Search results for: non-steady state
2019 Practical Techniques of Improving State Estimator Solution
Authors: Kiamran Radjabli
State Estimator became an intrinsic part of Energy Management Systems (EMS). The SCADA measurements received from the field are processed by the State Estimator in order to accurately determine the actual operating state of the power systems and provide that information to other real-time network applications. All EMS vendors offer a State Estimator functionality in their baseline products. However, setting up and ensuring that State Estimator consistently produces a reliable solution often consumes a substantial engineering effort. This paper provides generic recommendations and describes a simple practical approach to efficient tuning of State Estimator, based on the working experience with major EMS software platforms and consulting projects in many electrical utilities of the USA.
Keywords: Convergence, monitoring, performance, state estimator, troubleshooting, tuning, power systems.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 617
2018 Development of State Model Theory for External Exclusive NOR Type LFSR Structures
Authors: Afaq Ahmad
Abstract:Using state space technique and GF(2) theory, a simulation model for external exclusive NOR type LFSR structures is developed. Through this tool a systematic procedure is devised for computing pseudo-random binary sequences from such structures.
Keywords: LFSR, external exclusive NOR type, recursivebinary sequence, initial state - next state, state transition matrix.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1453
2017 Adaptive Transmission Scheme Based on Channel State in Dual-Hop System
Authors: Seung-Jun Yu, Yong-Jun Kim, Jung-In Baik, Hyoung-Kyu Song
Abstract:In this paper, a dual-hop relay based on channel state is studied. In the conventional relay scheme, a relay uses the same modulation method without reference to channel state. But, a relay uses an adaptive modulation method with reference to channel state. If the channel state is poor, a relay eliminates latter 2 bits and uses Quadrature Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) modulation. If channel state is good, a relay modulates the received symbols with 16-QAM symbols by using 4 bits. The performance of the proposed scheme for Symbol Error Rate (SER) and throughput is analyzed.
Keywords: Adaptive transmission, channel state, dual-hop, hierarchical modulation, relay.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1303
2016 Implicit Lyapunov Control of Multi-Control Hamiltonians Systems Based On the State Error
Authors: Fangfang Meng, Shuang Cong
In the closed quantum system, if the control system is strongly regular and all other eigenstates are directly coupled to the target state, the control system can be asymptotically stabilized at the target eigenstate by the Lyapunov control based on the state error. However, if the control system is not strongly regular or as long as there is one eigenstate not directly coupled to the target state, the situations will become complicated. In this paper, we propose an implicit Lyapunov control method based on the state error to solve the convergence problems for these two degenerate cases. And at the same time, we expand the target state from the eigenstate to the arbitrary pure state. Especially, the proposed method is also applicable in the control system with multi-control Hamiltonians. On this basis, the convergence of the control systems is analyzed using the LaSalle invariance principle. Furthermore, the relation between the implicit Lyapunov functions of the state distance and the state error is investigated. Finally, numerical simulations are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed implicit Lyapunov control method. The comparisons of the control effect using the implicit Lyapunov control method based on the state distance with that of the state error are given.
Keywords: Implicit Lyapunov control, state error, degenerate cases, convergence.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1393
2015 The Tort Liability of the State in the Portuguese Administrative Courts
Authors: Jorge Barros Mendes
Abstract:The Portuguese Constitution, in article 22, instituted the general principle of tort liability of the State and other public law entities. Consequently, ordinary legislation established the tort liability of the State into the Portuguese Legal Order, by means of Decree-Law 48051, of 1967. This decree, which was criticised extensively, was amended by virtue of Law 67/2007, of 31st December, establishing the regime for tort liability arising from losses caused by third parties, due to the acts of public management in relation to all the functions of the State, i.e. i) administrative, ii) legislative, and iii) jurisdictional.
