Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 694

# Search results for: non-negative integer sampling.

##### 694 Dynamic Slope Scaling Procedure for Stochastic Integer Programming Problem

Authors: Takayuki Shiina

Abstract:

Mathematical programming has been applied to various problems. For many actual problems, the assumption that the parameters involved are deterministic known data is often unjustified. In such cases, these data contain uncertainty and are thus represented as random variables, since they represent information about the future. Decision-making under uncertainty involves potential risk. Stochastic programming is a commonly used method for optimization under uncertainty. A stochastic programming problem with recourse is referred to as a two-stage stochastic problem. In this study, we consider a stochastic programming problem with simple integer recourse in which the value of the recourse variable is restricted to a multiple of a nonnegative integer. The algorithm of a dynamic slope scaling procedure for solving this problem is developed by using a property of the expected recourse function. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is quite efficient. The stochastic programming model defined in this paper is quite useful for a variety of design and operational problems. Downloads 1364
##### 693 On the Integer Solutions of the Pell Equation x2 - dy2 = 2t

Authors: Ahmet Tekcan, Betül Gezer, Osman Bizim

Abstract:

Let k ≥ 1 and t ≥ 0 be two integers and let d = k2 + k be a positive non-square integer. In this paper, we consider the integer solutions of Pell equation x2 - dy2 = 2t. Further we derive a recurrence relation on the solutions of this equation.

Keywords: Pell equation, Diophantine equation.

##### 692 The Pell Equation x2 − Py2 = Q

Abstract:

Let p be a prime number such that p ≡ 1(mod 4), say p = 1+4k for a positive integer k. Let P = 2k + 1 and Q = k2. In this paper, we consider the integer solutions of the Pell equation x2-Py2 = Q over Z and also over finite fields Fp. Also we deduce some relations on the integer solutions (xn, yn) of it.

Keywords: Pell equation, solutions of Pell equation.

##### 691 Accelerating Integer Neural Networks On Low Cost DSPs

Authors: Thomas Behan, Zaiyi Liao, Lian Zhao, Chunting Yang

Abstract:

In this paper, low end Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) are applied to accelerate integer neural networks. The use of DSPs to accelerate neural networks has been a topic of study for some time, and has demonstrated significant performance improvements. Recently, work has been done on integer only neural networks, which greatly reduces hardware requirements, and thus allows for cheaper hardware implementation. DSPs with Arithmetic Logic Units (ALUs) that support floating or fixed point arithmetic are generally more expensive than their integer only counterparts due to increased circuit complexity. However if the need for floating or fixed point math operation can be removed, then simpler, lower cost DSPs can be used. To achieve this, an integer only neural network is created in this paper, which is then accelerated by using DSP instructions to improve performance. Downloads 1635
##### 690 Modern Method for Solving Pure Integer Programming Models

Authors: G. Shojatalab

Abstract:

In this paper, all variables are supposed to be integer and positive. In this modern method, objective function is assumed to be maximized or minimized but constraints are always explained like less or equal to. In this method, choosing a dual combination of ideal nonequivalent and omitting one of variables. With continuing this act, finally, having one nonequivalent with (n-m+1) unknown quantities in which final nonequivalent, m is counter for constraints, n is counter for variables of decision. Downloads 1121
##### 689 Comparative Study on Recent Integer DCTs

Authors: Sakol Udomsiri, Masahiro Iwahashi

Abstract:

This paper presents comparative study on recent integer DCTs and a new method to construct a low sensitive structure of integer DCT for colored input signals. The method refers to sensitivity of multiplier coefficients to finite word length as an indicator of how word length truncation effects on quality of output signal. The sensitivity is also theoretically evaluated as a function of auto-correlation and covariance matrix of input signal. The structure of integer DCT algorithm is optimized by combination of lower sensitive lifting structure types of IRT. It is evaluated by the sensitivity of multiplier coefficients to finite word length expression in a function of covariance matrix of input signal. Effectiveness of the optimum combination of IRT in integer DCT algorithm is confirmed by quality improvement comparing with existing case. As a result, the optimum combination of IRT in each integer DCT algorithm evidently improves output signal quality and it is still compatible with the existing one.

