Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 954

Search results for: mobile terminal

954 Abnormal IP Packets on 3G Mobile Data Networks

Authors: Joo-Hyung Oh, Dongwan Kang, JunHyung Cho, Chaetae Im

Abstract:

As the mobile Internet has become widespread in recent years, communication based on mobile networks is increasing. As a result, security threats have been posed with regard to the abnormal traffic of mobile networks, but mobile security has been handled with focus on threats posed by mobile malicious codes, and researches on security threats to the mobile network itself have not attracted much attention. In mobile networks, the IP address of the data packet is a very important factor for billing purposes. If one mobile terminal use an incorrect IP address that either does not exist or could be assigned to another mobile terminal, billing policy will cause problems. We monitor and analyze 3G mobile data networks traffics for a period of time and finds some abnormal IP packets. In this paper, we analyze the reason for abnormal IP packets on 3G Mobile Data Networks. And we also propose an algorithm based on IP address table that contains addresses currently in use within the mobile data network to detect abnormal IP packets.

Keywords: WCDMA, 3G, Abnormal IP address, Mobile Data Network Attack

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953 12x12 MIMO Terminal Antennas Covering the Whole LTE and WiFi Spectrum

Authors: Mohamed Sanad, Noha Hassan

Abstract:

A broadband resonant terminal antenna has been developed. It can be used in different MIMO arrangements such as 2x2, 4x4, 8x8, or even 12x12 MIMO configurations. The antenna covers the whole LTE and WiFi bands besides the existing 2G/3G bands (700-5800 MHz), without using any matching/tuning circuits. Matching circuits significantly reduce the efficiency of any antenna and reduce the battery life. They also reduce the bandwidth because they are frequency dependent. The antenna can be implemented in smartphone handsets, tablets, laptops, notebooks or any other terminal. It is also suitable for different IoT and vehicle applications. The antenna is manufactured from a flexible material and can be bent or folded and shaped in any form to fit any available space in any terminal. It is self-contained and does not need to use the ground plane, the chassis or any other component of the terminal. Hence, it can be mounted on any terminal at different positions and configurations. Its performance does not get affected by the terminal, regardless of its type, shape or size. Moreover, its performance does not get affected by the human body of the terminal’s users. Because of all these unique features of the antenna, multiples of them can be simultaneously used for MIMO diversity coverage in any terminal device with a high isolation and a low correlation factor between them.

Keywords: IOT, LTE, MIMO, terminal antenna, WiFi.

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952 Electronic Voting System using Mobile Terminal

Authors: Keonwoo Kim, Dowon Hong

Abstract:

Electronic voting (E-voting) using an internet has been recently performed in some nations and regions. There is no spatial restriction which a voter directly has to visit the polling place, but an e-voting using an internet has to go together the computer in which the internet connection is possible. Also, this voting requires an access code for the e-voting through the beforehand report of a voter. To minimize these disadvantages, we propose a method in which a voter, who has the wireless certificate issued in advance, uses its own cellular phone for an e-voting without the special registration for a vote. Our proposal allows a voter to cast his vote in a simple and convenient way without the limit of time and location, thereby increasing the voting rate, and also ensuring confidentiality and anonymity.

Keywords: Voting, mobile terminal, confidentiality, anonymity.

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951 Re-Handling Operations in Small Container Terminal Operated by Reach Stackers

Authors: Adam Galuszka, Krzysztof Skrzypczyk, Damian Bereska, Marcin Pacholczyk

Abstract:

In this paper an average number of re-handlings analysis is proposed to solve the problem of finding bays configuration in small container terminal in Gliwice, Poland. Rehandlings in this terminal can be performed only by reachstackers. The goal of the heuristic is to plan the reachstacter moves in the terminal, assuming that the target containers are reached and the number of re-handings is minimized. The real situation requires also to take into account the model of the problem environment uncertainty caused by the fact that many containers are not delivered to the terminal on time, or can not be sent on scheduled time. To enable this, the heuristic uses some assumptions to simplify problem analysis.

Keywords: Container Terminal, Re-handling operations, Computational efficiency, WiMax.

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950 A Study on the Mobile Web Generating using Element of User Experience

Authors: Heeae Ko, Jongkeun Kim, Kunjung Sim, Kunho Sim, Yonghwan Lim

Abstract:

As mobile service's subscriber is increasing; mobile contents services are getting more and more variables. So, mobile contents development needs not only contents design but also guideline for just mobile. And when mobile contents are developed, it is important to pass the limit and restriction of the mobile. The restrictions of mobile are small browser and screen size, limited download size and uncomfortable navigation. So each contents of mobile guideline will be presented for user's usability, easy of development and consistency of rule. This paper will be proposed methodology which is each contents of mobile guideline. Mobile web will be developed by mobile guideline which I proposed.

