Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2087

Search results for: modified full-discretization map stability lobe

2087 Stability Analysis of Three-Lobe Journal Bearing Lubricated with a Micropolar Fluids

Authors: Boualem Chetti

Abstract:

In this paper, the dynamic characteristics of a threelobe journal bearing lubricated with micropolar fluids are determined by the linear stability theory. Lubricating oil containing additives and contaminants is modelled as micropolar fluid. The modified Reynolds equation is obtained using the micropolar lubrication theory .The finite difference technique has been used to determine the solution of the modified Reynolds equation. The dynamic characteristics in terms of stiffness, damping coefficients, the critical mass and whirl ratio are determined for various values of size of material characteristic length and the coupling number. The computed results show that the three-lobe bearing lubricated with micropolar fluid exhibits better stability compared with that lubricated with Newtonian fluid. According to the results obtained, the effect of the parameter micropolar fluid is remarkable on the dynamic characteristics and stability of the three-lobe bearing.

Keywords: Three-lobe bearings, Micropolar fluid, Dynamic characteristics, Stability analysis.

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2086 Effect of Load Orientation on the Stability of a Three-Lobe Bearing Supporting Rigid and Flexible Rotors

Authors: G. Bhushan

Abstract:

Multilobe bearings are found to be more stable than circular bearings. A three lobe bearing also possesses good stability characteristics. Sometimes the line of action of the load does not pass through the axis of a bearing and is shifted on either side by a few degrees. Load orientation is one of the factors that affect the stability of a three lobe bearing. The effect of load orientation on the stability of a three-lobe has been discussed in this paper. The results show that stability of a three-lobe bearing supporting either rigid or flexible rotor is increased for the positive values of load orientation i.e. when the load line is shifted in the opposite direction of rotation.

Keywords: Thee-lobe bearing, load orientation, finite element method.

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2085 Effect of L/D Ratio on the Performance of a Four-Lobe Pressure Dam Bearing

Authors: G. Bhushan, S. S. Rattan, N. P. Mehta

Abstract:

A four-lobe pressure dam bearing which is produced by cutting two pressure dams on the upper two lobes and two relief-tracks on the lower two lobes of an ordinary four-lobe bearing is found to be more stable than a conventional four-lobe bearing. In this paper a four-lobe pressure dam bearing supporting rigid and flexible rotors is analytically investigated to determine its performance when L/D ratio is varied in the range 0.75 to 1.5. The static and dynamic characteristics are studied at various L/D ratios. The results show that the stability of a four-lobe pressure dam bearing increases with decrease in L/D ratios both for rigid as well as flexible rotors.

Keywords: Four-lobe pressure dam bearing, finite-elementmethod, L/D ratio.

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2084 Micropolar Fluids Effects on the Dynamic Characteristics of Four-lobe Journal Bearing

Authors: B. Chetti

Abstract:

Dynamic characteristics of a four-lobe journal bearing of micropolar fluids are presented. Lubricating oil containing additives and contaminants is modelled as micropolar fluid. The modified Reynolds equation is obtained using the micropolar lubrication theory and solving it by using finite difference technique. The dynamic characteristics in terms of stiffness, damping coefficients, the critical mass and whirl ratio are determined for various values of size of material characteristic length and the coupling number. The results show compared with Newtonian fluids, that micropolar fluid exhibits better stability.

Keywords: Four-lobe bearings, dynamic characteristics, stabilityanalysis, micropolar fluid

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2083 A Thermodynamic Solution for the Static and Dynamic Characteristics of a Two-Lobe Journal Bearing

Authors: B. Chetti, W. A. Crosby

Abstract:

The work described in this paper is an investigation of the static and dynamic characteristics of two-lobe journal bearings taking into consideration the thermal effects. A thermo-hydrodynamic solution of a finite two-lobe journal bearing is performed by solving the generalized form Reynolds equation with the energy equation, taking into consideration viscosity variation across the film thickness. The static and dynamic characteristics were numerically obtained. The results are evaluated for different values of viscosity-temperature coefficient and Peclet number. The results show that considering the thermal effects in the solution of the two-lobe journal bearing has a marked on the study of its stability.

