Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 528

Search results for: naïve Bayesian tree.

528 Scaling up Detection Rates and Reducing False Positives in Intrusion Detection using NBTree

Authors: Dewan Md. Farid, Nguyen Huu Hoa, Jerome Darmont, Nouria Harbi, Mohammad Zahidur Rahman

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a new learning algorithm for anomaly based network intrusion detection using improved self adaptive naïve Bayesian tree (NBTree), which induces a hybrid of decision tree and naïve Bayesian classifier. The proposed approach scales up the balance detections for different attack types and keeps the false positives at acceptable level in intrusion detection. In complex and dynamic large intrusion detection dataset, the detection accuracy of naïve Bayesian classifier does not scale up as well as decision tree. It has been successfully tested in other problem domains that naïve Bayesian tree improves the classification rates in large dataset. In naïve Bayesian tree nodes contain and split as regular decision-trees, but the leaves contain naïve Bayesian classifiers. The experimental results on KDD99 benchmark network intrusion detection dataset demonstrate that this new approach scales up the detection rates for different attack types and reduces false positives in network intrusion detection.

Keywords: Detection rates, false positives, network intrusiondetection, naïve Bayesian tree.

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527 Improving Classification in Bayesian Networks using Structural Learning

Authors: Hong Choon Ong

Abstract:

Naïve Bayes classifiers are simple probabilistic classifiers. Classification extracts patterns by using data file with a set of labeled training examples and is currently one of the most significant areas in data mining. However, Naïve Bayes assumes the independence among the features. Structural learning among the features thus helps in the classification problem. In this study, the use of structural learning in Bayesian Network is proposed to be applied where there are relationships between the features when using the Naïve Bayes. The improvement in the classification using structural learning is shown if there exist relationship between the features or when they are not independent.

Keywords: Bayesian Network, Classification, Naïve Bayes, Structural Learning.

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526 Learning User Keystroke Patterns for Authentication

Authors: Ying Zhao

Abstract:

Keystroke authentication is a new access control system to identify legitimate users via their typing behavior. In this paper, machine learning techniques are adapted for keystroke authentication. Seven learning methods are used to build models to differentiate user keystroke patterns. The selected classification methods are Decision Tree, Naive Bayesian, Instance Based Learning, Decision Table, One Rule, Random Tree and K-star. Among these methods, three of them are studied in more details. The results show that machine learning is a feasible alternative for keystroke authentication. Compared to the conventional Nearest Neighbour method in the recent research, learning methods especially Decision Tree can be more accurate. In addition, the experiment results reveal that 3-Grams is more accurate than 2-Grams and 4-Grams for feature extraction. Also, combination of attributes tend to result higher accuracy.

Keywords: Keystroke Authentication, Pattern recognition, MachineLearning, Instance-based Learning, Bayesian, Decision Tree.

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525 Adaptive Naïve Bayesian Anti-Spam Engine

Authors: Wojciech P. Gajewski

Abstract:

The problem of spam has been seriously troubling the Internet community during the last few years and currently reached an alarming scale. Observations made at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research located in Geneva, Switzerland) show that spam mails can constitute up to 75% of daily SMTP traffic. A naïve Bayesian classifier based on a Bag Of Words representation of an email is widely used to stop this unwanted flood as it combines good performance with simplicity of the training and classification processes. However, facing the constantly changing patterns of spam, it is necessary to assure online adaptability of the classifier. This work proposes combining such a classifier with another NBC (naïve Bayesian classifier) based on pairs of adjacent words. Only the latter will be retrained with examples of spam reported by users. Tests are performed on considerable sets of mails both from public spam archives and CERN mailboxes. They suggest that this architecture can increase spam recall without affecting the classifier precision as it happens when only the NBC based on single words is retrained.

Keywords: Text classification, naïve Bayesian classification, spam, email.

