Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: multihop

17 Performance Analysis of M-Ary Pulse Position Modulation in Multihop Multiple Input Multiple Output-Free Space Optical System over Uncorrelated Gamma-Gamma Atmospheric Turbulence Channels

Authors: Hechmi Saidi, Noureddine Hamdi

Abstract:

The performance of Decode and Forward (DF) multihop Free Space Optical ( FSO) scheme deploying Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) configuration under Gamma-Gamma (GG) statistical distribution, that adopts M-ary Pulse Position Modulation (MPPM) coding, is investigated. We have extracted exact and estimated values of Symbol-Error Rates (SERs) respectively. A closed form formula related to the Probability Density Function (PDF) is expressed for our designed system. Thanks to the use of DF multihop MIMO FSO configuration and MPPM signaling, atmospheric turbulence is combatted; hence the transmitted signal quality is improved.

Keywords: FSO, MIMO, MIMO, multihop, DF, SER, GG channel.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 400
16 Transmitter Macrodiversity in Multihopping- SFN Based Algorithm for Improved Node Reachability and Robust Routing

Authors: Magnus Eriksson, Arif Mahmud

Abstract:

A novel idea presented in this paper is to combine multihop routing with single-frequency networks (SFNs) for a broadcasting scenario. An SFN is a set of multiple nodes that transmit the same data simultaneously, resulting in transmitter macrodiversity. Two of the most important performance factors of multihop networks, node reachability and routing robustness, are analyzed. Simulation results show that our proposed SFN-D routing algorithm improves the node reachability by 37 percentage points as compared to non-SFN multihop routing. It shows a diversity gain of 3.7 dB, meaning that 3.7 dB lower transmission powers are required for the same reachability. Even better results are possible for larger networks. If an important node becomes inactive, this algorithm can find new routes that a non-SFN scheme would not be able to find. Thus, two of the major problems in multihopping are addressed; achieving robust routing as well as improving node reachability or reducing transmission power.

Keywords: OFDM, single-frequency networks (SFN), DSFN, MANET; multihop routing, transmitter macrodiversity, broadcasting.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1715
15 Multihop Cooperative Transmissions for Asymmetric Traffic Accommodation in CDMA/FDD Cellular Networks

Authors: Kazuo Mori, Takeo Saga, Katsuhiro Naito, Hideo Kobayashi

Abstract:

The asymmetric trafc between uplink and downlink over recent mobile communication systems has been conspicuous because of providing new communication services. This paper proposes an asymmetric trafc accommodation scheme adopting a multihop cooperative transmission technique for CDMA/FDD cellular networks. The proposed scheme employs the cooperative transmission technique in the already proposed downlink multihop transmissions for the accommodation of the asymmetric trafc, which utilizes the vacant uplink band for the downlink relay transmissions. The proposed scheme reduces the transmission power at the downlink relay transmissions and then suppresses the interference to the uplink communications, and thus, improves the uplink performance. The proposed scheme is evaluated by computer simulation and the results show that it can achieve better throughput performance.

Keywords: asymmetric traffic, cooperative transmissions, multihop transmissions, CDMA, FDD, cellular systems

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1491
14 Adaptive Image Transmission with P-V Diversity in Multihop Wireless Mesh Networks

Authors: Wei Wang, Dongming Peng, Honggang Wang, Hamid Sharif

Abstract:

Multirate multimedia delivery applications in multihop Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) are data redundant and delay-sensitive, which brings a lot of challenges for designing efficient transmission systems. In this paper, we propose a new cross layer resource allocation scheme to minimize the receiver side distortion within the delay bound requirements, by exploring application layer Position and Value (P-V) diversity as well as the multihop Effective Capacity (EC). We specifically consider image transmission optimization here. First of all, the maximum supportable source traffic rate is identified by exploring the multihop Effective Capacity (EC) model. Furthermore, the optimal source coding rate is selected according to the P-V diversity of multirate media streaming, which significantly increases the decoded media quality. Simulation results show the proposed approach improved media quality significantly compared with traditional approaches under the same QoS requirements.

