Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 241

Search results for: multilayered walls

241 Thermal Load Calculations of Multilayered Walls

Authors: Bashir M. Suleiman

Abstract:

Thermal load calculations have been performed for multi-layered walls that are composed of three different parts; a common (sand and cement) plaster, and two types of locally produced soft and hard bricks. The masonry construction of these layered walls was based on concrete-backed stone masonry made of limestone bricks joined by mortar. These multilayered walls are forming the outer walls of the building envelope of a typical Libyan house. Based on the periodic seasonal weather conditions, within the Libyan cost region during summer and winter, measured thermal conductivity values were used to implement such seasonal variation of heat flow and the temperature variations through the walls. The experimental measured thermal conductivity values were obtained using the Hot Disk technique. The estimation of the thermal resistance of the wall layers ( R-values) is based on measurements and calculations. The numerical calculations were done using a simplified analytical model that considers two different wall constructions which are characteristics of such houses. According to the obtained results, the R-values were quite low and therefore, several suggestions have been proposed to improve the thermal loading performance that will lead to a reasonable human comfort and reduce energy consumption.

Keywords: Thermal loading, multilayered walls, Libyan bricks, thermal resistance

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240 Semi Empirical Equations for Peak Shear Strength of Rectangular Reinforced Concrete Walls

Authors: Ali Kezmane, Said Boukais, Mohand Hamizi

Abstract:

This paper presents an analytical study on the behavior of reinforced concrete walls with rectangular cross section. Several experiments on such walls have been selected to be studied. Database from various experiments were collected and nominal shear wall strengths have been calculated using formulas, such as those of the ACI (American), NZS (New Zealand), Mexican (NTCC), and Wood and Barda equations. Subsequently, nominal shear wall strengths from the formulas were compared with the ultimate shear wall strengths from the database. These formulas vary substantially in functional form and do not account for all variables that affect the response of walls. There is substantial scatter in the predicted values of ultimate shear strength. Two new semi empirical equations are developed using data from tests of 57 walls for transitions walls and 27 for slender walls with the objective of improving the prediction of peak strength of walls with the most possible accurate.

Keywords: Shear strength, reinforced concrete walls, rectangular walls, shear walls, models.

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239 Mathematical Approach for Large Deformation Analysis of the Stiffened Coupled Shear Walls

Authors: M. J. Fadaee, H. Saffari, H. Khosravi

Abstract:

Shear walls are used in most of the tall buildings for carrying the lateral load. When openings for doors or windows are necessary to be existed in the shear walls, a special type of the shear walls is used called "coupled shear walls" which in some cases is stiffened by specific beams and so, called "stiffened coupled shear walls". In this paper, a mathematical method for geometrically nonlinear analysis of the stiffened coupled shear walls has been presented. Then, a suitable formulation for determining the critical load of the stiffened coupled shear walls under gravity force has been proposed. The governing differential equations for equilibrium and deformation of the stiffened coupled shear walls have been obtained by setting up the equilibrium equations and the moment-curvature relationships for each wall. Because of the complexity of the differential equation, the energy method has been adopted for approximate solution of the equations.

Keywords: Buckling load, differential equation, energy method, geometrically nonlinear analysis, mathematical method, Stiffened coupled shear walls.

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238 Simplified Equations for Rigidity and Lateral Deflection for Reinforced Concrete Cantilever Shear Walls

Authors: Anas M. Fares

Abstract:

Reinforced concrete shear walls are the most frequently used forms of lateral resisting structural elements. These walls may take many forms due to their functions and locations in the building. In Palestine, the most lateral resisting forces construction forms is the cantilever shear walls system. It is thus of prime importance to study the rigidity of these walls. The virtual work theorem is used to derive the total lateral deflection of cantilever shear walls due to flexural and shear deformation. The case of neglecting the shear deformation in the walls is also studied, and it is found that the wall height to length aspect ratio (H/B) plays a major role in calculating the lateral deflection and the rigidity of such walls. When the H/B is more than or equal to 3.7, the shear deformation may be neglected from the calculation of the lateral deflection. Moreover, the walls with the same material properties, same lateral load value, and same aspect ratio, shall have the same of both the lateral deflection and the rigidity. Finally, an equation to calculate the total rigidity and total deflection of such walls is derived by using the virtual work theorem for a cantilever beam.