Keywords: Two-lobe bearing, thermal effect, static and dynamic characteristics.

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2082 Chatter Stability Characterization of Full-Immersion End-Milling Using a Generalized Modified Map of the Full-Discretization Method, Part 1: Validation of Results and Study of Stability Lobes by Numerical Simulation

Authors: Chigbogu G. Ozoegwu, Sam N. Omenyi

Abstract:

The objective in this work is to generate and discuss the stability results of fully-immersed end-milling process with parameters; tool mass m=0.0431kg,tool natural frequency ωn = 5700 rads^-1, damping factor ξ=0.002 and workpiece cutting coefficient C=3.5x10^7 Nm^-7/4. Different no of teeth is considered for the end-milling. Both 1-DOF and 2-DOF chatter models of the system are generated on the basis of non-linear force law. Chatter stability analysis is carried out using a modified form (generalized for both 1-DOF and 2-DOF models) of recently developed method called Full-discretization. The full-immersion three tooth end-milling together with higher toothed end-milling processes has secondary Hopf bifurcation lobes (SHBL’s) that exhibit one turning (minimum) point each. Each of such SHBL is demarcated by its minimum point into two portions; (i) the Lower Spindle Speed Portion (LSSP) in which bifurcations occur in the right half portion of the unit circle centred at the origin of the complex plane and (ii) the Higher Spindle Speed Portion (HSSP) in which bifurcations occur in the left half portion of the unit circle. Comments are made regarding why bifurcation lobes should generally get bigger and more visible with increase in spindle speed and why flip bifurcation lobes (FBL’s) could be invisible in the low-speed stability chart but visible in the high-speed stability chart of the fully-immersed three-tooth miller.

Keywords: Chatter, flip bifurcation, modified full-discretization map stability lobe, secondary Hopf bifurcation.

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2081 Radiation Stability of Pigment ZnO Modified by Nanopowder

Authors: Chundong Li, V. V. Neshchimenko, M. M. Mikhailov

Abstract:

The effect of the modification of ZnO powders by ZrO2, Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2, CeO2 and Y2O3 nanoparticles with a concentration of 1-30 wt % is investigated by diffuse reflectance spectra within the wavelength range 200 to 2500 nm before and after 100 keV proton and electron irradiation. It has been established that the introduction of nanoparticles ZrO2, Al2O3 enhances the optical stability of the pigments under proton irradiation, but reduces it under electron irradiation. Modifying with TiO2, SiO2, CeO2, Y2O3 nanopowders leads to decrease radiation stability in both types of irradiation. Samples modified by 5 wt. % of ZrO2 nanoparticles have the highest stability of optical properties after proton exposure. The degradation of optical properties under electron irradiation is not high for this concentration of nanoparticles. A decrease in the absorption of pigments modified with nanoparticles proton exposure is determined by a decrease in the intensity of bands located in the UV and visible regions. After electron exposure the absorption bands have in the whole spectrum range.

Keywords: Irradiation, nanopowders, radiation stability, zinc oxide.

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2080 Physical Properties and Stability of Emulsions as Affected by Native and Modified Yam Starches

Authors: Nor Hayati Ibrahim, Shamini Nair Achudan

Abstract:

This study was conducted in order to determine the physical properties and stability of mayonnaise-like emulsions as affected by modified yam starches. Native yam starch was modified via pre-gelatinization and cross-linking phosphorylation procedures. The emulsions (50% oil dispersed phase) were prepared with 0.3% native potato, native yam, pre-gelatinized yam and cross-linking phosphorylation yam starches. The droplet size of surface weighted mean diameter was found to be significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the sample with cross-linking phosphorylation yam starch as compared to other samples. Moreover, the viscosity of the sample with pregelatinized yam starch was observed to be higher than that of other samples. The phase separation stability was low in the freshly prepared and stored (45 days, 5°C) emulsions containing native yam starch. This study thus generally suggested that modified yam starches were more suitable (i.e. better physical properties and stability) to be used as stabilizers in a similar system i.e. light mayonnaises, rather than a native yam starch.