Keywords: Multirate Multimedia Streaming, Effective CapacityMultihop Wireless Mesh Network

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1268
13 A Mobile Multihop Relay Dynamic TDD Scheme for Cellular Networks

Authors: Jong-Moon Chung, Hyung-Weon Cho, Ki-Yong Jin, Min-Hee Cho

Abstract:

In this paper, we present an analytical framework for the evaluation of the uplink performance of multihop cellular networks based on dynamic time division duplex (TDD). New wireless broadband protocols, such as WiMAX, WiBro, and 3G-LTE apply TDD, and mobile communication protocols under standardization (e.g., IEEE802.16j) are investigating mobile multihop relay (MMR) as a future technology. In this paper a novel MMR TDD scheme is presented, where the dynamic range of the frame is shared to traffic resources of asymmetric nature and multihop relaying. The mobile communication channel interference model comprises of inner and co-channel interference (CCI). The performance analysis focuses on the uplink due to the fact that the effects of dynamic resource allocation show significant performance degradation only in the uplink compared to time division multiple access (TDMA) schemes due to CCI [1-3], where the downlink results to be the same or better.The analysis was based on the signal to interference power ratio (SIR) outage probability of dynamic TDD (D-TDD) and TDMA systems,which are the most widespread mobile communication multi-user control techniques. This paper presents the uplink SIR outage probability with multihop results and shows that the dynamic TDD scheme applying MMR can provide a performance improvement compared to single hop applications if executed properly.

Keywords: Co-Channel Interference, Dynamic TDD, MobileMultihop Reply, Cellular Network, Time Division Multiple Access.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2120
12 Analysis of Data Gathering Schemes for Layered Sensor Networks with Multihop Polling

Authors: Bhed Bahadur Bista, Danda B. Rawat

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate multihop polling and data gathering schemes in layered sensor networks in order to extend the life time of the networks. A network consists of three layers. The lowest layer contains sensors. The middle layer contains so called super nodes with higher computational power, energy supply and longer transmission range than sensor nodes. The top layer contains a sink node. A node in each layer controls a number of nodes in lower layer by polling mechanism to gather data. We will present four types of data gathering schemes: intermediate nodes do not queue data packet, queue single packet, queue multiple packets and aggregate data, to see which data gathering scheme is more energy efficient for multihop polling in layered sensor networks.

Keywords: layered sensor network, polling, data gatheringschemes.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1360
11 MaxMin Share Based Medium Access for Attaining Fairness and Channel Utilization in Mobile Adhoc Networks

Authors: P. Priakanth, P. Thangaraj

Abstract:

Due to the complex network architecture, the mobile adhoc network-s multihop feature gives additional problems to the users. When the traffic load at each node gets increased, the additional contention due its traffic pattern might cause the nodes which are close to destination to starve the nodes more away from the destination and also the capacity of network is unable to satisfy the total user-s demand which results in an unfairness problem. In this paper, we propose to create an algorithm to compute the optimal MAC-layer bandwidth assigned to each flow in the network. The bottleneck links contention area determines the fair time share which is necessary to calculate the maximum allowed transmission rate used by each flow. To completely utilize the network resources, we compute two optimal rates namely, the maximum fair share and minimum fair share. We use the maximum fair share achieved in order to limit the input rate of those flows which crosses the bottleneck links contention area when the flows that are not allocated to the optimal transmission rate and calculate the following highest fair share. Through simulation results, we show that the proposed protocol achieves improved fair share and throughput with reduced delay.

Keywords: MAC-layer, MANETs, Multihop, optimal rate, Transmission.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1322
10 Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols For High Density Ad Hoc Networks based on Qos by GlomoSim Simulator

Authors: E. Ahvar, M. Fathy

Abstract:

Ad hoc networks are characterized by multihop wireless connectivity, frequently changing network topology and the need for efficient dynamic routing protocols. We compare the performance of three routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks: Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) , Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV), location-aided routing(LAR1).The performance differentials are analyzed using varying network load, mobility, and network size. We simulate protocols with GLOMOSIM simulator. Based on the observations, we make recommendations about when the performance of either protocol can be best.

Keywords: Ad hoc Network , Glomosim , routing protocols.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1386
9 Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols for High Density Ad Hoc Networks Based on Energy Consumption by GlomoSim Simulator

Authors: E. Ahvar, M. Fathy

Abstract:

Ad hoc networks are characterized by multihop wireless connectivity, frequently changing network topology and the need for efficient dynamic routing protocols. We compare the performance of three routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks: Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV), location-aided routing (LAR1).Our evaluation is based on energy consumption in mobile ad hoc networks. The performance differentials are analyzed using varying network load, mobility, and network size. We simulate protocols with GLOMOSIM simulator. Based on the observations, we make recommendations about when the performance of either protocol can be best.