Keywords: Cantilever shear walls, flexural deformation, lateral deflection, lateral loads, reinforced concrete shear walls, rigidity, shear deformation, virtual work theorem.

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237 The Effect of Shear Wall Positions on the Seismic Response of Frame-Wall Structures

Authors: Anas M. Fares

Abstract:

The configuration of shear walls in plan of building will affect the seismic design of structure. The position of these walls will change the stiffness of each floor in the structure, the diaphragm center of mass displacement, and the drift of floor. Structural engineers preferred to distribute the walls in buildings to make the center of mass almost close enough to the center of rigidity, but to make this condition satisfied, they have many choices: construct the walls on the perimeter, or use intermediate walls, or use walls as core. In this paper and by using ETABS, each case is studied and compared to other cases according to three parameters: lateral stiffness, diaphragm displacement, and drift. It is found that the core walls are the best choice for the position of the walls in the buildings to resist earthquake loads.

Keywords: Lateral loads, lateral displacement, reinforced concrete, shear wall, seismic, ASCE7-16 code, ACI code, stiffness, drift.

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236 Redundancy in Steel Frames with Masonry Infill Walls

Authors: Hosein Ghaffarzadeh, Robab Naseri Ghalghachi

Abstract:

Structural redundancy is an interesting point in seismic design of structures. Initially, the structural redundancy is described as indeterminate degree of a system. Although many definitions are presented for redundancy in structures, recently the definition of structural redundancy has been related to the configuration of structural system and the number of lateral load transferring directions in the structure. The steel frames with infill walls are general systems in the constructing of usual residential buildings in some countries. It is obviously declared that the performance of structures will be affected by adding masonry infill walls. In order to investigate the effect of infill walls on the redundancy of the steel frame which constructed with masonry walls, the components of redundancy including redundancy variation index, redundancy strength index and redundancy response modification factor were extracted for the frames with masonry infills. Several steel frames with typical storey number and various numbers of bays were designed and considered. The redundancy of frames with and without infill walls was evaluated by proposed method. The results showed the presence of infill causes increase of redundancy.

Keywords: Structural redundancy, Masonry infill walls frames.

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235 Design of Compact UWB Multilayered Microstrip Filter with Wide Stopband

Authors: N. Azadi-Tinat, H. Oraizi

Abstract:

Design of compact UWB multilayered microstrip filter with E-shape resonator is presented, which provides wide stopband up to 20 GHz and arbitrary impedance matching. The design procedure is developed based on the method of least squares and theory of N-coupled transmission lines. The dimensions of designed filter are about 11 mm × 11 mm and the three E-shape resonators are placed among four dielectric layers. The average insertion loss in the passband is less than 1 dB and in the stopband is about 30 dB up to 20 GHz. Its group delay in the UWB region is about 0.5 ns. The performance of the optimized filter design perfectly agrees with the microwave simulation softwares.

Keywords: Ultra-wideband, method of least square, multilayer microstrip filter, n-coupled transmission lines.

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234 A ZVS Flyback DC-DC Converter using Multilayered Coreless Printed-Circuit Board(PCB) Step-down Power Transformer

Authors: Hari Babu Kotte, Radhika Ambatipudi, Dr. Kent Bertilsson

Abstract:

The experimental and theoretical results of a ZVS (Zero Voltage Switching) isolated flyback DC-DC converter using multilayered coreless PCB step down 2:1 transformer are presented. The performance characteristics of the transformer are shown which are useful for the parameters extraction. The measured energy efficiency of the transformer is found to be more than 94% with the sinusoidal input voltage excitation. The designed flyback converter has been tested successfully upto the output power level of 10W, with a switching frequency in the range of 2.7MHz-4.3MHz. The input voltage of the converter is varied from 25V-40V DC. Frequency modulation technique is employed by maintaining constant off time to regulate the output voltage of the converter. The energy efficiency of the isolated flyback converter circuit under ZVS condition in the MHz frequency region is found to be approximately in the range of 72-84%. This paper gives the comparative results in terms of the energy efficiency of the hard switched and soft switched flyback converter in the MHz frequency region.