Keywords: Portuguese courts, tort liability of the state.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1786
2014 Stabilization and Observation of Attitude Control Systems for Micro Satellites
Authors: A. Elakkary, A. Echchatbi, N. Elalami
In this paper, we are interested in attitude control of a satellite, which using wheels of reaction, by state feedback. First, we develop a method allowing us to put the control and its integral in the state-feedback form. Then, by using the theorem of Gronwall- Bellman, we put the sufficient conditions so that the nonlinear system modeling the satellite is stabilisable and observed by state feedback.
Keywords: Satellite, attitude control, state feedback, attitude stabilization.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1251
2013 The Role of the State towards Employability of Malaysian PWDs – Myth or Reality?
Authors: Suet Leng Khoo, Tiun Ling Ta, Lay Wah Lee
In this era of globalization, the role of the State in all aspects of development is widely debated. Some scholars contend the 'demise' and diminishing role of the State whilst others claim that the State is still “de facto developmental". Clearly, it is vital to ascertain which of these two contentions are reflective of the role of the State as nations ascend their development trajectories. Based on the findings of this paper, the perception that the Malaysian State plays an active and committed role towards distributing equitable educational opportunities and enhancing employability of Malaysian PWDs is actually a myth and not reality. Thus, in order to fulfill the promise of Vision 2020 to transform Malaysia into a caring and socially-inclusive society; this paper calls for a more interventionist and committed role by the Malaysian State to translate the universal rights of education and employment opportunities for PWDs from mere policy rhetoric into inclusive realities.
Keywords: People with Disabilities, Malaysia, role of State, equal employment opportunitiesProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2298
2012 Newton-Raphson State Estimation Solution Employing Systematically Constructed Jacobian Matrix
Authors: Nursyarizal Mohd Nor, Ramiah Jegatheesan, Perumal Nallagownden
Abstract:Newton-Raphson State Estimation method using bus admittance matrix remains as an efficient and most popular method to estimate the state variables. Elements of Jacobian matrix are computed from standard expressions which lack physical significance. In this paper, elements of the state estimation Jacobian matrix are obtained considering the power flow measurements in the network elements. These elements are processed one-by-one and the Jacobian matrix H is updated suitably in a simple manner. The constructed Jacobian matrix H is integrated with Weight Least Square method to estimate the state variables. The suggested procedure is successfully tested on IEEE standard systems.
Keywords: State Estimation (SE), Weight Least Square (WLS), Newton-Raphson State Estimation (NRSE), Jacobian matrix H.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2283
2011 State Estimation Method Based on Unscented Kalman Filter for Vehicle Nonlinear Dynamics
Authors: Wataru Nakamura, Tomoaki Hashimoto, Liang-Kuang Chen
Abstract:This paper provides a state estimation method for automatic control systems of nonlinear vehicle dynamics. A nonlinear tire model is employed to represent the realistic behavior of a vehicle. In general, all the state variables of control systems are not precisedly known, because those variables are observed through output sensors and limited parts of them might be only measurable. Hence, automatic control systems must incorporate some type of state estimation. It is needed to establish a state estimation method for nonlinear vehicle dynamics with restricted measurable state variables. For this purpose, unscented Kalman filter method is applied in this study for estimating the state variables of nonlinear vehicle dynamics. The objective of this paper is to propose a state estimation method using unscented Kalman filter for nonlinear vehicle dynamics. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by numerical simulations.
Keywords: State estimation, control systems, observer systems, unscented Kalman filter, nonlinear vehicle dynamics.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 404
2010 The Role of the State Budget: An Evaluation of Public Expenditures and Taxes in Turkey
Authors: Erdal Eroğlu, Özhan Çetinkaya
Abstract:The purpose of this paper is to show how state plays a regulatory role in the relations of distribution by analyzing tax and expenditure in Turkey. This paper has two main arguments. First, state intervenes in economic and social life via budget policies and steers the relations of distribution within the scope of the reproduction of the capital accumulation and legitimacy. Secondly, a great amount of public expenditure benefits capital owners while state gains its tax income mainly from low and middle income groups.