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524 Mining Network Data for Intrusion Detection through Naïve Bayesian with Clustering

Authors: Dewan Md. Farid, Nouria Harbi, Suman Ahmmed, Md. Zahidur Rahman, Chowdhury Mofizur Rahman

Abstract:

Network security attacks are the violation of information security policy that received much attention to the computational intelligence society in the last decades. Data mining has become a very useful technique for detecting network intrusions by extracting useful knowledge from large number of network data or logs. Naïve Bayesian classifier is one of the most popular data mining algorithm for classification, which provides an optimal way to predict the class of an unknown example. It has been tested that one set of probability derived from data is not good enough to have good classification rate. In this paper, we proposed a new learning algorithm for mining network logs to detect network intrusions through naïve Bayesian classifier, which first clusters the network logs into several groups based on similarity of logs, and then calculates the prior and conditional probabilities for each group of logs. For classifying a new log, the algorithm checks in which cluster the log belongs and then use that cluster-s probability set to classify the new log. We tested the performance of our proposed algorithm by employing KDD99 benchmark network intrusion detection dataset, and the experimental results proved that it improves detection rates as well as reduces false positives for different types of network intrusions.

Keywords: Clustering, detection rate, false positive, naïveBayesian classifier, network intrusion detection.

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523 Performance Comparison of ADTree and Naive Bayes Algorithms for Spam Filtering

Authors: Thanh Nguyen, Andrei Doncescu, Pierre Siegel

Abstract:

Classification is an important data mining technique and could be used as data filtering in artificial intelligence. The broad application of classification for all kind of data leads to be used in nearly every field of our modern life. Classification helps us to put together different items according to the feature items decided as interesting and useful. In this paper, we compare two classification methods Naïve Bayes and ADTree use to detect spam e-mail. This choice is motivated by the fact that Naive Bayes algorithm is based on probability calculus while ADTree algorithm is based on decision tree. The parameter settings of the above classifiers use the maximization of true positive rate and minimization of false positive rate. The experiment results present classification accuracy and cost analysis in view of optimal classifier choice for Spam Detection. It is point out the number of attributes to obtain a tradeoff between number of them and the classification accuracy.

Keywords: Classification, data mining, spam filtering, naive Bayes, decision tree.

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522 Forecasting Stock Indexes Using Bayesian Additive Regression Tree

Authors: Darren Zou

Abstract:

Forecasting the stock market is a very challenging task. Various economic indicators such as GDP, exchange rates, interest rates, and unemployment have a substantial impact on the stock market. Time series models are the traditional methods used to predict stock market changes. In this paper, a machine learning method, Bayesian Additive Regression Tree (BART) is used in predicting stock market indexes based on multiple economic indicators. BART can be used to model heterogeneous treatment effects, and thereby works well when models are misspecified. It also has the capability to handle non-linear main effects and multi-way interactions without much input from financial analysts. In this research, BART is proposed to provide a reliable prediction on day-to-day stock market activities. By comparing the analysis results from BART and with time series method, BART can perform well and has better prediction capability than the traditional methods.

Keywords: Bayesian, Forecast, Stock, BART.

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521 An Integrative Bayesian Approach to Supporting the Prediction of Protein-Protein Interactions: A Case Study in Human Heart Failure

Authors: Fiona Browne, Huiru Zheng, Haiying Wang, Francisco Azuaje

Abstract:

Recent years have seen a growing trend towards the integration of multiple information sources to support large-scale prediction of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks in model organisms. Despite advances in computational approaches, the combination of multiple “omic" datasets representing the same type of data, e.g. different gene expression datasets, has not been rigorously studied. Furthermore, there is a need to further investigate the inference capability of powerful approaches, such as fullyconnected Bayesian networks, in the context of the prediction of PPI networks. This paper addresses these limitations by proposing a Bayesian approach to integrate multiple datasets, some of which encode the same type of “omic" data to support the identification of PPI networks. The case study reported involved the combination of three gene expression datasets relevant to human heart failure (HF). In comparison with two traditional methods, Naive Bayesian and maximum likelihood ratio approaches, the proposed technique can accurately identify known PPI and can be applied to infer potentially novel interactions.

Keywords: Bayesian network, Classification, Data integration, Protein interaction networks.