Keywords: Oil-in-water emulsions, low-fat mayonnaises, modified yam starches, droplet size distribution, viscosity.

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2079 System Reduction Using Modified Pole Clustering and Modified Cauer Continued Fraction

Authors: Jay Singh, C. B. Vishwakarma, Kalyan Chatterjee

Abstract:

A mixed method by combining modified pole clustering technique and modified cauer continued fraction is proposed for reducing the order of the large-scale dynamic systems. The denominator polynomial of the reduced order model is obtained by using modified pole clustering technique while the coefficients of the numerator are obtained by modified cauer continued fraction. This method generated 'k' number of reduced order models for kth order reduction. The superiority of the proposed method has been elaborated through numerical example taken from the literature and compared with few existing order reduction methods.

Keywords: Modified Pole Clustering, Modified Cauer Continued Fraction, Order Reduction, Stability, Transfer Function.

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2078 Finite Element Prediction on the Machining Stability of Milling Machine with Experimental Verification

Authors: Jui P. Hung, Yuan L. Lai, Hui T. You

Abstract:

Chatter vibration has been a troublesome problem for a machine tool toward the high precision and high speed machining. Essentially, the machining performance is determined by the dynamic characteristics of the machine tool structure and dynamics of cutting process, which can further be identified in terms of the stability lobe diagram. Therefore, realization on the machine tool dynamic behavior can help to enhance the cutting stability. To assess the dynamic characteristics and machining stability of a vertical milling system under the influence of a linear guide, this study developed a finite element model integrated the modeling of linear components with the implementation of contact stiffness at the rolling interface. Both the finite element simulations and experimental measurements reveal that the linear guide with different preload greatly affects the vibration behavior and milling stability of the vertical column spindle head system, which also clearly indicate that the predictions of the machining stability agree well with the cutting tests. It is believed that the proposed model can be successfully applied to evaluate the dynamics performance of machine tool systems of various configurations.

Keywords: Machining stability, Vertical milling machine, Linearguide, Contact stiffness.

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2077 Static Voltage Stability Margin Enhancement Using SVC and TCSC

Authors: Mohammed Amroune, Hadi Sebaa, Tarek Bouktir

Abstract:

Reactive power limit of power system is one of the major causes of voltage instability. The only way to save the system from voltage instability is to reduce the reactive power load or add additional reactive power to reaching the point of voltage collapse. In recent times, the application of FACTS devices is a very effective solution to prevent voltage instability due to their fast and very flexible control. In this paper, voltage stability assessment with SVC and TCSC devices is investigated and compared in the modified IEEE 30-bus test system. The fast voltage stability indicator (FVSI) is used to identify weakest bus and to assess the voltage stability of power system.

Keywords: SVC, TCSC, Voltage stability, Fast Voltage Stability Index (FVSI), Reactive power.

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2076 Design of Non-uniform Circular Antenna Arrays Using Firefly Algorithm for Side Lobe Level Reduction

Authors: Gopi Ram, Durbadal Mandal, Rajib Kar, Sakti Prasad Ghoshal

Abstract:

A design problem of non-uniform circular antenna arrays for maximum reduction of both the side lobe level (SLL) and first null beam width (FNBW) is dealt with. This problem is modeled as a simple optimization problem. The method of Firefly algorithm (FFA) is used to determine an optimal set of current excitation weights and antenna inter-element separations that provide radiation pattern with maximum SLL reduction and much improvement on FNBW as well. Circular array antenna laid on x-y plane is assumed. FFA is applied on circular arrays of 8-, 10-, and 12- elements. Various simulation results are presented and hence performances of side lobe and FNBW are analyzed. Experimental results show considerable reductions of both the SLL and FNBW with respect to those of the uniform case and some standard algorithms GA, PSO and SA applied to the same problem.