Keywords: Distribution, public expenditure, state budget, taxes.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1191
2009 Nonlinear Dynamical Characterization of Heart Rate Variability Time Series of Meditation
Authors: B. S. Raghavendra, D. Narayana Dutt
Abstract:Many recent electrophysiological studies have revealed the importance of investigating meditation state in order to achieve an increased understanding of autonomous control of cardiovascular functions. In this paper, we characterize heart rate variability (HRV) time series acquired during meditation using nonlinear dynamical parameters. We have computed minimum embedding dimension (MED), correlation dimension (CD), largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE), and nonlinearity scores (NLS) from HRV time series of eight Chi and four Kundalini meditation practitioners. The pre-meditation state has been used as a baseline (control) state to compare the estimated parameters. The chaotic nature of HRV during both pre-meditation and meditation is confirmed by MED. The meditation state showed a significant decrease in the value of CD and increase in the value of LLE of HRV, in comparison with premeditation state, indicating a less complex and less predictable nature of HRV. In addition, it was shown that the HRV of meditation state is having highest NLS than pre-meditation state. The study indicated highly nonlinear dynamic nature of cardiac states as revealed by HRV during meditation state, rather considering it as a quiescent state.
Keywords: Correlation dimension, Embedding dimension, Heartrate variability, Largest Lyapunov exponent, Meditation, Nonlinearity score.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1764
2008 Solvatochromic Shift and Estimation of Dipole Moment of Quinine Sulphate Dication
Abstract:Absorption and fluorescence spectra of quinine sulphate (QSD) have been recorded at room temperature in wide range of solvents of different polarities. The ground-state dipole moment of QSD was obtained from quantum mechanical calculations and the excited state dipole moment of QSD was estimated from Bakhshiev-s and Kawski-Chamma-Viallet-s equations by means of solvatochromic shift method. Higher value of dipole moment is observed for excited state as compared to the corresponding ground state value and this is attributed to the more polar excited state of QSD.
Keywords: Dipole moment, Quinine sulphate dication, Solvatochromic shiftProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2245
2007 Inconsistency Discovery in Multiple State Diagrams
Authors: Mohammad N. Alanazi, David A. Gustafson
Abstract:In this article, we introduce a new approach for analyzing UML designs to detect the inconsistencies between multiple state diagrams and sequence diagrams. The Super State Analysis (SSA) identifies the inconsistencies in super states, single step transitions, and sequences. Because SSA considers multiple UML state diagrams, it discovers inconsistencies that cannot be discovered when considering only a single UML state diagram. We have introduced a transition set that captures relationship information that is not specifiable in UML diagrams. The SSA model uses the transition set to link transitions of multiple state diagrams together. The analysis generates three different sets automatically. These sets are compared to the provided sets to detect the inconsistencies. SSA identifies five types of inconsistencies: impossible super states, unreachable super states, illegal transitions, missing transitions, and illegal sequences.
Keywords: Modeling Languages, Object-Oriented Analysis, Sequence Diagrams, Software Models, State Diagrams, UML.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1540
2006 A Modified Genetic Based Technique for Solving the Power System State Estimation Problem
Authors: A. A. Hossam-Eldin, E. N. Abdallah, M. S. El-Nozahy
Abstract:Power system state estimation is the process of calculating a reliable estimate of the power system state vector composed of bus voltages' angles and magnitudes from telemetered measurements on the system. This estimate of the state vector provides the description of the system necessary for the operation and security monitoring. Many methods are described in the literature for solving the state estimation problem, the most important of which are the classical weighted least squares method and the nondeterministic genetic based method; however both showed drawbacks. In this paper a modified version of the genetic algorithm power system state estimation is introduced, Sensitivity of the proposed algorithm to genetic operators is discussed, the algorithm is applied to case studies and finally it is compared with the classical weighted least squares method formulation.