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520 Spanning Tree Transformation of Connected Graphs into Single-Row Networks

Authors: S.L. Loh, S. Salleh, N.H. Sarmin

Abstract:

A spanning tree of a connected graph is a tree which consists the set of vertices and some or perhaps all of the edges from the connected graph. In this paper, a model for spanning tree transformation of connected graphs into single-row networks, namely Spanning Tree of Connected Graph Modeling (STCGM) will be introduced. Path-Growing Tree-Forming algorithm applied with Vertex-Prioritized is contained in the model to produce the spanning tree from the connected graph. Paths are produced by Path-Growing and they are combined into a spanning tree by Tree-Forming. The spanning tree that is produced from the connected graph is then transformed into single-row network using Tree Sequence Modeling (TSM). Finally, the single-row routing problem is solved using a method called Enhanced Simulated Annealing for Single-Row Routing (ESSR).

Keywords: Graph theory, simulated annealing, single-rowrouting and spanning tree.

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519 Optimizing Mobile Agents Migration Based on Decision Tree Learning

Authors: Yasser k. Ali, Hesham N. Elmahdy, Sanaa El Olla Hanfy Ahmed

Abstract:

Mobile agents are a powerful approach to develop distributed systems since they migrate to hosts on which they have the resources to execute individual tasks. In a dynamic environment like a peer-to-peer network, Agents have to be generated frequently and dispatched to the network. Thus they will certainly consume a certain amount of bandwidth of each link in the network if there are too many agents migration through one or several links at the same time, they will introduce too much transferring overhead to the links eventually, these links will be busy and indirectly block the network traffic, therefore, there is a need of developing routing algorithms that consider about traffic load. In this paper we seek to create cooperation between a probabilistic manner according to the quality measure of the network traffic situation and the agent's migration decision making to the next hop based on decision tree learning algorithms.

Keywords: Agent Migration, Decision Tree learning, ID3 algorithm, Naive Bayes Classifier

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518 Utilizing Innovative Techniques to Improve Email Security

Authors: Amany M. Alshawi, Khaled Alduhaiman

Abstract:

This paper proposes a technique to protect against email bombing. The technique employs a statistical approach, Naïve Bayes (NB), and Neural Networks to show that it is possible to differentiate between good and bad traffic to protect against email bombing attacks. Neural networks and Naïve Bayes can be trained by utilizing many email messages that include both input and output data for legitimate and non-legitimate emails. The input to the model includes the contents of the body of the messages, the subject, and the headers. This information will be used to determine if the email is normal or an attack email. Preliminary tests suggest that Naïve Bayes can be trained to produce an accurate response to confirm which email represents an attack.

Keywords: Email bombing, Legitimate email, Naïve Bayes, Neural networks, Non-legitimate email.

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517 Construction Of Decentralized Lifetime Maximizing Tree for Data Aggregation in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Deepali Virmani , Satbir Jain

Abstract:

To meet the demands of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) where data are usually aggregated at a single source prior to transmitting to any distant user, there is a need to establish a tree structure inside any given event region. In this paper , a novel technique to create one such tree is proposed .This tree preserves the energy and maximizes the lifetime of event sources while they are constantly transmitting for data aggregation. The term Decentralized Lifetime Maximizing Tree (DLMT) is used to denote this tree. DLMT features in nodes with higher energy tend to be chosen as data aggregating parents so that the time to detect the first broken tree link can be extended and less energy is involved in tree maintenance. By constructing the tree in such a way, the protocol is able to reduce the frequency of tree reconstruction, minimize the amount of data loss ,minimize the delay during data collection and preserves the energy.

Keywords: branch energy, decentralized, energy level , lifetime, tree energy, wireless sensor networks.

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516 Modified Naïve Bayes Based Prediction Modeling for Crop Yield Prediction

Authors: Kefaya Qaddoum

Abstract:

Most of greenhouse growers desire a determined amount of yields in order to accurately meet market requirements. The purpose of this paper is to model a simple but often satisfactory supervised classification method. The original naive Bayes have a serious weakness, which is producing redundant predictors. In this paper, utilized regularization technique was used to obtain a computationally efficient classifier based on naive Bayes. The suggested construction, utilized L1-penalty, is capable of clearing redundant predictors, where a modification of the LARS algorithm is devised to solve this problem, making this method applicable to a wide range of data. In the experimental section, a study conducted to examine the effect of redundant and irrelevant predictors, and test the method on WSG data set for tomato yields, where there are many more predictors than data, and the urge need to predict weekly yield is the goal of this approach. Finally, the modified approach is compared with several naive Bayes variants and other classification algorithms (SVM and kNN), and is shown to be fairly good.