Keywords: Circular arrays, First null beam width, Side lobe level, FFA.

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2075 Modified Hankel Matrix Approach for Model Order Reduction in Time Domain

Authors: C. B. Vishwakarma

Abstract:

The author presented a method for model order reduction of large-scale time-invariant systems in time domain. In this approach, two modified Hankel matrices are suggested for getting reduced order models. The proposed method is simple, efficient and retains stability feature of the original high order system. The viability of the method is illustrated through the examples taken from literature.

Keywords: Model Order Reduction, Stability, Hankel Matrix, Time-Domain, Integral Square Error.

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2074 Determining the Width and Depths of Cut in Milling on the Basis of a Multi-Dexel Model

Authors: Jens Friedrich, Matthias A. Gebele, Armin Lechler, Alexander Verl

Abstract:

Chatter vibrations and process instabilities are the most important factors limiting the productivity of the milling process. Chatter can leads to damage of the tool, the part or the machine tool. Therefore, the estimation and prediction of the process stability is very important. The process stability depends on the spindle speed, the depth of cut and the width of cut. In milling, the process conditions are defined in the NC-program. While the spindle speed is directly coded in the NC-program, the depth and width of cut are unknown. This paper presents a new simulation based approach for the prediction of the depth and width of cut of a milling process. The prediction is based on a material removal simulation with an analytically represented tool shape and a multi-dexel approach for the workpiece. The new calculation method allows the direct estimation of the depth and width of cut, which are the influencing parameters of the process stability, instead of the removed volume as existing approaches do. The knowledge can be used to predict the stability of new, unknown parts. Moreover with an additional vibration sensor, the stability lobe diagram of a milling process can be estimated and improved based on the estimated depth and width of cut.

Keywords: Dexel, process stability, material removal, milling.

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2073 Propane Dehydrogenation with Better Stability by a Modified Pt-Based Catalyst

Authors: N. Hataivichian, K. Suriye, S. Kunjara Na Ayudhya, P. Praserthdam, S. Phatanasri

Abstract:

The effect of transition metal doping on Pt/Al2O3 catalyst used in propane dehydrogenation reaction at 500°C was studied. The preparation methods investigated were sequential impregnation (Pt followed by the 2nd metal or the 2nd metal followed by Pt) and co-impregnation. The metal contents of these catalysts were fixed as the weight ratio of Pt per the 2nd metal of around 0.075. These catalysts were characterized by N2-physisorption, TPR, COchemisorption and NH3-TPD. It was found that the impregnated 2nd metal had an effect upon reducibility of Pt due to its interaction with transition metal-containing structure. This was in agreement with the CO-chemisorption result that the presence of Pt metal, which is a result from Pt species reduction, was decreased. The total acidity of bimetallic catalysts is decreased but the strong acidity is slightly increased. It was found that the stability of bimetallic catalysts prepared by co-impregnation and sequential impregnation where the 2nd metal was impregnated before Pt were better than that of monometallic catalyst (undoped Pt one) due to the forming of Pt sites located on the transition metal-oxide modified surface. Among all preparation methods, the sequential impregnation method- having Pt impregnated before the 2nd metal gave the worst stability because this catalyst lacked the modified Pt sites and some fraction of Pt sites was covered by the 2nd metal.

Keywords: Alumina, dehydrogenation, platinum, transition metal.

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2072 Effects of Variations in Generator Inputs for Small Signal Stability Studies of a Three Machine Nine Bus Network

Authors: Hemalan Nambier a/l Vijiyan, Agileswari K. Ramasamy, Au Mau Teng, Syed Khaleel Ahmed

Abstract:

Small signal stability causes small perturbations in the generator that can cause instability in the power network. It is generally known that small signal stability are directly related to the generator and load properties. This paper examines the effects of generator input variations on power system oscillations for a small signal stability study. Eigenvaules and eigenvectors are used to examine the stability of the power system. The dynamic power system's mathematical model is constructed and thus calculated using load flow and small signal stability toolbox on MATLAB. The power system model is based on a 3-machine 9-bus system that was modified to suit this study. In this paper, Participation Factors are a means to gauge the effects of variation in generation with other parameters on the network are also incorporated.