Keywords: Coreless PCB step down transformer, DC-DCconverter, Flyback, Hard Switched Converter, MHz frequencyregion, Multilayered PCB transformer, Zero Voltage Switching

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233 Investigation of Fire Damaged Reinforced Concrete Walls with Axial Force

Authors: Hyun Ah Yoon, Ji Yeon Kang, Hee Sun Kim, Yeong Soo Shin

Abstract:

Reinforced concrete (RC) shear wall system of residential buildings is popular in South Korea. RC walls are subjected to axial forces in common and the effect of axial forces on the strength loss of the fire damaged walls has not been investigated. This paper aims at investigating temperature distribution on fire damaged concrete walls having different axial loads. In the experiments, a variable of specimens is axial force ratio. RC walls are fabricated with 150mm of wall thicknesses, 750mm of lengths and 1,300mm of heights having concrete strength of 24MPa. After curing, specimens are heated on one surface with ISO-834 standard time-temperature curve for 2 hours and temperature distributions during the test are measured using thermocouples inside the walls. The experimental results show that the temperature of the RC walls exposed to fire increases as axial force ratio increases. To verify the experiments, finite element (FE) models are generated for coupled temperature-structure analyses. The analytical results of thermal behaviors are in good agreement with the experimental results. The predicted displacement of the walls decreases when the axial force increases. 

Keywords: Axial force ratio, coupled analysis, fire, reinforced concrete wall, temperature distribution.

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232 Seismic Evaluation with Shear Walls and Braces for Buildings

Authors: S. K. Madan, R. S. Malik, V. K. Sehgal

Abstract:

R.C.C. buildings with dual structural system consisting of shear walls (or braces) and moment resisting frames have been widely used to resist lateral forces during earthquakes. The dual systems are designed to resist the total design lateral force in proportion to their lateral stiffness. The response of combination of braces and shear walls has not yet been studied. The combination may prove to be more effective to resist lateral forces during earthquakes. This concept has been applied to regular R.C.C. buildings provided with shear walls, braces and their combinations.

Keywords: Dynamic analysis, Displacement, Dual structural system, Storey drift.

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231 A Comparative Study on Air Permeability Properties of Multilayered Nonwoven Structures

Authors: M. Kucukali Ozturk, B. Nergis, C. Candan

Abstract:

Air permeability plays an important role for applications such as filtration, thermal and acoustic insulation. The study discussed in this paper was conducted in an attempt to investigate air permeability property of various combinations of nonwovens. The PROWHITE air permeability tester was used for the measurement of the air permeability of the samples in accordance with the relevant standards and a comparative study of the results were made. It was found that the fabric mass per unit area was closely related to the air-permeability. The air permeability decreased with the increase in mass per unit area. Additionally, the air permeability of nonwoven fabrics decreased with the increase in thickness. Moreover, air permeability of multilayered SMS nonwoven structures was lower than those of single layered ones.

Keywords: Air permeability, mass per unit area, nonwoven structure, polypropylene nonwoven, thickness.

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230 Application Research on Large Profiled Statues of Steel-Concrete Composite Shear Wall

Authors: Zhao Cai-qi, Ma Jun

Abstract:

Twin steel plates-concrete composite shear walls are composed of a pair of steel plate layers and a concrete layer sandwiched between them, which have the characteristics of both reinforced concrete shear walls and steel plate shear walls. Twin steel plates-composite shear walls contain very high ultimsate bearing capacity and ductility, which have great potential to be applied in the super high-rise buildings and special structures. In this paper, we analyzed the basic characteristics and stress mechanism of the twin steel plates-composite shear walls. Specifically, we analyzed the effects of the steel plate thickness, wall thickness and concrete strength on the bearing capacity of the twin steel plates-composite shear walls. The analysis results indicate that: (1) the initial shear stiffness and ultimate shear-carrying capacity is not significantly affected by the thickness of concrete wall but by the class of concrete, (2) both factors significantly impact the shear distribution of the shear walls in ultimate shear-carrying capacity. The technique of twin steel plates-composite shear walls has been successfully applied in the construction of an 88-meter Huge Statue of Buddha located in Hunan Province, China. The analysis results and engineering experiences showed that the twin steel plates-composite shear walls have great potential for future research and applications.

Keywords: Twin steel plates-concrete composite shear wall, huge statue of Buddha, shear capacity, initial lateral stiffness, overturning moment bearing.