Keywords: Tomato yields prediction, naive Bayes, redundancy

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515 Choosing Search Algorithms in Bayesian Optimization Algorithm

Authors: Hao Wu, Jonathan L. Shapiro

Abstract:

The Bayesian Optimization Algorithm (BOA) is an algorithm based on the estimation of distributions. It uses techniques from modeling data by Bayesian networks to estimating the joint distribution of promising solutions. To obtain the structure of Bayesian network, different search algorithms can be used. The key point that BOA addresses is whether the constructed Bayesian network could generate new and useful solutions (strings), which could lead the algorithm in the right direction to solve the problem. Undoubtedly, this ability is a crucial factor of the efficiency of BOA. Varied search algorithms can be used in BOA, but their performances are different. For choosing better ones, certain suitable method to present their ability difference is needed. In this paper, a greedy search algorithm and a stochastic search algorithm are used in BOA to solve certain optimization problem. A method using Kullback-Leibler (KL) Divergence to reflect their difference is described.

Keywords: Bayesian optimization algorithm, greedy search, KL divergence, stochastic search.

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514 Balancing of Quad Tree using Point Pattern Analysis

Authors: Amitava Chakraborty, Sudip Kumar De, Ranjan Dasgupta

Abstract:

Point quad tree is considered as one of the most common data organizations to deal with spatial data & can be used to increase the efficiency for searching the point features. As the efficiency of the searching technique depends on the height of the tree, arbitrary insertion of the point features may make the tree unbalanced and lead to higher time of searching. This paper attempts to design an algorithm to make a nearly balanced quad tree. Point pattern analysis technique has been applied for this purpose which shows a significant enhancement of the performance and the results are also included in the paper for the sake of completeness.

Keywords: Algorithm, Height balanced tree, Point patternanalysis, Point quad tree.

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513 Optimal Bayesian Control of the Proportion of Defectives in a Manufacturing Process

Authors: Viliam Makis, Farnoosh Naderkhani, Leila Jafari

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a model and an algorithm for the calculation of the optimal control limit, average cost, sample size, and the sampling interval for an optimal Bayesian chart to control the proportion of defective items produced using a semi-Markov decision process approach. Traditional p-chart has been widely used for controlling the proportion of defectives in various kinds of production processes for many years. It is well known that traditional non-Bayesian charts are not optimal, but very few optimal Bayesian control charts have been developed in the literature, mostly considering finite horizon. The objective of this paper is to develop a fast computational algorithm to obtain the optimal parameters of a Bayesian p-chart. The decision problem is formulated in the partially observable framework and the developed algorithm is illustrated by a numerical example.

Keywords: Bayesian control chart, semi-Markov decision process, quality control, partially observable process.

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512 An Attribute-Centre Based Decision Tree Classification Algorithm

Authors: Gökhan Silahtaroğlu

Abstract:

Decision tree algorithms have very important place at classification model of data mining. In literature, algorithms use entropy concept or gini index to form the tree. The shape of the classes and their closeness to each other some of the factors that affect the performance of the algorithm. In this paper we introduce a new decision tree algorithm which employs data (attribute) folding method and variation of the class variables over the branches to be created. A comparative performance analysis has been held between the proposed algorithm and C4.5.

Keywords: Classification, decision tree, split, pruning, entropy, gini.