Keywords: Genetic algorithms, ill-conditioning, state estimation, weighted least squares.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1511
2005 Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge Estimation Using One State Hysteresis Model with Nonlinear Estimation Strategies
Authors: Mohammed Farag, Mina Attari, S. Andrew Gadsden, Saeid R. Habibi
Abstract:Battery state of charge (SOC) estimation is an important parameter as it measures the total amount of electrical energy stored at a current time. The SOC percentage acts as a fuel gauge if it is compared with a conventional vehicle. Estimating the SOC is, therefore, essential for monitoring the amount of useful life remaining in the battery system. This paper looks at the implementation of three nonlinear estimation strategies for Li-Ion battery SOC estimation. One of the most common behavioral battery models is the one state hysteresis (OSH) model. The extended Kalman filter (EKF), the smooth variable structure filter (SVSF), and the time-varying smoothing boundary layer SVSF are applied on this model, and the results are compared.
Keywords: State of charge estimation, battery modeling, one-state hysteresis, filtering and estimation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1254
2004 Steady State of Passive and Active Suspensions in the Physical Domain
Authors: Gilberto Gonzalez-A, Jorge Madrigal
Abstract:The steady state response of bond graphs representing passive and active suspension is presented. A bond graph with preferred derivative causality assignment to get the steady state is proposed. A general junction structure of this bond graph is proposed. The proposed methodology to passive and active suspensions is applied.
Keywords: Bond graph, steady state, active suspension.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1609
2003 Mechanical Equation of State in an Al-Li Alloy
Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Tae Kwon Ha
Existence of plastic equation of state has been investigated by performing a series of load relaxation tests at various temperatures using an Al-Li alloy. A plastic equation of state is first developed from a simple kinetics consideration for a mechanical activation process of a leading dislocation piled up against grain boundaries. A series of load relaxation test has been conducted at temperatures ranging from 200 to 530oC to obtain the stress-strain rate curves. A plastic equation of state has been derived from a simple consideration of dislocation kinetics and confirmed by experimental results.
Keywords: Plastic equation of state, Dislocation kinetics, Load relaxation test, Al-Li alloy, Microstructure.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1671
2002 Design of Multiplier-free State-Space Digital Filters
Authors: Tamal Bose, Zhurun Zhang, Miloje Radenkovic, Ojas Chauhan
Abstract:In this paper, a novel approach is presented for designing multiplier-free state-space digital filters. The multiplier-free design is obtained by finding power-of-2 coefficients and also quantizing the state variables to power-of-2 numbers. Expressions for the noise variance are derived for the quantized state vector and the output of the filter. A “structuretransformation matrix" is incorporated in these expressions. It is shown that quantization effects can be minimized by properly designing the structure-transformation matrix. Simulation results are very promising and illustrate the design algorithm.
Keywords: Digital filters, minimum noise, multiplier-free, quantization, state-space.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1410
2001 MMU Simulation in Hardware Simulator Based-on State Transition Models
Authors: Zhang Xiuping, Yang Guowu, Zheng Desheng
Abstract:Embedded hardware simulator is a valuable computeraided tool for embedded application development. This paper focuses on the ARM926EJ-S MMU, builds state transition models and formally verifies critical properties for the models. The state transition models include loading instruction model, reading data model, and writing data model. The properties of the models are described by CTL specification language, and they are verified in VIS. The results obtained in VIS demonstrate that the critical properties of MMU are satisfied in the state transition models. The correct models can be used to implement the MMU component in our simulator. In the end of this paper, the experimental results show that the MMU can successfully accomplish memory access requests from CPU.