Keywords: DCT, sensitivity, lossless, wordlength.

##### 688 A Special Algorithm to Approximate the Square Root of Positive Integer

Authors: Hsian Ming Goo

Abstract:

The paper concerns a special approximate algorithm of the square root of the specific positive integer, which is built by the use of the property of positive integer solution of the Pell’s equation, together with using some elementary theorems of matrices, and then takes it to compare with general used the Newton’s method and give a practical numerical example and error analysis; it is unexpected to find its special property: the significant figure of the approximation value of the square root of positive integer will increase one digit by one. It is well useful in some occasions.

##### 687 Relative Injective Modules and Relative Flat Modules

Authors: Jianmin Xing, Rufeng Xing

Abstract:

Let R be a ring, n a fixed nonnegative integer. The concepts of (n, 0)-FI-injective and (n, 0)-FI-flat modules, and then give some characterizations of these modules over left n-coherent rings are introduced . In addition, we investigate the left and right n-FI-resolutions of R-modules by left (right) derived functors Extn(−,−) (Torn(−,−) ) over a left n-coherent ring, where n-FI stands for the categories of all (n, 0)- injective left R-modules. These modules together with the left or right derived functors are used to study the (n, 0)-injective dimensions of modules and rings.

##### 686 The Spanning Laceability of k-ary n-cubes when k is Even

Authors: Yuan-Kang Shih, Shu-Li Chang, Shin-Shin Kao

Abstract:

Qk n has been shown as an alternative to the hypercube family. For any even integer k ≥ 4 and any integer n ≥ 2, Qk n is a bipartite graph. In this paper, we will prove that given any pair of vertices, w and b, from different partite sets of Qk n, there exist 2n internally disjoint paths between w and b, denoted by {Pi | 0 ≤ i ≤ 2n-1}, such that 2n-1 i=0 Pi covers all vertices of Qk n. The result is optimal since each vertex of Qk n has exactly 2n neighbors.

Keywords: container, Hamiltonian, k-ary n-cube, m*-connected.

##### 685 Estimating the Population Mean by Using Stratified Double Extreme Ranked Set Sample

Abstract:

Stratified double extreme ranked set sampling (SDERSS) method is introduced and considered for estimating the population mean. The SDERSS is compared with the simple random sampling (SRS), stratified ranked set sampling (SRSS) and stratified simple set sampling (SSRS). It is shown that the SDERSS estimator is an unbiased of the population mean and more efficient than the estimators using SRS, SRSS and SSRS when the underlying distribution of the variable of interest is symmetric or asymmetric.

##### 684 Optimal ECG Sampling Frequency for Multiscale Entropy-Based HRV

Authors: Manjit Singh

Abstract:

Multiscale entropy (MSE) is an extensively used index to provide a general understanding of multiple complexity of physiologic mechanism of heart rate variability (HRV) that operates on a wide range of time scales. Accurate selection of electrocardiogram (ECG) sampling frequency is an essential concern for clinically significant HRV quantification; high ECG sampling rate increase memory requirements and processing time, whereas low sampling rate degrade signal quality and results in clinically misinterpreted HRV. In this work, the impact of ECG sampling frequency on MSE based HRV have been quantified. MSE measures are found to be sensitive to ECG sampling frequency and effect of sampling frequency will be a function of time scale. Downloads 777
##### 683 The Inverse Eigenvalue Problem via Orthogonal Matrices

Authors: A. M. Nazari, B. Sepehrian, M. Jabari

Abstract:

In this paper we study the inverse eigenvalue problem for symmetric special matrices and introduce sufficient conditions for obtaining nonnegative matrices. We get the HROU algorithm from  and introduce some extension of this algorithm. If we have some eigenvectors and associated eigenvalues of a matrix, then by this extension we can find the symmetric matrix that its eigenvalue and eigenvectors are given. At last we study the special cases and get some remarkable results.