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511 Improving Fault Resilience and Reconstruction of Overlay Multicast Tree Using Leaving Time of Participants

Authors: Bhed Bahadur Bista

Abstract:

Network layer multicast, i.e. IP multicast, even after many years of research, development and standardization, is not deployed in large scale due to both technical (e.g. upgrading of routers) and political (e.g. policy making and negotiation) issues. Researchers looked for alternatives and proposed application/overlay multicast where multicast functions are handled by end hosts, not network layer routers. Member hosts wishing to receive multicast data form a multicast delivery tree. The intermediate hosts in the tree act as routers also, i.e. they forward data to the lower hosts in the tree. Unlike IP multicast, where a router cannot leave the tree until all members below it leave, in overlay multicast any member can leave the tree at any time thus disjoining the tree and disrupting the data dissemination. All the disrupted hosts have to rejoin the tree. This characteristic of the overlay multicast causes multicast tree unstable, data loss and rejoin overhead. In this paper, we propose that each node sets its leaving time from the tree and sends join request to a number of nodes in the tree. The nodes in the tree will reject the request if their leaving time is earlier than the requesting node otherwise they will accept the request. The node can join at one of the accepting nodes. This makes the tree more stable as the nodes will join the tree according to their leaving time, earliest leaving time node being at the leaf of the tree. Some intermediate nodes may not follow their leaving time and leave earlier than their leaving time thus disrupting the tree. For this, we propose a proactive recovery mechanism so that disrupted nodes can rejoin the tree at predetermined nodes immediately. We have shown by simulation that there is less overhead when joining the multicast tree and the recovery time of the disrupted nodes is much less than the previous works. Keywords

Keywords: Network layer multicast, Fault Resilience, IP multicast

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510 Bayesian Decision Approach to Protection on the Flood Event in Upper Ayeyarwady River, Myanmar

Authors: Min Min Swe Zin

Abstract:

This paper introduces the foundations of Bayesian probability theory and Bayesian decision method. The main goal of Bayesian decision theory is to minimize the expected loss of a decision or minimize the expected risk. The purposes of this study are to review the decision process on the issue of flood occurrences and to suggest possible process for decision improvement. This study examines the problem structure of flood occurrences and theoretically explicates the decision-analytic approach based on Bayesian decision theory and application to flood occurrences in Environmental Engineering. In this study, we will discuss about the flood occurrences upon an annual maximum water level in cm, 43-year record available from 1965 to 2007 at the gauging station of Sagaing on the Ayeyarwady River with the drainage area - 120193 sq km by using Bayesian decision method. As a result, we will discuss the loss and risk of vast areas of agricultural land whether which will be inundated or not in the coming year based on the two standard maximum water levels during 43 years. And also we forecast about that lands will be safe from flood water during the next 10 years.

Keywords: Bayesian decision method, conditional binomial distribution, minimax rules, prior beta distribution.

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509 The Mutated Distance between Two Mixture Trees

Authors: Wan Chian Li, Justie Su-Tzu Juan, Yi-Chun Wang, Shu-Chuan Chen

Abstract:

The evolutionary tree is an important topic in bioinformation. In 2006, Chen and Lindsay proposed a new method to build the mixture tree from DNA sequences. Mixture tree is a new type evolutionary tree, and it has two additional information besides the information of ordinary evolutionary tree. One of the information is time parameter, and the other is the set of mutated sites. In 2008, Lin and Juan proposed an algorithm to compute the distance between two mixture trees. Their algorithm computes the distance with only considering the time parameter between two mixture trees. In this paper, we proposes a method to measure the similarity of two mixture trees with considering the set of mutated sites and develops two algorithm to compute the distance between two mixture trees. The time complexity of these two proposed algorithms are O(n2 × max{h(T1), h(T2)}) and O(n2), respectively

Keywords: evolutionary tree, mixture tree, mutated site, distance.

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508 Improved C-Fuzzy Decision Tree for Intrusion Detection

Authors: Krishnamoorthi Makkithaya, N. V. Subba Reddy, U. Dinesh Acharya

Abstract:

As the number of networked computers grows, intrusion detection is an essential component in keeping networks secure. Various approaches for intrusion detection are currently being in use with each one has its own merits and demerits. This paper presents our work to test and improve the performance of a new class of decision tree c-fuzzy decision tree to detect intrusion. The work also includes identifying best candidate feature sub set to build the efficient c-fuzzy decision tree based Intrusion Detection System (IDS). We investigated the usefulness of c-fuzzy decision tree for developing IDS with a data partition based on horizontal fragmentation. Empirical results indicate the usefulness of our approach in developing the efficient IDS.

Keywords: Data mining, Decision tree, Feature selection, Fuzzyc- means clustering, Intrusion detection.