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229 Numerical Simulation of Convective Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow through Porous Media with Different Moving and Heated Walls

Authors: Laith Jaafer Habeeb

Abstract:

The present study is concerned with the free convective two dimensional flow and heat transfer, within the framework of Boussinesq approximation, in anisotropic fluid filled porous rectangular enclosure subjected to end-to-end temperature difference have been investigated using Lattice Boltzmann method fornon-Darcy flow model. Effects of the moving lid direction (top, bottom, left, and right wall moving in the negative and positive x&ydirections), number of moving walls (one or two opposite walls), the sliding wall velocity, and four different constant temperatures opposite walls cases (two surfaces are being insulated and the twoother surfaces areimposed to be at constant hot and cold temperature)have been conducted. The results obtained are discussed in terms of the Nusselt number, vectors, contours, and isotherms.

Keywords: Numerical simulation, lid-driven cavity flow, saturated porous medium, different velocity and heated walls.

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228 Application of Smart Temperature Information Material for The Evaluation of Heat Storage Capacity and Insulation Capacity of Exterior Walls

Authors: Chih-Yuan Chang, Jin-Chiuan Chang, San-Shan Hung, Cheng-Jui Hsu

Abstract:

The heat storage capacity of concrete in building shells is a major reason for excessively large electricity consumption induced by indoor air conditioning. In this research, the previously developed Smart Temperature Information Material (STIM) is embedded in two groups of exterior wall specimens (the control group contains reinforced concrete exterior walls and the experimental group consists of tiled exterior walls). Long term temperature measurements within the concrete are taken by the embedded STIM. Temperature differences between the control group and the experimental group in walls facing the four cardinal directions (east, west, south, and north) are evaluated. This study aims to provide a basic reference for the design of exterior walls and the selection of heat insulation materials.

Keywords: building envelope, sensor, energy, thermal insulation, reinforced concrete

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227 Evaluation of Geosynthetic Forces in GRSRW under Dynamic Condition

Authors: Kooshyar Passbakhsh, Maryam Yazdi

Abstract:

Geosynthetics have proved to be suitable for reinforced soil retaining walls. Based on the increasing uses of geosynthetic reinforced soil systems in the regions, which bear frequent earthquakes, the study of dynamic behavior of structures seems necessary. Determining the reinforcement forces is; therefore, one of the most important and main points of discussions in designing retaining walls, by which we prevent from conservative planning. Thus, this paper intended to investigate the effects of such parameters as wall height, acceleration type, vertical spacing of reinforcement, type of reinforcement and soil type on forces and deformation through numerical modeling of the geosynthetic reinforced soil retaining walls (GRSRW) under dynamic loading with finite difference method by using FLAC. The findings indicate rather positive results with each parameter.

Keywords: Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil Retaining Walls (GRSRW), dynamic analysis, Geosynthetic forces, Flac

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226 Investigation on the Behavior of Conventional Reinforced Coupling Beams

Authors: Akash K. Walunj, Dipendu Bhunia, Samarth Gupta, Prabhat Gupta

Abstract:

Coupled shear walls consist of two shear walls connected intermittently by beams along the height. The behavior of coupled shear walls is mainly governed by the coupling beams. The coupling beams are designed for ductile inelastic behavior in order to dissipate energy. The base of the shear walls may be designed for elastic or ductile inelastic behavior. The amount of energy dissipation depends on the yield moment capacity and plastic rotation capacity of the coupling beams. In this paper, an analytical model of coupling beam was developed to calculate the rotations and moment capacities of coupling beam with conventional reinforcement.

Keywords: Design studies, computational model(s), case study/studies, modeling, coupling beam.

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225 The Effects of Placement and Cross-Section Shape of Shear Walls in Multi-Story RC Buildings with Plan Irregularity on Their Seismic Behavior by Using Nonlinear Time History Analyses

Authors: Mohammad Aminnia, Mahmood Hosseini

Abstract:

