced three-phase distribution power flow solutions is proposed in this paper. The special topological characteristics of distribution networks have been fully utilized to make the direct solution possible. Two matrices–the bus-injection to branch-current matrix and the branch-current to busvoltage matrix– and a simple matrix multiplication are used to obtain power flow solutions. Due to the distinctive solution techniques of the proposed method, the time-consuming LU decomposition and forward/backward substitution of the Jacobian matrix or admittance matrix required in the traditional power flow methods are no longer necessary. Therefore, the proposed method is robust and time-efficient. Test results demonstrate the validity of the proposed method. The proposed method shows great potential to be used in distribution automation applications.

Keywords: Distribution power flow, distribution automation system, radial network, unbalanced networks.

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558 Nonconforming Control Charts for Zero-Inflated Poisson Distribution

Authors: N. Katemee, T. Mayureesawan

Abstract:

This paper developed the c-Chart based on a Zero- Inflated Poisson (ZIP) processes that approximated by a geometric distribution with parameter p. The p estimated that fit for ZIP distribution used in calculated the mean, median, and variance of geometric distribution for constructed the c-Chart by three difference methods. For cg-Chart, developed c-Chart by used the mean and variance of the geometric distribution constructed control limits. For cmg-Chart, the mean used for constructed the control limits. The cme- Chart, developed control limits of c-Chart from median and variance values of geometric distribution. The performance of charts considered from the Average Run Length and Average Coverage Probability. We found that for an in-control process, the cg-Chart is superior for low level of mean at all level of proportion zero. For an out-of-control process, the cmg-Chart and cme-Chart are the best for mean = 2, 3 and 4 at all level of parameter.

Keywords: average coverage probability, average run length, geometric distribution, zero-inflated poisson distribution

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557 Study of Mechanical Properties of Aluminium Alloys on Normal Friction Stir Welding and Underwater Friction Stir Welding for Structural Applications

Authors: Lingaraju Dumpala, Laxmi Mohan Kumar Chintada, Devadas Deepu, Pravin Kumar Yadav

Abstract:

Friction stir welding is the new-fangled and cutting-edge technique in welding applications; it is widely used in the fields of transportation, aerospace, defense, etc. For thriving significant welding joints and properties of friction stir welded components, it is essential to carry out this advanced process in a prescribed systematic procedure. At this moment, Underwater Friction Stir Welding (UFSW) Process is the field of interest to do research work. In the continuous assessment, the study of UFSW process is to comprehend problems occurred in the past and the structure through which the mechanical properties of the welded joints can be value-added and contributes to conclude results an acceptable and resourceful joint. A meticulous criticism is given on how to modify the experimental setup from NFSW to UFSW. It can discern the influence of tool materials, feeds, spindle angle, load, rotational speeds and mechanical properties. By expending the DEFORM-3D simulation software, the achieved outcomes are validated.

Keywords: Underwater friction stir welding, al alloys, mechanical properties, normal friction stir welding.

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556 VoIP Source Model based on the Hyperexponential Distribution

Authors: Arkadiusz Biernacki

Abstract:

In this paper we present a statistical analysis of Voice over IP (VoIP) packet streams produced by the G.711 voice coder with voice activity detection (VAD). During telephone conversation, depending whether the interlocutor speaks (ON) or remains silent (OFF), packets are produced or not by a voice coder. As index of dispersion for both ON and OFF times distribution was greater than one, we used hyperexponential distribution for approximation of streams duration. For each stage of the hyperexponential distribution, we tested goodness of our fits using graphical methods, we calculated estimation errors, and performed Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Obtained results showed that the precise VoIP source model can be based on the five-state Markov process.

Keywords: VoIP source modelling, distribution approximation, hyperexponential distribution.

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