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507 Visualising Energy Efficiency Landscape

Authors: Hairulliza M. Judi, Soon Y. Chee

Abstract:

This paper discusses the landscape design that could increase energy efficiency in a house. By planting trees in a house compound, the tree shades prevent direct sunlight from heating up the building, and it enables cooling off the surrounding air. The requirement for air-conditioning could be minimized and the air quality could be improved. During the life time of a tree, the saving cost from the mentioned benefits could be up to US $ 200 for each tree. The project intends to visually describe the landscape design in a house compound that could enhance energy efficiency and consequently lead to energy saving. The house compound model was developed in three dimensions by using AutoCAD 2005, the animation was programmed by using LightWave 3D softwares i.e. Modeler and Layout to display the tree shadings in the wall. The visualization was executed on a VRML Pad platform and implemented on a web environment.

Keywords: Tree planting, tree shading, energy efficiency, visualization.

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506 Mining Implicit Knowledge to Predict Political Risk by Providing Novel Framework with Using Bayesian Network

Authors: Siavash Asadi Ghajarloo

Abstract:

Nowadays predicting political risk level of country has become a critical issue for investors who intend to achieve accurate information concerning stability of the business environments. Since, most of the times investors are layman and nonprofessional IT personnel; this paper aims to propose a framework named GECR in order to help nonexpert persons to discover political risk stability across time based on the political news and events. To achieve this goal, the Bayesian Networks approach was utilized for 186 political news of Pakistan as sample dataset. Bayesian Networks as an artificial intelligence approach has been employed in presented framework, since this is a powerful technique that can be applied to model uncertain domains. The results showed that our framework along with Bayesian Networks as decision support tool, predicted the political risk level with a high degree of accuracy.

Keywords: Bayesian Networks, Data mining, GECRframework, Predicting political risk.

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505 A Bayesian Kernel for the Prediction of Protein- Protein Interactions

Authors: Hany Alashwal, Safaai Deris, Razib M. Othman

Abstract:

Understanding proteins functions is a major goal in the post-genomic era. Proteins usually work in context of other proteins and rarely function alone. Therefore, it is highly relevant to study the interaction partners of a protein in order to understand its function. Machine learning techniques have been widely applied to predict protein-protein interactions. Kernel functions play an important role for a successful machine learning technique. Choosing the appropriate kernel function can lead to a better accuracy in a binary classifier such as the support vector machines. In this paper, we describe a Bayesian kernel for the support vector machine to predict protein-protein interactions. The use of Bayesian kernel can improve the classifier performance by incorporating the probability characteristic of the available experimental protein-protein interactions data that were compiled from different sources. In addition, the probabilistic output from the Bayesian kernel can assist biologists to conduct more research on the highly predicted interactions. The results show that the accuracy of the classifier has been improved using the Bayesian kernel compared to the standard SVM kernels. These results imply that protein-protein interaction can be predicted using Bayesian kernel with better accuracy compared to the standard SVM kernels.

Keywords: Bioinformatics, Protein-protein interactions, Bayesian Kernel, Support Vector Machines.

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504 Probabilistic Bayesian Framework for Infrared Face Recognition

Authors: Moulay A. Akhloufi, Abdelhakim Bendada

Abstract:

Face recognition in the infrared spectrum has attracted a lot of interest in recent years. Many of the techniques used in infrared are based on their visible counterpart, especially linear techniques like PCA and LDA. In this work, we introduce a probabilistic Bayesian framework for face recognition in the infrared spectrum. In the infrared spectrum, variations can occur between face images of the same individual due to pose, metabolic, time changes, etc. Bayesian approaches permit to reduce intrapersonal variation, thus making them very interesting for infrared face recognition. This framework is compared with classical linear techniques. Non linear techniques we developed recently for infrared face recognition are also presented and compared to the Bayesian face recognition framework. A new approach for infrared face extraction based on SVM is introduced. Experimental results show that the Bayesian technique is promising and lead to interesting results in the infrared spectrum when a sufficient number of face images is used in an intrapersonal learning process.

Keywords: Face recognition, biometrics, probabilistic imageprocessing, infrared imaging.