Environmental and functional conditions, sometimes, necessitate the architectural plan of the building to be asymmetric, and this result in an asymmetric structure. In such cases finding an optimal pattern for locating the components of lateral load bearing system, including shear walls, in the building’s plan is desired. In case of shear wall in addition to the location the shape of the wall cross-section is also an effective factor. Various types of shear walls and their proper layout might come effective in better stiffness distribution and more appropriate seismic response of the building. Several studies have been conducted in the context of analysis and design of shear walls; however, few studies have been performed on making decisions for the location and form of shear walls in multistory buildings, especially those with irregular plan. In this study, an attempt has been made to obtain the most reliable seismic behavior of multi-story reinforced concrete vertically chamfered buildings by using more appropriate shear walls form and arrangement in 7-, 10-, 12-, and 15-stoy buildings. The considered forms and arrangements include common rectangular walls and L-, T-, U- and Z-shaped plan, located as the core or in the outer frames of the building structure. Comparison of seismic behaviors of the buildings, including maximum roof displacement and particularly formation of plastic hinges and their distribution in the buildings’ structures, have been done based on the results of a series of nonlinear time history analyses, by using a set of selected earthquake records. Results show that shear walls with U-shaped cross-section, placed as the building central core, and also walls with Z-shaped cross-section, placed at the corners give the building more reliable seismic behavior.

Keywords: Vertically chamfered buildings, non-linear time history analyses, L-, T-, U- and Z-shaped plan walls.

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224 Effect of Shear Wall Openings on the Fundamental Period of Shear Wall Structures

Authors: Anas M. Fares, A. Touqan

Abstract:

A common approach in resisting lateral forces is the use of reinforced concrete shear walls in buildings. These walls represent the main elements to resist the lateral forces due to their large strength and stiffness. However, such walls may contain many openings due to functional requirements, and this may largely affect the overall lateral stiffness of them. It is thus of prime importance to quantify the effect of openings on the dynamic performance of the shear walls. SAP2000 structural analysis program is used as a main source after verifying the results. This study is made by using linear elastic analysis. The results are compared to ASCE7-16 code empirical equations for estimating the fundamental period of shear wall structures. Finally, statistical regression is used to fit an equation for estimating the increase in the fundamental period of shear-walled regular structures due to windows openings in the walls.

Keywords: Concrete, earthquake-resistant design, finite element, fundamental period, lateral stiffness, linear analysis, modal analysis, rayleigh, SAP2000, shear wall, ASCE7-16.

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223 Conceptual Investigation of Short-Columns and Masonary Infill Frames Effect in the Earthquakes

Authors: Ebrahim Khalilzadeh Vahidi, Maryam Mokhtari Malekabadi

Abstract:

This paper highlights the importance of the selection of the building-s wall material,and the shortcomings of the most commonly used framed structures with masonry infills .The objective of this study is investigating the behavior of infill walls as structural components in existing structures.Structural infill walls are very important in structural behavior under earthquake effects. Structural capacity under the effect of earthquake,displacement and relative story displacement are affected by the structural irregularities .The presence of nonstructural masonry infill walls can modify extensively the global seismic behavior of framed buildings .The stability and integrity of reinforced concrete frames are enhanced by masonry infill walls. Masonry infill walls alter displacement and base shear of the frame as well. Short columns have great importance during earthquakes,because their failure may lead to additional structural failures and result in total building collapse. Consequently the effects of short columns are considered in this study.

Keywords: Short columns , Infill masonary wall , Buildings , Earthquake.

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222 Seismic Behavior of Thin Shear Wall under the Exerted Loads

Authors: Ali A. Ofoghi

Abstract:

While the shear walls are not economical in buildings, thin shear walls are widely used in the buildings. In the present study, the ratio of different loads to their plasticity and seismic behavior of the wall under different loads have been investigated. Modeling and analysis are carried out by the finite element analysis software ABAQUS. The results show that any increase in the exerted loads will have adverse effects on the seismic behavior of the thin shear walls and causes the wall to collapse by small displacements.

Keywords: Thin shear wall, nonlinear dynamic analysis, reinforced concrete, plasticity.

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221 Study on Mixed Convection Heat Transfer in Vertical Ducts with Radiation Effects

Authors: G. Rajamohan, N. Ramesh, P. Kumar

Abstract:

Experiments have been performed to investigate the radiation effects on mixed convection heat transfer for thermally developing airflow in vertical ducts with two differentially heated isothermal walls and two adiabatic walls. The investigation covers the Reynolds number Re = 800 to Re = 2900, heat flux varied from 256 W/m2 to 863 W/m2, hot wall temperature ranges from 27°C to 100 °C, aspect ratios 1 & 0.5 and the emissivity of internal walls are 0.05 and 0.85. In the present study, combined flow visualization was conducted to observe the flow patterns. The effect of surface temperature along the walls was studied to investigate the local Nusselt number variation within the duct. The result shows that flow condition and radiation significantly affect the total Nusselt number and tends to reduce the buoyancy condition.