Keywords: Guideline, interface, mobile, mobile computing, userexperience.

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949 Terminal Velocity of a Bubble Rise in a Liquid Column

Authors: Mário A. R. Talaia

Abstract:

As it is known, buoyancy and drag forces rule bubble's rise velocity in a liquid column. These forces are strongly dependent on fluid properties, gravity as well as equivalent's diameter. This study reports a set of bubble rising velocity experiments in a liquid column using water or glycerol. Several records of terminal velocity were obtained. The results show that bubble's rise terminal velocity is strongly dependent on dynamic viscosity effect. The data set allowed to have some terminal velocities data interval of 8.0 ? 32.9 cm/s with Reynolds number interval 1.3 -7490. The bubble's movement was recorded with a video camera. The main goal is to present an original set data and results that will be discussed based on two-phase flow's theory. It will also discussed, the prediction of terminal velocity of a single bubble in liquid, as well as the range of its applicability. In conclusion, this study presents general expressions for the determination of the terminal velocity of isolated gas bubbles of a Reynolds number range, when the fluid proprieties are known.

Keywords: Bubbles, terminal velocity, two phase-flow, vertical column.

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948 A Simulation Modeling Approach for Optimization of Storage Space Allocation in Container Terminal

Authors: Gamal Abd El-Nasser A. Said, El-Sayed M. El-Horbaty

Abstract:

Container handling problems at container terminals are NP-hard problems. This paper presents an approach using discrete-event simulation modeling to optimize solution for storage space allocation problem, taking into account all various interrelated container terminal handling activities. The proposed approach is applied on a real case study data of container terminal at Alexandria port. The computational results show the effectiveness of the proposed model for optimization of storage space allocation in container terminal where 54% reduction in containers handling time in port is achieved.

Keywords: Container terminal, discrete-event simulation, optimization, storage space allocation.

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947 Mobile Velocity Based Bidirectional Call Overflow Scheme in Hierarchical Cellular System

Authors: G. M. Mir, Moinuddin, N. A. Shah

Abstract:

In the age of global communications, heterogeneous networks are seen to be the best choice of strategy to ensure continuous and uninterruptible services. This will allow mobile terminal to stay in connection even they are migrating into different segment coverage through the handoff process. With the increase of teletraffic demands in mobile cellular system, hierarchical cellular systems have been adopted extensively for more efficient channel utilization and better QoS (Quality of Service). This paper presents a bidirectional call overflow scheme between two layers of microcells and macrocells, where handoffs are decided by the velocity of mobile making the call. To ensure that handoff calls are given higher priorities, it is assumed that guard channels are assigned in both macrocells and microcells. A hysteresis value introduced in mobile velocity is used to allow mobile roam in the same cell if its velocity changes back within the set threshold values. By doing this the number of handoffs is reduced thereby reducing the processing overhead and enhancing the quality of service to the end user.

Keywords: Hierarchical cellular systems, hysteresis, overflow, threshold.

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946 Particle Swarm Optimisation of a Terminal Synergetic Controllers for a DC-DC Converter

Authors: H. Abderrezek, M. N. Harmas

Abstract:

DC-DC converters are widely used as reliable power source for many industrial and military applications, computers and electronic devices. Several control methods were developed for DC-DC converters control mostly with asymptotic convergence. Synergetic control (SC) is a proven robust control approach and will be used here in a so called terminal scheme to achieve finite time convergence. Lyapounov synthesis is adopted to assure controlled system stability. Furthermore particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, based on an integral time absolute of error (ITAE) criterion will be used to optimize controller parameters. Simulation of terminal synergetic control of a DC-DC converter is carried out for different operating conditions and results are compared to classic synergetic control performance, that which demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed control method.

Keywords: DC-DC converter, PSO, finite time, terminal, synergetic control.

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945 Making Businesses Work Smarter with Mobile Business Intelligence

Authors: Zeljko Panian

Abstract:

Through the course of this paper we outline how mobile Business Intelligence (m-BI) can help businesses to work smarter and to improve their agility. When we analyze the industry from the usage perspective or how interaction with the enterprise BI system happens via mobile devices, we may easily understand that there are two major types of mobile BI: passive and active. Active mobile BI gives provisions for users to interact with the BI systems on-the-fly. Active mobile business intelligence often works as a combination of both “push and pull" techniques. Some mistakes were done in the up-to-day progress of mobile technologies and mobile BI, as well as some problems that still have to be resolved. We discussed in the paper rather broadly.