##### 682 Multi-Objective Optimization of Combined System Reliability and Redundancy Allocation Problem

Authors: Vijaya K. Srivastava, Davide Spinello

Abstract:

This paper presents established 3n enumeration procedure for mixed integer optimization problems for solving multi-objective reliability and redundancy allocation problem subject to design constraints. The formulated problem is to find the optimum level of unit reliability and the number of units for each subsystem. A number of illustrative examples are provided and compared to indicate the application of the superiority of the proposed method.

##### 681 Some New Inequalities for Eigenvalues of the Hadamard Product and the Fan Product of Matrices

Authors: Jing Li, Guang Zhou

Abstract:

Let A and B be nonnegative matrices. A new upper bound on the spectral radius ρ(A◦B) is obtained. Meanwhile, a new lower bound on the smallest eigenvalue q(AB) for the Fan product, and a new lower bound on the minimum eigenvalue q(B ◦A−1) for the Hadamard product of B and A−1 of two nonsingular M-matrices A and B are given. Some results of comparison are also given in theory. To illustrate our results, numerical examples are considered.

##### 680 Stochastic Programming Model for Power Generation

Authors: Takayuki Shiina

Abstract:

We consider power system expansion planning under uncertainty. In our approach, integer programming and stochastic programming provide a basic framework. We develop a multistage stochastic programming model in which some of the variables are restricted to integer values. By utilizing the special property of the problem, called block separable recourse, the problem is transformed into a two-stage stochastic program with recourse. The electric power capacity expansion problem is reformulated as the problem with first stage integer variables and continuous second stage variables. The L-shaped algorithm to solve the problem is proposed. Downloads 1670
##### 679 Efficient Alias-free Level Crossing Sampling

Authors: Negar Riazifar, Nigel G. Stocks

Abstract:

This paper proposes strategies in level crossing (LC) sampling and reconstruction that provide alias-free high-fidelity signal reconstruction for speech signals without exponentially increasing sample number with increasing bit-depth. We introduce methods in LC sampling that reduce the sampling rate close to the Nyquist frequency even for large bit-depth. The results indicate that larger variation in the sampling intervals leads to alias-free sampling scheme; this is achieved by either reducing the bit-depth or adding a jitter to the system for high bit-depths. In conjunction with windowing, the signal is reconstructed from the LC samples using an efficient Toeplitz reconstruction algorithm.

##### 678 A New Integer Programming Formulation for the Chinese Postman Problem with Time Dependent Travel Times

Authors: Jinghao Sun, Guozhen Tan, Guangjian Hou

Abstract:

The Chinese Postman Problem (CPP) is one of the classical problems in graph theory and is applicable in a wide range of fields. With the rapid development of hybrid systems and model based testing, Chinese Postman Problem with Time Dependent Travel Times (CPPTDT) becomes more realistic than the classical problems. In the literature, we have proposed the first integer programming formulation for the CPPTDT problem, namely, circuit formulation, based on which some polyhedral results are investigated and a cutting plane algorithm is also designed. However, there exists a main drawback: the circuit formulation is only available for solving the special instances with all circuits passing through the origin. Therefore, this paper proposes a new integer programming formulation for solving all the general instances of CPPTDT. Moreover, the size of the circuit formulation is too large, which is reduced dramatically here. Thus, it is possible to design more efficient algorithm for solving the CPPTDT in the future research. Downloads 2601
##### 677 Robot Path Planning in 3D Space Using Binary Integer Programming