Keywords: Mixed convection, vertical duct, thermally developing and radiation effects.

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220 The Effects of Spatial Dimensions and Relocation and Dimensions of Sound Absorbers in a Space on the Objective Parameters of Sound

Authors: Mustafa Kavraz

Abstract:

This study investigated the differences in the objective parameters of sound depending on the changes in the lengths of the lateral surfaces of a space and on the replacement of the sound absorbers that are placed on these surfaces. To this end, three models of room were chosen. The widths and heights of these rooms were the same but the lengths of the rooms were changed. The smallest room was 8 m. wide and 10 m. long. The lengths of the other two rooms were 15 m. and 20 m. For each model, the differences in the objective parameters of sound were determined by keeping all the material in the space intact and by changing only the positions of the sound absorbers that were placed on the walls. The sound absorbers that were used on the walls were of two different sizes. The sound absorbers that were placed on the walls were 4 m and 8 m. long and story-height (3 m.). In all model room types, the sound absorbers were placed on the long walls in three different ways: at the end of the long walls where the long walls meet the front wall; at the end of the long walls where the long walls meet the back wall; and in the middle part of the long walls. Except for the specially placed sound absorbers, the ground, wall and ceiling surfaces were covered with three different materials. There were no constructional elements such as doors and windows on the walls. On the surfaces, the materials specified in the Odeon 10 material library were used as coating material. Linoleum was used as flooring material, painted plaster as wall coating material and gypsum boards as ceiling covering (2 layers with a total of 32 mm. thickness). These were preferred due to the fact that they are the commonly used materials for these purposes. This study investigated the differences in the objective parameters of sound depending on the changes in the lengths of the lateral surfaces of a space and on the replacement of the sound absorbers that are placed on these surfaces. To this end, three models of room were chosen. The widths and heights of these rooms were the same but the lengths of the rooms were changed. The smallest room was 8 m. wide and 10 m. long. The lengths of the other two rooms were 15 m. and 20 m. For each model, the differences in the objective parameters of sound were determined by keeping all the material in the space intact and by changing only the positions of the sound absorbers that were placed on the walls. The sound absorbers that were used on the walls were of two different sizes. The sound absorbers that were placed on the walls were 4 m and 8 m. long and story-height (3 m.). In all model room types, the sound absorbers were placed on the long walls in three different ways: at the end of the long walls where the long walls meet the front wall; at the end of the long walls where the long walls meet the back wall; and in the middle part of the long walls. Except for the specially placed sound absorbers, the ground, wall and ceiling surfaces were covered with three different materials. There were no constructional elements such as doors and windows on the walls. On the surfaces, the materials specified in the Odeon 10 material library were used as coating material. Linoleum was used as flooring material, painted plaster as wall coating material and gypsum boards as ceiling covering (2 layers with a total of 32 mm. thickness). These were preferred due to the fact that they are the commonly used materials for these purposes.

Keywords: Jnd, objective parameters of sound, room model, sound absorber.

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219 Coreless Printed Circuit Board (PCB) Stepdown Transformers for DC-DC Converter Applications

Authors: Radhika Ambatipudi, Hari Babu Kotte, Dr. Kent Bertilsson

Abstract:

In this paper, multilayered coreless printed circuit board (PCB) step-down power transformers for DC-DC converter applications have been designed, manufactured and evaluated. A set of two different circular spiral step-down transformers were fabricated in the four layered PCB. These transformers have been modelled with the assistance of high frequency equivalent circuit and characterized with both sinusoidal and square wave excitation. This paper provides the comparative results of these two different transformers in terms of their resistances, self, leakage, mutual inductances, coupling coefficient and also their energy efficiencies. The operating regions for optimal performance of these transformers for power transfer applications are determined. These transformers were tested for the output power levels of about 30 Watts within the input voltage range of 12-50 Vrms. The energy efficiency for these step down transformers is observed to be in the range of 90%-97% in MHz frequency region.

Keywords: Coreless Step down Transformer, DC-DC Converterapplications, High frequency transformer, MHz operating frequency, Multilayered PCB transformers, Power Transfer Applications.