Keywords: Business intelligence, mobile business intelligence, business agility, mobile technologies, optimization

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944 Model Free Terminal Sliding Mode with Gravity Compensation: Application to an Exoskeleton-Upper Limb System

Authors: Sana Bembli, Nahla Khraief Haddad, Safya Belghith

Abstract:

This paper deals with a robust model free terminal sliding mode with gravity compensation approach used to control an exoskeleton-upper limb system. The considered system is a 2-DoF robot in interaction with an upper limb used for rehabilitation. The aim of this paper is to control the flexion/extension movement of the shoulder and the elbow joints in presence of matched disturbances. In the first part, we present the exoskeleton-upper limb system modeling. Then, we controlled the considered system by the model free terminal sliding mode with gravity compensation. A stability study is realized. To prove the controller performance, a robustness analysis was needed. Simulation results are provided to confirm the robustness of the gravity compensation combined with to the Model free terminal sliding mode in presence of uncertainties.

Keywords: Exoskeleton-upper limb system, gravity compensation, model free terminal sliding mode, robustness analysis, Monte Carlo, H∞ methods.

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943 A Proposal for Federation Technology for Authenticated Information between Terminals

Authors: Katsuyuki Umezawa, Takashi Tashiro, Satoru Tezuka

Abstract:

Recently, various services such as television and the Internet have come to be received through various terminals. However, we could gain greater convenience by receiving these services through cellular phone terminals when we go out and then continuing to receive the same services through a large screen digital television after we have come home. However, it is necessary to go through the same authentication processing again when using TVs after we have come home. In this study, we have developed an authentication method that enables users to switch terminals in environments in which the user receives service from a server through a terminal. Specifically, the method simplifies the authentication of the server side when switching from one terminal to another terminal by using previously authenticated information.

Keywords: Authentication, Cookie, Federation, GBA, IPSec

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942 Enhancement of Performance Utilizing Low Complexity Switched Beam Antenna

Authors: P. Chaipanya, R. Keawchai, W. Sombatsanongkhun, S. Jantaramporn

Abstract:

To manage the demand of wireless communication that has been dramatically increased, switched beam antenna in smart antenna system is focused. Implementation of switched beam antennas at mobile terminals such as notebook or mobile handset is a preferable choice to increase the performance of the wireless communication systems. This paper proposes the low complexity switched beam antenna using single element of antenna which is suitable to implement at mobile terminal. Main beam direction is switched by changing the positions of short circuit on the radiating patch. There are four cases of switching that provide four different directions of main beam. Moreover, the performance in terms of Signal to Interference Ratio when utilizing the proposed antenna is compared with the one using omni-directional antenna to confirm the performance improvable.

Keywords: Switched beam, shorted circuit, single element, signal to interference ratio.

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941 Multi-objective Optimization of Vehicle Passive Suspension with a Two-Terminal Mass Using Chebyshev Goal Programming

Authors: Chuan Li, Ming Liang, Qibing Yu

Abstract:

To improve the dynamics response of the vehicle passive suspension, a two-terminal mass is suggested to connect in parallel with the suspension strut. Three performance criteria, tire grip, ride comfort and suspension deflection, are taken into consideration to optimize the suspension parameters. However, the three criteria are conflicting and non-commensurable. For this reason, the Chebyshev goal programming method is applied to find the best tradeoff among the three objectives. A simulation case is presented to describe the multi-objective optimization procedure. For comparison, the Chebyshev method is also employed to optimize the design of a conventional passive suspension. The effectiveness of the proposed design method has been clearly demonstrated by the result. It is also shown that the suspension with a two-terminal mass in parallel has better performance in terms of the three objectives.

Keywords: Vehicle, passive suspension, two-terminal mass, optimization, Chebyshev goal programming

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940 Security Threat and Countermeasure on 3G Network

Authors: Dongwan Kang, Joohyung Oh, Chaetae Im

Abstract:

Recent communications environment significantly expands the mobile environment. The popularization of smartphones with various mobile services has emerged, and smartphone users are rapidly increasing. Because of these symptoms, existing wired environment in a variety of mobile traffic entering to mobile network has threatened the stability of the mobile network. Unlike traditional wired infrastructure, mobile networks has limited radio resources and signaling procedures for complex radio resource management. So these traffic is not a problem in wired networks but mobile networks, it can be a threat. In this paper, we analyze the security threats in mobile networks and provide direction to solve it.