Keywords: Eigen-analysis, generation modeling, participationfactor, small signal stability.

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2071 Transient Stability Assessment Using Fuzzy SVM and Modified Preventive Control

Authors: B. Dora Arul Selvi, .N. Kamaraj

Abstract:

Transient Stability is an important issue in power systems planning, operation and extension. The objective of transient stability analysis problem is not satisfied with mere transient instability detection or evaluation and it is most important to complement it by defining fast and efficient control measures in order to ensure system security. This paper presents a new Fuzzy Support Vector Machines (FSVM) to investigate the stability status of power systems and a modified generation rescheduling scheme to bring back the identified unstable cases to a more economical and stable operating point. FSVM improves the traditional SVM (Support Vector Machines) by adding fuzzy membership to each training sample to indicate the degree of membership of this sample to different classes. The preventive control based on economic generator rescheduling avoids the instability of the power systems with minimum change in operating cost under disturbed conditions. Numerical results on the New England 39 bus test system show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: Fuzzy Support Vector Machine (FSVM), Incremental Cost, Preventive Control, Transient stability

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2070 Splitting Modified Donor-Cell Schemes for Spectral Action Balance Equation

Authors: Tanapat Brikshavana, Anirut Luadsong

Abstract:

The spectral action balance equation is an equation that used to simulate short-crested wind-generated waves in shallow water areas such as coastal regions and inland waters. This equation consists of two spatial dimensions, wave direction, and wave frequency which can be solved by finite difference method. When this equation with dominating propagation velocity terms are discretized using central differences, stability problems occur when the grid spacing is chosen too coarse. In this paper, we introduce the splitting modified donorcell scheme for avoiding stability problems and prove that it is consistent to the modified donor-cell scheme with same accuracy. The splitting modified donor-cell scheme was adopted to split the wave spectral action balance equation into four one-dimensional problems, which for each small problem obtains the independently tridiagonal linear systems. For each smaller system can be solved by direct or iterative methods at the same time which is very fast when performed by a multi-cores computer.

Keywords: donor-cell scheme, parallel algorithm, spectral action balance equation, splitting method.

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2069 A Linear Regression Model for Estimating Anxiety Index Using Wide Area Frontal Lobe Brain Blood Volume

Authors: Takashi Kaburagi, Masashi Takenaka, Yosuke Kurihara, Takashi Matsumoto

Abstract:

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most common mental illnesses today. It is believed to be caused by a combination of several factors, including stress. Stress can be quantitatively evaluated using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), one of the best indices to evaluate anxiety. Although STAI scores are widely used in applications ranging from clinical diagnosis to basic research, the scores are calculated based on a self-reported questionnaire. An objective evaluation is required because the subject may intentionally change his/her answers if multiple tests are carried out. In this article, we present a modified index called the “multi-channel Laterality Index at Rest (mc-LIR)” by recording the brain activity from a wider area of the frontal lobe using multi-channel functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The presented index aims to measure multiple positions near the Fpz defined by the international 10-20 system positioning. Using 24 subjects, the dependencies on the number of measuring points used to calculate the mc-LIR and its correlation coefficients with the STAI scores are reported. Furthermore, a simple linear regression was performed to estimate the STAI scores from mc-LIR. The cross-validation error is also reported. The experimental results show that using multiple positions near the Fpz will improve the correlation coefficients and estimation than those using only two positions.

Keywords: Stress, functional near-infrared spectroscopy, frontal lobe, state-trait anxiety inventory score.