Keywords: MMU, State transition, Model, Simulation.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1480
2000 The Theory and Practice of the State Model of Corporate Governance
Authors: Asaiel Alohaly
A theoretical framework for corporate governance is needed to bridge the gap between the corporate governance of private companies and State-Owned Enterprises (SOEs). The two dominant models, being shareholder and stakeholder, do not always address the specific requirements and challenges posed by ‘hybrid’ companies; namely, previously national bodies that have been privatised while the government retains significant control or holds a majority of shares. Thus, an exploratory theoretical study is needed to identify how ‘hybrid’ companies should be defined and why the state model should be acknowledged since it is the less conspicuous model in comparison with the shareholder and stakeholder models. This research focuses on the state model of corporate governance to understand the complex ownership, control pattern, goals, and corporate governance of these hybrid companies. The significance of this research lies in the fact that there is a limited available publication on the state model. This research argues for the state model, which proceeds from an understanding of the institutionally embedded characteristics of hybrid companies, where the government as a shareholder, is either a majority of the total shares, or has been granted power based on the rule of law; the company bylaws.
Keywords: Corporate governance, control, shareholders, state model.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 550
1999 State Estimation Based on Unscented Kalman Filter for Burgers’ Equation
Authors: Takashi Shimizu, Tomoaki Hashimoto
Abstract:Controlling the flow of fluids is a challenging problem that arises in many fields. Burgers’ equation is a fundamental equation for several flow phenomena such as traffic, shock waves, and turbulence. The optimal feedback control method, so-called model predictive control, has been proposed for Burgers’ equation. However, the model predictive control method is inapplicable to systems whose all state variables are not exactly known. In practical point of view, it is unusual that all the state variables of systems are exactly known, because the state variables of systems are measured through output sensors and limited parts of them can be only available. In fact, it is usual that flow velocities of fluid systems cannot be measured for all spatial domains. Hence, any practical feedback controller for fluid systems must incorporate some type of state estimator. To apply the model predictive control to the fluid systems described by Burgers’ equation, it is needed to establish a state estimation method for Burgers’ equation with limited measurable state variables. To this purpose, we apply unscented Kalman filter for estimating the state variables of fluid systems described by Burgers’ equation. The objective of this study is to establish a state estimation method based on unscented Kalman filter for Burgers’ equation. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by numerical simulations.
Keywords: State estimation, fluid systems, observer systems, unscented Kalman filter.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 634
1998 Private Monetary Rates of Return to Humanities and Education Programs in Public Universities in Osun State, Nigeria
Authors: A. S. Adelokun, O. O. Gambo, A. A. Adegboye
This study estimates the private cost of Humanities and Education programs in public universities in Osun state, Nigeria, as well as the private monetary returns to Humanities and Education programs in public universities in the state. It also estimates the private rates of return to Humanities and Education programmes in public universities in Osun state; with the view of providing information on the relative profitability of investments in Humanities and Education programs in public universities in Osun state. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The population for the study consisted of all Humanities and Education students from public universities in Osun State and all Humanities and Education graduates who are workers in Osun state establishments. The sample was made up of 600 students and 120 workers. The students were selected through simple random sampling technique from the two public universities in the state while the workers were purposively selected from Osun state establishments. These workers were graduates of Humanities and Education programs. The selected programs included Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) in English, Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) in English, B.A. in Religious Studies, B.Ed. in Religious Studies, B.A. in Yoruba and B.Ed. in Yoruba. Two research instruments were used, namely: Private Costs of University Education Questionnaire (PCUEQ) and Age Education Earnings of Workers Questionnaire (AEEWQ). The data were analyzed using compounding and discount cash flow techniques. The results showed that the private costs of Humanities and Education programs in public universities in Osun state were N855,935.59 and N694,269.34 respectively. The private monetary returns to Humanities and Education programs in public universities in the State were N9,052,859.28 and N9,052,859.28, respectively. The private rates of return to Humanities and Education programmes in public universities in Osun state were 27.36% and 34.40% respectively. The study concluded that it was more profitable to invest in Education programs than in Humanities programs at public universities in Osun state, Nigeria.