Keywords: Ad hoc Network, energy consumption, Glomosim, routing protocols.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1900
8 A Cross-Layer Approach for Cooperative MIMO Multi-hop Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Jain-Shing Liu

Abstract:

In this work, we study the problem of determining the minimum scheduling length that can satisfy end-to-end (ETE) traffic demand in scheduling-based multihop WSNs with cooperative multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) transmission scheme. Specifically, we present a cross-layer formulation for the joint routing, scheduling and stream control problem by incorporating various power and rate adaptation schemes, and taking into account an antenna beam pattern model and the signal-to-interference-and-noise (SINR) constraint at the receiver. In the context, we also propose column generation (CG) solutions to get rid of the complexity requiring the enumeration of all possible sets of scheduling links.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks, Cross-Layer Design, CooperativeMIMO System, Column Generation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1432
7 Traffic Load based Performance Analysis of DSR and STAR Routing Protocol

Authors: Rani Astya, S.C. Sharma

Abstract:

The wireless adhoc network is comprised of wireless node which can move freely and are connected among themselves without central infrastructure. Due to the limited transmission range of wireless interfaces, in most cases communication has to be relayed over intermediate nodes. Thus, in such multihop network each node (also called router) is independent, self-reliant and capable to route the messages over the dynamic network topology. Various protocols are reported in this field and it is very difficult to decide the best one. A key issue in deciding which type of routing protocol is best for adhoc networks is the communication overhead incurred by the protocol. In this paper STAR a table driven and DSR on demand protocols based on IEEE 802.11 are analyzed for their performance on different performance measuring metrics versus varying traffic CBR load using QualNet 5.0.2 network simulator.

Keywords: Adhoc networks, wireless networks, CBR, routingprotocols, route discovery, simulation, performance evaluation, MAC, IEEE 802.11, STAR, DSR

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1682
6 Authentication in Multi-Hop Wireless Mesh Networks

Authors: Kaleemullah Khan, Muhammmad Akbar

Abstract:

Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) are an emerging technology for last-mile broadband access. In WMNs, similar to ad hoc networks, each user node operates not only as a host but also as a router. User packets are forwarded to and from an Internet-connected gateway in multi-hop fashion. The WMNs can be integrated with other networking technologies i.e. ad hoc networks, to implement a smooth network extension. The meshed topology provides good reliability and scalability, as well as low upfront investments. Despite the recent start-up surge in WMNs, much research remains to be done in standardizing the functional parameters of WMNs to fully exploit their full potential. An edifice of the security concerns of these networks is authentication of a new client joining an integrated ad hoc network and such a scenario will require execution of a multihop authentication technique. Our endeavor in this paper is to introduce a secure authentication technique, with light over-heads that can be conveniently implemented for the ad-hoc nodes forming clients of an integrated WMN, thus facilitating their inter-operability.

Keywords: Multi-Hop WMNs, PANA, EAP-TTLS, Authentication, RADIUS.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1599
5 Node Pair Selection Scheme in Relay-Aided Communication Based On Stable Marriage Problem

Authors: Tetsuki Taniguchi, Yoshio Karasawa

Abstract:

This paper describes a node pair selection scheme in relay-aided multiple source multiple destination communication system based on stable marriage problem. A general case is assumed in which all of source, relay and destination nodes are equipped with multiantenna and carry out multistream transmission. Based on several metrics introduced from inter-node channel condition, the preference order is determined about all source-relay and relay-destination relations, and then the node pairs are determined using Gale-Shapley algorithm. The computer simulations show that the effectiveness of node pair selection is larger in multihop communication. Some additional aspects which are different from relay-less case are also investigated.

Keywords: Relay, multiple input multiple output (MIMO), multiuser, amplify and forward, stable marriage problem, Gale-Shapley algorithm.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1725
4 Discussing Embedded versus Central Machine Learning in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Anne-Lena Kampen, Øivind Kure

Abstract:

Machine learning (ML) can be implemented in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) as a central solution or distributed solution where the ML is embedded in the nodes. Embedding improves privacy and may reduce prediction delay. In addition, the number of transmissions is reduced. However, quality factors such as prediction accuracy, fault detection efficiency and coordinated control of the overall system suffer. Here, we discuss and highlight the trade-offs that should be considered when choosing between embedding and centralized ML, especially for multihop networks. In addition, we present estimations that demonstrate the energy trade-offs between embedded and centralized ML. Although the total network energy consumption is lower with central prediction, it makes the network more prone for partitioning due to the high forwarding load on the one-hop nodes. Moreover, the continuous improvements in the number of operations per joule for embedded devices will move the energy balance toward embedded prediction.