Keywords: 3G, Core Network Security, GTP, Mobile NetworkSecurity

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939 Terminal Wiener Index for Graph Structures

Authors: J. Baskar Babujee, J. Senbagamalar,

Abstract:

The topological distance between a pair of vertices i and j, which is denoted by d(vi, vj), is the number of edges of the shortest path joining i and j. The Wiener index W(G) is the sum of distances between all pairs of vertices of a graph G. W(G) = i

Keywords: Graph, Degree, Distance, Pendent vertex, Wiener index, Tree.

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938 Implementation of Terrain Rendering on Mobile Device

Authors: S.A.M. Isa, M.S.M. Rahim, M.D. Kasmuni, D. Daman

Abstract:

Recently, there are significant improvements in the capabilities of mobile devices; rendering large terrain is tedious because of the constraint in resources of mobile devices. This paper focuses on the implementation of terrain rendering on mobile device to observe some issues and current constraints occurred. Experiments are performed using two datasets with results based on rendering speed and appearance to ascertain both the issues and constraints. The result shows a downfall of frame rate performance because of the increase of triangles. Since the resolution between computer and mobile device is different, the terrain surface on mobile device looks more unrealistic compared to on a computer. Thus, more attention in the development of terrain rendering on mobile devices is required. The problems highlighted in this paper will be the focus of future research and will be a great importance for 3D visualization on mobile device.

Keywords: Mobile Device, Mobile Rendering, OpenGL ES, Terrain Rendering.

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937 Partial Connection Architecture for Mobile Computing

Authors: Phyoung Jung Kim, Seogyun Kim

Abstract:

In mobile computing environments, there are many new non existing problems in the distributed system, which is consisted of stationary hosts because of host mobility, sudden disconnection by handoff in wireless networks, voluntary disconnection for efficient power consumption of a mobile host, etc. To solve the problems, we proposed the architecture of Partial Connection Manager (PCM) in this paper. PCM creates the limited number of mobile agents according to priority, sends them in parallel to servers, and combines the results to process the user request rapidly. In applying the proposed PCM to the mobile market agent service, we understand that the mobile agent technique could be suited for the mobile computing environment and the partial connection problem management.

Keywords: Mobile agent, mobile computing, partial connection

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936 The Influence of Mobile Phone's Forms in the User Perception

Authors: The Jaya Suteja, Stephany Tedjohartoko

Abstract:

Not all types of mobile phone are successful in entering the market because some types of the mobile phone have a negative perception of user. Therefore, it is important to understand the influence of mobile phone's characteristics in the local user perception. This research investigates the influence of QWERTY mobile phone's forms in the perception of Indonesian user. First, some alternatives of mobile phone-s form are developed based on a certain number of mobile phone's models. At the second stage, some word pairs as design attributes of the mobile phone are chosen to represent the user perception of mobile phone. At the final stage, a survey is conducted to investigate the influence of the developed form alternatives to the user perception. Based on the research, users perceive mobile phone's form with curved top and straight bottom shapes and mobile phone's form with slider and antenna as the most negative form. Meanwhile, mobile phone's form with curved top and bottom shapes and mobile phone-s form without slider and antenna are perceived by the user as the most positive form.

Keywords: Influence, mobile phone, form, user perception.

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935 Security of Mobile Agent in Ad hoc Network using Threshold Cryptography

Authors: S.M. Sarwarul Islam Rizvi, Zinat Sultana, Bo Sun, Md. Washiqul Islam

Abstract:

In a very simple form a Mobile Agent is an independent piece of code that has mobility and autonomy behavior. One of the main advantages of using Mobile Agent in a network is - it reduces network traffic load. In an, ad hoc network Mobile Agent can be used to protect the network by using agent based IDS or IPS. Besides, to deploy dynamic software in the network or to retrieve information from network nodes Mobile Agent can be useful. But in an ad hoc network the Mobile Agent itself needs some security. Security services should be guaranteed both for Mobile Agent and for Agent Server. In this paper to protect the Mobile Agent and Agent Server in an ad hoc network we have proposed a solution which is based on Threshold Cryptography, a new vibe in the cryptographic world where trust is distributed among multiple nodes in the network.

Keywords: Ad hoc network, Mobile Agent, Security, Threats, Threshold Cryptography.