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503 The Leaves of a Tree

Authors: Zhu Jiaming, Yu Mengna

Abstract:

In this article, models based on quantitative analysis, physical geometry and regression analysis are established, by using analytic hierarchy process analysis, fuzzy cluster analysis, fuzzy photographic and data fitting. The reasons of various leaf shapes among different species and the differences between the leaf shapes on same tree have been solved by using software, such as Eviews, VB and Matlab. We also successfully estimate the leaf mass of a tree and the correlation with the tree profile.

Keywords: Leaf shape; Mass; Fuzzy cluster; Regression analysis; Eviews; Matlab

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502 Production Throughput Modeling under Five Uncertain Variables Using Bayesian Inference

Authors: Amir Azizi, Amir Yazid B. Ali, Loh Wei Ping

Abstract:

Throughput is an important measure of performance of production system. Analyzing and modeling of production throughput is complex in today-s dynamic production systems due to uncertainties of production system. The main reasons are that uncertainties are materialized when the production line faces changes in setup time, machinery break down, lead time of manufacturing, and scraps. Besides, demand changes are fluctuating from time to time for each product type. These uncertainties affect the production performance. This paper proposes Bayesian inference for throughput modeling under five production uncertainties. Bayesian model utilized prior distributions related to previous information about the uncertainties where likelihood distributions are associated to the observed data. Gibbs sampling algorithm as the robust procedure of Monte Carlo Markov chain was employed for sampling unknown parameters and estimating the posterior mean of uncertainties. The Bayesian model was validated with respect to convergence and efficiency of its outputs. The results presented that the proposed Bayesian models were capable to predict the production throughput with accuracy of 98.3%.

Keywords: Bayesian inference, Uncertainty modeling, Monte Carlo Markov chain, Gibbs sampling, Production throughput

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501 Balancing Neural Trees to Improve Classification Performance

Authors: Asha Rani, Christian Micheloni, Gian Luca Foresti

Abstract:

In this paper, a neural tree (NT) classifier having a simple perceptron at each node is considered. A new concept for making a balanced tree is applied in the learning algorithm of the tree. At each node, if the perceptron classification is not accurate and unbalanced, then it is replaced by a new perceptron. This separates the training set in such a way that almost the equal number of patterns fall into each of the classes. Moreover, each perceptron is trained only for the classes which are present at respective node and ignore other classes. Splitting nodes are employed into the neural tree architecture to divide the training set when the current perceptron node repeats the same classification of the parent node. A new error function based on the depth of the tree is introduced to reduce the computational time for the training of a perceptron. Experiments are performed to check the efficiency and encouraging results are obtained in terms of accuracy and computational costs.

Keywords: Neural Tree, Pattern Classification, Perceptron, Splitting Nodes.

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500 Adding Edges between One Node and Every Other Node with the Same Depth in a Complete K-ary Tree

Authors: Kiyoshi Sawada, Takashi Mitsuishi

Abstract:

This paper proposes a model of adding relations between members of the same level in a pyramid organization structure which is a complete K-ary tree such that the communication of information between every member in the organization becomes the most efficient. When edges between one node and every other node with the same depth N in a complete K-ary tree of height H are added, an optimal depth N* = H is obtained by minimizing the total path length which is the sum of lengths of shortest paths between every pair of all nodes.

Keywords: complete K-ary tree, organization structure, shortest path

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499 NOHIS-Tree: High-Dimensional Index Structure for Similarity Search

Authors: Mounira Taileb, Sami Touati

Abstract:

In Content-Based Image Retrieval systems it is important to use an efficient indexing technique in order to perform and accelerate the search in huge databases. The used indexing technique should also support the high dimensions of image features. In this paper we present the hierarchical index NOHIS-tree (Non Overlapping Hierarchical Index Structure) when we scale up to very large databases. We also present a study of the influence of clustering on search time. The performance test results show that NOHIS-tree performs better than SR-tree. Tests also show that NOHIS-tree keeps its performances in high dimensional spaces. We include the performance test that try to determine the number of clusters in NOHIS-tree to have the best search time.

Keywords: High-dimensional indexing, k-nearest neighborssearch.

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