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2068 Order Reduction using Modified Pole Clustering and Pade Approximations

Authors: C.B. Vishwakarma

Abstract:

The authors present a mixed method for reducing the order of the large-scale dynamic systems. In this method, the denominator polynomial of the reduced order model is obtained by using the modified pole clustering technique while the coefficients of the numerator are obtained by Pade approximations. This method is conceptually simple and always generates stable reduced models if the original high-order system is stable. The proposed method is illustrated with the help of the numerical examples taken from the literature.

Keywords: Modified pole clustering, order reduction, padeapproximation, stability, transfer function.

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2067 Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Modified CaCO3 /PP Nanocomposites

Authors: A. Buasri, N. Chaiyut, K. Borvornchettanuwat, N. Chantanachai, K. Thonglor

Abstract:

Inorganic nanoparticles filled polymer composites have extended their multiple functionalities to various applications, including mechanical reinforcement, gas barrier, dimensional stability, heat distortion temperature, flame-retardant, and thermal conductivity. Sodium stearate-modified calcium carbonate (CaCO3) nanoparticles were prepared using surface modification method. The results showed that sodium stearate attached to the surface of CaCO3 nanoparticles with the chemical bond. The effect of modified CaCO3 nanoparticles on thermal properties of polypropylene (PP) was studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was found that CaCO3 significantly affected the crystallization temperature and crystallization degree of PP. Effect of the modified CaCO3 content on mechanical properties of PP/CaCO3 nanocomposites was also studied. The results showed that the modified CaCO3 can effectively improve the mechanical properties of PP. In comparison with PP, the impact strength of PP/CaCO3 nanocomposites increased by about 65% and the hardness increased by about 5%.

Keywords: Polypropylene Nanocomposites, Modified Calcium Carbonate, Sodium Stearate, Surface Treatment

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2066 Studying the Behavior of Asphalt Mix and Their Properties in the Presence of Nano Materials

Authors: Aman Patidar, Dipankar Sarkar, Manish Pal

Abstract:

Due to rapid development, increase in the traffic load, higher traffic volume and seasonal variation in temperature, asphalt pavement shows distresses like rutting, fatigue and thermal cracking etc. because of this pavement fails during service life so that bitumen needs to be modified with some additive. In this study VG30 grade bitumen modify with addition of nanosilica with 1% to 5% (increment of 1%) by weight of bitumen. Hot mix asphalt (HMA) have higher mixing, laying and rolling temperatures which leads to higher consumption of fuel. To address this issue, a nano material named ZycoTherm which is chemical warm mix asphalt (WMA) additive is added to bitumen. Nanosilica modification (NSMB) results in the increase in stability compared to unmodified bitumen (UMB). WMA modified mix shows slightly higher stability than UMB and NSMB in a lower bitumen content. The Retained stability and tensile strength ratio (TSR) is more than 75% and 80% respectively for both mixes. Nanosilica with WMA has more resistant to temperature susceptibility, moisture susceptibility and short term aging than NSMB.

Keywords: HMA, nanosilica, NSMB, temperature, TSR, UMB, WMA.

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2065 Effect of Packaging Methods and Storage Time on Oxidative Stability of Traditional Fermented Sausage

Authors: Vladimir M. Tomović, Branislav V. Šojić, Predrag M. Ikonić, Ljiljana S. Petrović, Anamarija I. Mandić, Natalija R. Džinić, Snežana B. Škaljac, Tatjana A. Tasić, Marija R. Jokanović

Abstract:

In this paper influence of packaging method (vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging) on lipid oxidative stability and sensory properties of odor and taste of the traditional sausage Petrovská klobása were examined. These parameters were examined during storage period (7 months). In the end of storage period, vacuum packed sausage showed better oxidative stability. Propanal content was significantly lower (P<0.05) in vacuum packed sausage compared to these values in unpacked and modified atmosphere packaging sausage. Hexanal content in vacuum packed sausage was 1.85 μg/g, in MAP sausage 2.98 μg/g and in unpacked sausage 4.94 μg/g. After 2 and 7 months of storage, sausages packed in vacuum had the highest grades for sensory properties of odor and taste.