Authors: Ellips Masehian, Golnaz Habibi

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel algorithm for path planning of mobile robots in known 3D environments using Binary Integer Programming (BIP). In this approach the problem of path planning is formulated as a BIP with variables taken from 3D Delaunay Triangulation of the Free Configuration Space and solved to obtain an optimal channel made of connected tetrahedrons. The 3D channel is then partitioned into convex fragments which are used to build safe and short paths within from Start to Goal. The algorithm is simple, complete, does not suffer from local minima, and is applicable to different workspaces with convex and concave polyhedral obstacles. The noticeable feature of this algorithm is that it is simply extendable to n-D Configuration spaces. Downloads 2332
##### 676 Generic Model for Timetabling Problems by Integer Linear Programming Approach

Authors: N. A. H. Aizam, V. Uvaraja

Abstract:

The agenda of showing the scheduled time for performing certain tasks is known as timetabling. It is widely used in many departments such as transportation, education, and production. Some difficulties arise to ensure all tasks happen in the time and place allocated. Therefore, many researchers invented various programming models to solve the scheduling problems from several fields. However, the studies in developing the general integer programming model for many timetabling problems are still questionable. Meanwhile, this thesis describes about creating a general model which solves different types of timetabling problems by considering the basic constraints. Initially, the common basic constraints from five different fields are selected and analyzed. A general basic integer programming model was created and then verified by using the medium set of data obtained randomly which is much similar to realistic data. The mathematical software, AIMMS with CPLEX as a solver has been used to solve the model. The model obtained is significant in solving many timetabling problems easily since it is modifiable to all types of scheduling problems which have same basic constraints.

##### 675 Design of Bayesian MDS Sampling Plan Based on the Process Capability Index

Abstract:

In this paper, a variable multiple dependent state (MDS) sampling plan is developed based on the process capability index using Bayesian approach. The optimal parameters of the developed sampling plan with respect to constraints related to the risk of consumer and producer are presented. Two comparison studies have been done. First, the methods of double sampling model, sampling plan for resubmitted lots and repetitive group sampling (RGS) plan are elaborated and average sample numbers of the developed MDS plan and other classical methods are compared. A comparison study between the developed MDS plan based on Bayesian approach and the exact probability distribution is carried out.

##### 674 Investigating the Efficiency of Stratified Double Median Ranked Set Sample for Estimating the Population Mean

Authors: Mahmoud I. Syam

Abstract:

Stratified double median ranked set sampling (SDMRSS) method is suggested for estimating the population mean. The SDMRSS is compared with the simple random sampling (SRS), stratified simple random sampling (SSRS), and stratified ranked set sampling (SRSS). It is shown that SDMRSS estimator is an unbiased of the population mean and more efficient than SRS, SSRS, and SRSS. Also, by SDMRSS, we can increase the efficiency of mean estimator for specific value of the sample size. SDMRSS is applied on real life examples, and the results of the example agreed the theoretical results.

##### 673 Lower Bounds of Some Small Ramsey Numbers

Authors: Decha Samana, Vites Longani

Abstract:

For positive integer s and t, the Ramsey number R(s, t) is the least positive integer n such that for every graph G of order n, either G contains Ks as a subgraph or G contains Kt as a subgraph. We construct the circulant graphs and use them to obtain lower bounds of some small Ramsey numbers.

Keywords: Lower bound, Ramsey numbers, Graphs, Distance line.

##### 672 Efficient Secured Lossless Coding of Medical Images– Using Modified Runlength Coding for Character Representation

Abstract:

Lossless compression schemes with secure transmission play a key role in telemedicine applications that helps in accurate diagnosis and research. Traditional cryptographic algorithms for data security are not fast enough to process vast amount of data. Hence a novel Secured lossless compression approach proposed in this paper is based on reversible integer wavelet transform, EZW algorithm, new modified runlength coding for character representation and selective bit scrambling. The use of the lifting scheme allows generating truly lossless integer-to-integer wavelet transforms. Images are compressed/decompressed by well-known EZW algorithm. The proposed modified runlength coding greatly improves the compression performance and also increases the security level. This work employs scrambling method which is fast, simple to implement and it provides security. Lossless compression ratios and distortion performance of this proposed method are found to be better than other lossless techniques. Downloads 1233
##### 671 Modified Diffie-Hellman Protocol By Extend The Theory of The Congruence