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218 The Effects of T-Walls on Urban Landscape and Quality of Life and Anti-Terror Design Concept in Kabul, Afghanistan

Authors: Fakhrullah Sarwari, Hiroko Ono

Abstract:

Kabul city has suffered a lot in 40 years of conflict of civil war and “The war on terror”. After the invasion of Afghanistan by the United States of America and its allies in 2001, the Taliban was removed from operational power, but The Taliban and other terrorist groups remained in remote areas of the country, they started suicide attacks and bombings. Hence to protect from these attacks officials surrounded their office buildings and houses with concrete blast walls. It gives a bad landscape to the city and creates traffic congestions. Our research contains; questionnaire, reviewing Kabul Municipality documents and literature review. Questionnaires were distributed to Kabul citizens to find out how people feel by seeing the T-Walls on Kabul streets? And what problems they face with T-Walls. “The T-Walls pull down commission” of Kabul Municipality documents were reviewed to find out what caused the failure of this commission. A literature review has been done to compare Kabul with Washington D.C on how they designed the city against terrorism threat without turning the cities into lock down. Bogota city of Columbia urban happiness movement is reviewed and compared with Kabul. The finding of research revealed that citizens of Kabul want security but not at the expense of public realm and creating the architecture of fear. It also indicates that increasing the T-walls do not give secure feeling but instead; it increases terror, hatred and affect people’s optimism. At the end, a series of recommendation is suggested on the issue.

Keywords: Anti-terror design, Kabul, T-Walls, urban happiness.

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217 Investigation of Stoneley Waves in Multilayered Plates

Authors: Bing Li, Tong Lu, Lei Qiang

Abstract:

Stoneley waves are interface waves that propagate at the interface between two solid media. In this study, the dispersion characteristics and wave structures of Stoneley waves in elastic multilayered plates are displayed and investigated. With a perspective of bulk wave, a reasonable assumption of the potential function forms of the expansion wave and shear wave in nth layer medium is adopted, and the characteristic equation of Stoneley waves in a three-layered plate is given in a determinant form. The dispersion curves and wave structures are solved and presented in both numerical and simulation results. It is observed that two Stoneley wave modes exist in a three-layered plate, that conspicuous dispersion occurs on low frequency band, that the velocity of each Stoneley wave mode approaches the corresponding Stoneley wave velocity at interface between two half infinite spaces. The wave structures reveal that the in-plane displacement of Stoneley waves are relatively high at interfaces, which shows great potential for interface defects detection.

Keywords: Characteristic equation, interface waves, dispersion curves, potential function, Stoneley waves, wave structures.

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216 Effect of Infill Walls on Response of Multi Storey Reinforced Concrete Structure

Authors: Ayman Abd-Elhamed, Sayed Mahmoud

Abstract:

The present research work investigates the seismic response of reinforced concrete (RC) frame building considering the effect of modeling masonry infill (MI) walls. The seismic behavior of a residential 6-storey RC frame building, considering and ignoring the effect of masonry, is numerically investigated using response spectrum (RS) analysis. The considered herein building is designed as a moment resisting frame (MRF) system following the Egyptian code (EC) requirements. Two developed models in terms of bare frame and infill walls frame are used in the study. Equivalent diagonal strut methodology is used to represent the behavior of infill walls, whilst the well-known software package ETABS is used for implementing all frame models and performing the analysis. The results of the numerical simulations such as base shear, displacements, and internal forces for the bare frame as well as the infill wall frame are presented in a comparative way. The results of the study indicate that the interaction between infill walls and frames significantly change the responses of buildings during earthquakes compared to the results of bare frame building model. Specifically, the seismic analysis of RC bare frame structure leads to underestimation of base shear and consequently damage or even collapse of buildings may occur under strong shakings. On the other hand, considering infill walls significantly decrease the peak floor displacements and drifts in both X and Y-directions.

Keywords: Masonry infill, bare frame, response spectrum, seismic response.

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215 Seismic Performance of Reinforced Concrete Frames Infilled by Masonry Walls with Different Heights

Authors: Ji–Wook Mauk, Yu–Suk Kim, Hyung–Joon Kim

Abstract:

This study carried out comparative seismic performance of reinforced concrete frames infilled by masonry walls with different heights. Partial and fully infilled reinforced concrete frames were modeled for the research objectives and the analysis model for a bare reinforced concrete frame was also established for comparison. Non–linear static analyses for the studied frames were performed to investigate their structural behavior under extreme seismic loads and to find out their collapse mechanism. It was observed from analysis results that the strengths of the partial infilled reinforced concrete frames are increased and their ductilities are reduced, as infilled masonry walls are higher. Especially, reinforced concrete frames with higher partial infilled masonry walls would experience shear failures. Non–linear dynamic analyses using 10 earthquake records show that the bare and fully infilled reinforced concrete frame present stable collapse mechanism while the reinforced concrete frames with partially infilled masonry walls collapse in more brittle manner due to short-column effects.