Keywords: Lipid oxidation, MAP, sensory properties, traditional sausage, vacuum.

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2064 Effect of Rubber Tyre and Plastic Wastes Use in Asphalt Concrete Pavement

Authors: F. Onyango, Salim R. Wanjala, M. Ndege, L. Masu

Abstract:

Asphalt concrete pavements have a short life cycle, failing mainly due to temperature changes, traffic loading and ageing. Modified asphalt mixtures provide the technology to produce a bituminous binder with improved viscoelastic properties, which remain in balance over a wider temperature range and loading conditions. In this research, 60/70 penetration grade asphalt binder was modified by adding 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 percent by weight of asphalt binder following the wet process and the mineral aggregate was modified by adding 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 percent crumb rubber by volume of the mineral aggregate following the dry process. The LDPE modified asphalt binder rheological properties were evaluated. The laboratory results showed an increase in viscosity, softening point and stiffness of the binder. The modified asphalt was then used in preparing asphalt mixtures by Marshall Mix design procedure. The Marshall Stability values for mixes containing 2% crumb rubber and 4% LDPE were found to be 30% higher than the conventional asphalt concrete mix.

Keywords: Crumb rubber, dry process, low-density polyethylene, hot mix asphalt, wet process.

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2063 Effect of Mixing Process on Polypropylene Modified Bituminous Concrete Mix Properties

Authors: Noor Zainab Habib, Ibrahim Kamaruddin, Madzalan Napiah, Isa Mohd Tan

Abstract:

This paper presents a research conducted to investigate the effect of mixing process on polypropylene (PP) modified bitumen mixed with well graded aggregate to form modified bituminous concrete mix. Two mode of mixing, namely dry and wet with different concentration of polymer polypropylene was used with 80/100 pen bitumen, to evaluate the bituminous concrete mix properties. Three percentages of polymer varying from 1-3% by the weight of bitumen was used in this study. Three mixes namely control mix, wet mix and dry mix were prepared. Optimum binder content was calculated considering Marshall Stability, flow, air voids and Marshall Quotient at different bitumen content varying from 4% - 6.5% for control, dry and wet mix. Engineering properties thus obtained at the calculated optimum bitumen content revealed that wet mixing process is advantageous in comparison to dry mixing as it increases the stiffness of the mixture with the increase in polymer content in bitumen. Stiffness value for wet mix increases with the increase in polymer content which is beneficial in terms of rutting. 1% PP dry mix also shows enhanced stiffness, with the air void content limited to 4%.The flow behaviour of dry mix doesn't indicate any major difference with the increase in polymer content revealing that polymer acting as an aggregate only without affecting the viscosity of the binder in the mix. Polypropylene (PP) when interacted with 80 pen base bitumen enhances its performance characteristics which were brought about by altered rheological properties of the modified bitumen. The decrease in flow with the increase in binder content reflects the increase in viscosity of binder which induces the plastic flow in the mix. Workability index indicates that wet mix were easy to compact up to desired void ratio in comparison to dry mix samples.

Keywords: Marshall Flow, Marshall Stability, Polymer modified bitumen, Polypropylene, Stiffness.

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2062 The Different Roles between Sodium and Potassium Ions in Ion Exchange of WO3/SiO2 Catalysts

Authors: K. Pipitthapan, S. Maksasithorn, P. Praserthdam, J. Panpranot, K. Suriye, S. Kunjara Na Ayudhya

Abstract:

WO3/SiO2 catalysts were modified by an ion exchange method with sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide solution. The performance of the modified catalysts was tested in the metathesis of ethylene and trans-2-butene to propylene. During ion exchange, sodium and potassium ions played different roles. Sodium modified catalysts revealed constant trans-2-butene conversion and propylene selectivity when the concentrations of sodium in the solution were varied. In contrast, potassium modified catalysts showed reduction of the conversion and increase of the selectivity. From these results, potassium hydroxide may affect the transformation of tungsten oxide active species, resulting in the decrease in conversion whereas sodium hydroxide did not. Moreover, the modification of catalysts by this method improved the catalyst stability by lowering the amount of coke deposited on the catalyst surface.