Abstract:

This paper is introduced a modification to Diffie- Hellman protocol to be applicable on the decimal numbers, which they are the numbers between zero and one. For this purpose we extend the theory of the congruence. The new congruence is over the set of the real numbers and it is called the “real congruence" or the “real modulus". We will refer to the existing congruence by the “integer congruence" or the “integer modulus". This extension will define new terms and redefine the existing terms. As the properties and the theorems of the integer modulus are extended as well. Modified Diffie-Hellman key exchange protocol is produced a sharing, secure and decimal secret key for the the cryptosystems that depend on decimal numbers. Downloads 1412
##### 670 Airport Check-In Optimization by IP and Simulation in Combination

Abstract:

The check-in area of airport terminal is one of the busiest sections at airports at certain periods. The passengers are subjected to queues and delays during the check-in process. These delays and queues are due to constraints in the capacity of service facilities. In this project, the airport terminal is decomposed into several check-in areas. The airport check-in scheduling problem requires both a deterministic (integer programming) and stochastic (simulation) approach. Integer programming formulations are provided to minimize the total number of counters in each check-in area under the realistic constraint that counters for one and the same flight should be adjacent and the desired number of counters remaining in each area should be fixed during check-in operations. By using simulation, the airport system can be modeled to study the effects of various parameters such as number of passengers on a flight and check-in counter opening and closing time.

##### 669 The Pell Equation x2 − (k2 − k)y2 = 2t

Authors: Ahmet Tekcan

Abstract:

Let k, t, d be arbitrary integers with k ≥ 2, t ≥ 0 and d = k2 - k. In the first section we give some preliminaries from Pell equations x2 - dy2 = 1 and x2 - dy2 = N, where N be any fixed positive integer. In the second section, we consider the integer solutions of Pell equations x2 - dy2 = 1 and x2 - dy2 = 2t. We give a method for the solutions of these equations. Further we derive recurrence relations on the solutions of these equations

Keywords: Pell equation, solutions of Pell equation.

##### 668 Modeling Hybrid Systems with MLD Approach and Analysis of the Model Size and Complexity

Authors: H. Mahboubi, B. Moshiri, A. Khaki Seddigh

Abstract:

Recently, a great amount of interest has been shown in the field of modeling and controlling hybrid systems. One of the efficient and common methods in this area utilizes the mixed logicaldynamical (MLD) systems in the modeling. In this method, the system constraints are transformed into mixed-integer inequalities by defining some logic statements. In this paper, a system containing three tanks is modeled as a nonlinear switched system by using the MLD framework. Comparing the model size of the three-tank system with that of a two-tank system, it is deduced that the number of binary variables, the size of the system and its complexity tremendously increases with the number of tanks, which makes the control of the system more difficult. Therefore, methods should be found which result in fewer mixed-integer inequalities. Downloads 1612
##### 667 Investigation of the Effects of Sampling Frequency on the THD of 3-Phase Inverters Using Space Vector Modulation

Abstract:

This paper presents the simulation results of the effects of sampling frequency on the total harmonic distortion (THD) of three-phase inverters using the space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) and space vector control (SVC) algorithms. The relationship between the variables was studied using curve fitting techniques, and it has been shown that, for 50 Hz inverters, there is an exponential relation between the sampling frequency and THD up to around 8500 Hz, beyond which the performance of the model becomes irregular, and there is an negative exponential relation between the sampling frequency and the marginal improvement to the THD. It has also been found that the performance of SVPWM is better than that of SVC with the same sampling frequency in most frequency range, including the range where the performance of the former is irregular.

Keywords: SVPWM, THD, DC-AC Inverter, Sampling Frequency.