Keywords: Rates of return, private cost, investment, education.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 300
1997 Definition, Structure and Core Functions of the State Image
Authors: Rosa Nurtazina, Yerkebulan Zhumashov, Maral Tomanova
Humanity is entering an era when "virtual reality" as the image of the world created by the media with the help of the Internet does not match the reality in many respects, when new communication technologies create a fundamentally different and previously unknown "global space". According to these technologies, the state begins to change the basic technology of political communication of the state and society, the state and the state. Nowadays image of the state becomes the most important tool and technology.
Image is a purposefully created image granting political object (person, organization, country, etc.) certain social and political values and promoting more emotional perception.
Political image of the state plays an important role in international relations. The success of the country's foreign policy, development of trade and economic relations with other countries depends on whether it is positive or negative. Foreign policy image has an impact on political processes taking place in the state: the negative image of the country's can be used by opposition forces as one of the arguments to criticize the government and its policies.
Keywords: Image of the country, country's image classification, function of the country image, country's image components.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3532
1996 Observer Design for Ecological Monitoring
Authors: I. López , J. Garay, R. Carreño, Z. Varga
Abstract:Monitoring of ecological systems is one of the major issues in ecosystem research. The concepts and methodology of mathematical systems theory provide useful tools to face this problem. In many cases, state monitoring of a complex ecological system consists in observation (measurement) of certain state variables, and the whole state process has to be determined from the observed data. The solution proposed in the paper is the design of an observer system, which makes it possible to approximately recover the state process from its partial observation. The method is illustrated with a trophic chain of resource – producer – primary consumer type and a numerical example is also presented.
Keywords: Monitoring, observer system, trophic chainProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1033
1995 Real Power Generation Scheduling to Improve Steady State Stability Limit in the Java-Bali 500kV Interconnection Power System
Authors: Indar Chaerah Gunadin, Adi Soeprijanto, Ontoseno Penangsang
This paper will discuss about an active power generator scheduling method in order to increase the limit level of steady state systems. Some power generator optimization methods such as Langrange, PLN (Indonesian electricity company) Operation, and the proposed Z-Thevenin-based method will be studied and compared in respect of their steady state aspects. A method proposed in this paper is built upon the thevenin equivalent impedance values between each load respected to each generator. The steady state stability index obtained with the REI DIMO method. This research will review the 500kV-Jawa-Bali interconnection system. The simulation results show that the proposed method has the highest limit level of steady state stability compared to other optimization techniques such as Lagrange, and PLN operation. Thus, the proposed method can be used to create the steady state stability limit of the system especially in the peak load condition.
Keywords: generation scheduling, steady-state stability limit, REI Dimo, margin stabilityProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2138
1994 Adaptive Block State Update Method for Separating Background
Authors: Youngsuck Ji, Youngjoon Han, Hernsoo Hahn
Abstract:In this paper, we proposed the robust mobile object detection method for light effect in the night street image block based updating reference background model using block state analysis. Experiment image is acquired sequence color video from steady camera. When suddenly appeared artificial illumination, reference background model update this information such as street light, sign light. Generally natural illumination is change by temporal, but artificial illumination is suddenly appearance. So in this paper for exactly detect artificial illumination have 2 state process. First process is compare difference between current image and reference background by block based, it can know changed blocks. Second process is difference between current image-s edge map and reference background image-s edge map, it possible to estimate illumination at any block. This information is possible to exactly detect object, artificial illumination and it was generating reference background more clearly. Block is classified by block-state analysis. Block-state has a 4 state (i.e. transient, stationary, background, artificial illumination). Fig. 1 is show characteristic of block-state respectively . Experimental results show that the presented approach works well in the presence of illumination variance.