Keywords: Fully infilled RC frame, partially infilled RC frame, masonry wall, short–column effects.

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214 Influence of Strengthening with Perforated Steel Plates on the Behavior of Infill Walls and RC Frame

Authors: Eray Ozbek, Ilker Kalkan, S. Oguzhan Akbas, Sabahattin Aykac

Abstract:

The contribution of the infill walls to the overall earthquake response of a structure is limited and this contribution is generally ignored in the analyses. Strengthening of the infill walls through different techniques has been and is being studied extensively in the literature to increase this limited contribution and the ductilities and energy absorption capacities of the infill walls to create non-structural components where the earthquake-induced energy can be absorbed without damaging the bearing components of the structural frame. The present paper summarizes an extensive research project dedicated to investigate the effects of strengthening the brick infill walls of a reinforced concrete (RC) frame on its lateral earthquake response. Perforated steel plates were used in strengthening due to several reasons, including the ductility and high deformation capacity of these plates, the fire resistant, recyclable and non-cancerogenic nature of mild steel, and the ease of installation and removal of the plates to the wall with the help of anchor bolts only. Furthermore, epoxy, which increases the cost and amount of labor of the strengthening process, is not needed in this technique. The individual behavior of the strengthened walls under monotonic diagonal and lateral reversed cyclic loading was investigated within the scope of the study. Upon achieving brilliant results, RC frames with strengthened infill walls were tested and are being tested to examine the influence of this strengthening technique on the overall behavior of the RC frames. Tests on the wall and frame specimens indicated that the perforated steel plates contribute to the lateral strength, rigidity, ductility and energy absorption capacity of the wall and the infilled frame to a major extent.

Keywords: Infill wall, Strengthening, External plate, Earthquake Behavior.

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213 Design of Rigid L- Shaped Retaining Walls

Authors: A. Rouili

Abstract:

Cantilever L-shaped walls are known to be relatively economical as retaining solution. The design starts by proportioning the wall dimensions for which the stability is checked for. A ratio between the lengths of the base and the stem, falling between 0.5 to 0.7 ensure in most case the stability requirements, however, the displacement pattern of the wall in terms of rotations and translations, and the lateral pressure profile, do not have the same figure for all wall’s proportioning, as it is usually assumed. In the present work the results of a numerical analysis are presented, different wall geometries were considered. The results show that the proportioning governs the equilibrium between the instantaneous rotation and the translation of the wall-toe, also, the lateral pressure estimation based on the average value between the at-rest and the active pressure, recommended by most design standards, is found to be not applicable for all walls.

Keywords: Cantilever wall, proportioning, numerical analysis.

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212 Frequency Response Analysis of Reinforced- Soil Retaining Walls with Polymeric Strips

Authors: Ali Komakpanah, Maryam Yazdi

Abstract:

Few studies have been conducted on polymeric strip and the behavior of soil retaining walls. This paper will present the effect of frequency on the dynamic behavior of reinforced soil retaining walls with polymeric strips. The frequency content describes how the amplitude of a ground motion is distributed among different frequencies. Since the frequency content of an earthquake motion will strongly influence the effects of that motion, the characterization of the motion cannot be completed without the consideration of its frequency content. The maximum axial force of reinforcements and horizontal displacement of the reinforced walls are focused in this research. To clarify the dynamic behavior of reinforced soil retaining walls with polymeric strips, a numerical modeling using Finite Difference Method is benefited. As the results indicate, the frequency of input base acceleration has an important effect on the behavior of these structures. Because of resonant in the system, where the frequency of the input dynamic load is equal to the natural frequency of the system, the maximum horizontal displacement and the maximum axial forces in polymeric strips is occurred. Moreover, they were to increase the structure flexibility because of the main advantages of polymeric strips; i.e. being simple method of construction, having a homogeneous behavior with soils, and possessing long durability, which are of great importance in dynamic analysis.

Keywords: dynamic analysis, frequency, polymeric strip, reinforced soil.

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