Keywords: Central ML, embedded machine learning, energy consumption, local ML, Wireless Sensor Networks, WSN.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 422
3 DODR : Delay On-Demand Routing

Authors: Dong Wan-li, Gu Nai-jie, Tu Kun, Bi Kun, Liu Gang

Abstract:

As originally designed for wired networks, TCP (transmission control protocol) congestion control mechanism is triggered into action when packet loss is detected. This implicit assumption for packet loss mostly due to network congestion does not work well in Mobile Ad Hoc Network, where there is a comparatively high likelihood of packet loss due to channel errors and node mobility etc. Such non-congestion packet loss, when dealt with by congestion control mechanism, causes poor TCP performance in MANET. In this study, we continue to investigate the impact of the interaction between transport protocols and on-demand routing protocols on the performance and stability of 802.11 multihop networks. We evaluate the important wireless networking events caused routing change, and propose a cross layer method to delay the unnecessary routing changes, only need to add a sensitivity parameter α , which represents the on-demand routing-s reaction to link failure of MAC layer. Our proposal is applicable to the plain 802.11 networking environment, the simulation results that this method can remarkably improve the stability and performance of TCP without any modification on TCP and MAC protocol.

Keywords: Mobile ad hoc networks (MANET), on-demandrouting, performance, transmission control protocol (TCP).

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1515
2 Performance Evaluation of QoS Based Forwarding and Non Forwarding Energetic Node Selection Algorithm for Reducing the Flooding in Multihop Routing in Highly Dynamic MANET

Authors: R. Reka, R. S. D. Wahidabanu

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to propose a novel technique to guarantee Quality of Service (QoS) in a highly dynamic environment. The MANET changes its topology dynamically as the nodes are moved frequently. This will cause link failure between mobile nodes. MANET cannot ensure reliability without delay. The relay node is selected based on achieving QoS in previous transmission. It considers one more factor Connection Existence Period (CEP) to ensure reliability. CEP is to find out the period during that connection exists between the nodes. The node with highest CEP becomes a next relay node. The relay node is selected dynamically to avoid frequent failure. The bandwidth of each link changed dynamically based on service rate and request rate. This paper proposes Active bandwidth setting up algorithm to guarantee the QoS. The series of results obtained by using the Network Simulator (NS-2) demonstrate the viability of our proposed techniques.

Keywords: Bandwidth, Connection Existence Period (CEP), Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET), Quality of Service (QoS), Relay node.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1903
1 Per Flow Packet Scheduling Scheme to Improve the End-to-End Fairness in Mobile Ad Hoc Wireless Network

Authors: K. Sasikala, R. S. D Wahidabanu

Abstract:

Various fairness models and criteria proposed by academia and industries for wired networks can be applied for ad hoc wireless network. The end-to-end fairness in an ad hoc wireless network is a challenging task compared to wired networks, which has not been addressed effectively. Most of the traffic in an ad hoc network are transport layer flows and thus the fairness of transport layer flows has attracted the interest of the researchers. The factors such as MAC protocol, routing protocol, the length of a route, buffer size, active queue management algorithm and the congestion control algorithms affects the fairness of transport layer flows. In this paper, we have considered the rate of data transmission, the queue management and packet scheduling technique. The ad hoc network is dynamic in nature due to various parameters such as transmission of control packets, multihop nature of forwarding packets, changes in source and destination nodes, changes in the routing path influences determining throughput and fairness among the concurrent flows. In addition, the effect of interaction between the protocol in the data link and transport layers has also plays a role in determining the rate of the data transmission. We maintain queue for each flow and the delay information of each flow is maintained accordingly. The pre-processing of flow is done up to the network layer only. The source and destination address information is used for separating the flow and the transport layer information is not used. This minimizes the delay in the network. Each flow is attached to a timer and is updated dynamically. Finite State Machine (FSM) is proposed for queue and transmission control mechanism. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated in ns-2 simulation environment. The throughput and fairness based on mobility for different flows used as performance metrics. We have compared the performance of the proposed approach with ATP and the transport layer information is used. This minimizes the delay in the network. Each flow is attached to a timer and is updated dynamically. Finite State Machine (FSM) is proposed for queue and transmission control mechanism. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated in ns-2 simulation environment. The throughput and fairness based on not mobility for different flows used as performance metrics. We have compared the performance of the proposed approach with ATP and MC-MLAS and the performance of the proposed approach is encouraging.

Keywords: ATP, End-to-End fairness, FSM, MAC, QoS.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1814