Keywords: Acid sites, alkali metals, isomerization, metathesis.

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2061 A New Sufficient Conditions of Stability for Discrete Time Non-autonomous Delayed Hopfield Neural Networks

Authors: Adnene Arbi, Chaouki Aouiti, Abderrahmane Touati

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider the uniform asymptotic stability, global asymptotic stability and global exponential stability of the equilibrium point of discrete Hopfield neural networks with delays. Some new stability criteria for system are derived by using the Lyapunov functional method and the linear matrix inequality approach, for estimating the upper bound of Lyapunov functional derivative.

Keywords: Hopfield neural networks, uniform asymptotic stability, global asymptotic stability, exponential stability.

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2060 A New Nonlinear PID Controller and its Parameter Design

Authors: Yongping Ren, Zongli Li, Fan Zhang

Abstract:

A new nonlinear PID controller and its stability analysis are presented in this paper. A nonlinear function is deduced from the similarities between the control effort and the electric-field effect of a capacitor. The conventional linear PID controller can be modified into a nonlinear one by this function. To analyze the stability of the nonlinear PID controlled system, an idea of energy equivalence is adapted to avoid the conservativeness which is usually arisen from some traditional theorems and Criterions. The energy equivalence is naturally related with the conceptions of Passivity and T-Passivity. As a result, an engineering guideline for the parameter design of the nonlinear PID controller is obtained. An inverted pendulum system is tested to verify the nonlinear PID control scheme.

Keywords: Nonlinear PID controller, stability, gain equivalence, dissipative, T-Passivity.

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2059 Development of Recycled-Modified Asphalt Using Basalt Aggregate

Authors: Dong Wook Lee, Seung Hyun Kim, Jeongho Oh

Abstract:

With the strengthened regulation on the mandatory use of recycled aggregate, development of construction materials using recycled aggregate has recently increased. This study aimed to secure the performance of asphalt concrete mixture by developing recycled-modified asphalt using recycled basalt aggregate from the Jeju area. The strength of the basalt aggregate from the Jeju area used in this study was similar to that of general aggregate, while the specific surface area was larger due to the development of pores. Modified asphalt was developed using a general aggregate-recycled aggregate ratio of 7:3, and the results indicated that the Marshall stability increased by 27% compared to that of asphalt concrete mixture using only general aggregate, and the flow values showed similar levels. Also, the indirect tensile strength increased by 79%, and the toughness increased by more than 100%. In addition, the TSR for examining moisture resistance was 0.95 indicating that the reduction in the indirect tensile strength due to moisture was very low (5% level), and the developed recycled-modified asphalt could satisfy all the quality standards of asphalt concrete mixture.

Keywords: Asphalt Concrete Mixture, Performance Grade, Recycled Basalt Aggregate, Recycled-Modified Asphalt.

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2058 Artificial Generation of Visual Evoked Potential to Enhance Visual Ability

Authors: A. Vani, M. N. Mamatha

Abstract:

Visual signal processing in human beings occurs in the occipital lobe of the brain. The signals that are generated in the brain are universal for all the human beings and they are called Visual Evoked Potential (VEP). Generally, the visually impaired people lose sight because of severe damage to only the eyes natural photo sensors, but the occipital lobe will still be functioning. In this paper, a technique of artificially generating VEP is proposed to enhance the visual ability of the subject. The system uses the electrical photoreceptors to capture image, process the image, to detect and recognize the subject or object. This voltage is further processed and can transmit wirelessly to a BIOMEMS implanted into occipital lobe of the patient’s brain. The proposed BIOMEMS consists of array of electrodes that generate the neuron potential which is similar to VEP of normal people. Thus, the neurons get the visual data from the BioMEMS which helps in generating partial vision or sight for the visually challenged patient. 

Keywords: Visual evoked potential, OpenViBe, BioMEMS, Neuro prosthesis.

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