Keywords: Block-state, Edge component, Reference backgroundi, Artificial illumination.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1187
1993 State Feedback Speed Controller for Turbocharged Diesel Engine and Its Robustness
Authors: Dileep Malkhede, Bhartendu Seth
Abstract:In this paper, the full state feedback controllers capable of regulating and tracking the speed trajectory are presented. A fourth order nonlinear mean value model of a 448 kW turbocharged diesel engine published earlier is used for the purpose. For designing controllers, the nonlinear model is linearized and represented in state-space form. Full state feedback controllers capable of meeting varying speed demands of drivers are presented. Main focus here is to investigate sensitivity of the controller to the perturbations in the parameters of the original nonlinear model. Suggested controller is shown to be highly insensitive to the parameter variations. This indicates that the controller is likely perform with same accuracy even after significant wear and tear of engine due to its use for years.
Keywords: Diesel engine model, Engine speed control, State feedback controller, Controller robustness.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2087
1992 Classification of State Transition by Using a Microwave Doppler Sensor for Wandering Detection
Authors: K. Shiba, T. Kaburagi, Y. Kurihara
Abstract:With global aging, people who require care, such as people with dementia (PwD), are increasing within many developed countries. And PwDs may wander and unconsciously set foot outdoors, it may lead serious accidents, such as, traffic accidents. Here, round-the-clock monitoring by caregivers is necessary, which can be a burden for the caregivers. Therefore, an automatic wandering detection system is required when an elderly person wanders outdoors, in which case the detection system transmits a ‘moving’ followed by an ‘absence’ state. In this paper, we focus on the transition from the ‘resting’ to the ‘absence’ state, via the ‘moving’ state as one of the wandering transitions. To capture the transition of the three states, our method based on the hidden Markov model (HMM) is built. Using our method, the restraint where the ‘resting’ state and ‘absence’ state cannot be transmitted to each other is applied. To validate our method, we conducted the experiment with 10 subjects. Our results show that the method can classify three states with 0.92 accuracy.
Keywords: Wander, microwave Doppler sensor, respiratory frequency band, the state transition, hidden Markov model.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 737
1991 Review Risk and Threats Due to Dam Break
Authors: A.Roshandel, N.Hedayat, H.kiamanesh
Abstract:The one of most important objects in implementation of damage analysis observations is manner of dam break wave propagation. In this paper velocity and wave height due dam break in with and without tailwater states for appointment hazardous lands and flood radius are investigate. In order to modeling above phenomenon finite volume method of Roe type for solving shallow water equations is used. Results indicated that in the dry bed state risk radius due to dam break is too high. While in the wet bed risk radius has a less wide. Therefore in the first state constructions and storage facilities are encountered with destruction risk. Further velocity due to dam break in the second state is more comparing to the first state. Hence erosion and scour the river bed in the dry bed is too more compare to the wet bed.
Keywords: Dam break, finite volume method, tailwater, risk radius, scourProcedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1507
1990 Impact of Changes in Excise Tax Rate for Strong Alcohol on Consumption and State Revenues in Latvia
Authors: A. Strateičuks, V. Kaže, R. Škapars
State tax revenues in most countries started to decrease during the recession. Government of Latvia decided to compensate the decline by increasing rates of several taxes including excise tax on strong alcohol. The total increase in 2009 constituted 42% and the rate increased from 896€ to 1 266€ for 100l of absolute alcohol. Since then this has had a negative impact on consumption volumes and the split between legal and illegal market. The legal alcohol sales decreased by almost 50% (by volume), consequentially having negative effect on the State revenues from VAT and excise tax. Estimated results for 2010 are indicating 54 million € decrease in VAT, excise tax and other taxes versus 2008 (excise tax -19 million €, VAT -30 million €, other taxes -5 million €). The paper aims to analyze impact of the increase in excise tax on consumption patterns, State revenues and competitiveness of the local companies to draw up proposals for the state authorities regarding more effective tax policies. The analysis reveals a relationship between excise tax rate, illegal alcohol market and State revenues. The results can be used to improve excise tax system and effectiveness in Latvia.
Keywords: State revenues, alcohol market, excise tax, competitiveness, consumption.Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1655