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934 Investigation of Bubble Growth during Nucleate Boiling Using CFD

Authors: K. Jagannath, Akhilesh Kotian, S. S. Sharma, Achutha Kini U., P. R. Prabhu

Abstract:

Boiling process is characterized by the rapid formation of vapour bubbles at the solid–liquid interface (nucleate boiling) with pre-existing vapour or gas pockets. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is an important tool to study bubble dynamics. In the present study, CFD simulation has been carried out to determine the bubble detachment diameter and its terminal velocity. Volume of fluid method is used to model the bubble and the surrounding by solving single set of momentum equations and tracking the volume fraction of each of the fluids throughout the domain. In the simulation, bubble is generated by allowing water-vapour to enter a cylinder filled with liquid water through an inlet at the bottom. After the bubble is fully formed, the bubble detaches from the surface and rises up during which the bubble accelerates due to the net balance between buoyancy force and viscous drag. Finally when these forces exactly balance each other, it attains a constant terminal velocity. The bubble detachment diameter and the terminal velocity of the bubble are captured by the monitor function provided in FLUENT. The detachment diameter and the terminal velocity obtained are compared with the established results based on the shape of the bubble. A good agreement is obtained between the results obtained from simulation and the equations in comparison with the established results.

Keywords: Bubble growth, computational fluid dynamics, detachment diameter, terminal velocity.

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933 An Agent Based Simulation for Network Formation with Heterogeneous Agents

Authors: Hisashi Kojima, Masatora Daito

Abstract:

We investigate an asymmetric connections model with a dynamic network formation process, using an agent based simulation. We permit heterogeneity of agents- value. Valuable persons seem to have many links on real social networks. We focus on this point of view, and examine whether valuable agents change the structures of the terminal networks. Simulation reveals that valuable agents diversify the terminal networks. We can not find evidence that valuable agents increase the possibility that star networks survive the dynamic process. We find that valuable agents disperse the degrees of agents in each terminal network on an average.

Keywords: network formation, agent based simulation, connections model.

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932 Mobile Communications Client Server System for Stock Exchange e-Services Access

Authors: E. Pop, M. Barbos

Abstract:

Using mobile Internet access technologies and eservices, various economic agents can efficiently offer their products or services to a large number of clients. With the support of mobile communications networks, the clients can have access to e-services, anywhere and anytime. This is a base to establish a convergence of technological and financial interests of mobile operators, software developers, mobile terminals producers and e-content providers. In this paper, a client server system is presented, using 3G, EDGE, mobile terminals, for Stock Exchange e-services access.

Keywords: Mobile communications, e-services access, stockexchange.

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931 A New Approach for Mobile Agent Security

Authors: R. Haghighat far, H. Yarahmadi

Abstract:

A mobile agent is a software which performs an action autonomously and independently as a person or an organizations assistance. Mobile agents are used for searching information, retrieval information, filtering, intruder recognition in networks, and so on. One of the important issues of mobile agent is their security. It must consider different security issues in effective and secured usage of mobile agent. One of those issues is the integrity-s protection of mobile agents. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of each method, after reviewing the existing methods, is examined. Regarding to this matter that each method has its own advantage or disadvantage, it seems that by combining these methods, one can reach to a better method for protecting the integrity of mobile agents. Therefore, this method is provided in this paper and then is evaluated in terms of existing method. Finally, this method is simulated and its results are the sign of improving the possibility of integrity-s protection of mobile agents.

Keywords: Integrity, Mobile Agent, Security.

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930 Effects of Mobile Design Quality and Innovation Characteristics on Intention to Use Mobile Tourism Guide

Authors: Numtip Trakulmaykee, Ahmad Suhaimi Baharudin, Muhammad Rafie Mohd. Arshad

Abstract:

This study investigates theoretical model of tourist intention in the context of mobile tourism guide. The research model consists of three constructs: mobile design quality, innovation characteristics, and intention to use mobile tourism guide. In order to investigate the effects of determinants and examine the relationships, partial least squares is employed for data analysis and research model development. The results show that mobile design quality and innovation quality significantly impact on tourists’ intention to use mobile tourism guide. Furthermore, mobile design quality has a strong influence on innovation characteristics, and cannot be the moderator on the relationship between innovation characteristics and tourists’ intention to use mobile tourism guide. Our findings propose theoretical model for mobile research and provide an important guideline for developing mobile application.

Keywords: Design quality, Innovation characteristics, Intention, Mobile tourism guide.

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929 A Programming Solution for Moving Mobile Transaction

Authors: Osman Mohammed Hegazy, Ali Hamed El Bastawissy, Romani Farid Ibrahim

Abstract:

In this paper, our concern is the management of mobile transactions in the shared area among many servers, when the mobile user moves from one cell to another in online partiallyreplicated distributed mobile database environment. We defined the concept of transaction and classified the different types of transactions. Based on this analysis, we propose an algorithm that handles the disconnection due to moving among sites.

Keywords: Concurrency, mobile database, transaction processing, two phase locking.

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928 Exploring Customer Trust in B2C Mobile Payments – A Qualitative Study

Authors: Ahmed Shuhaiber, Hans Lehmann

Abstract:

Mobile payments have been deployed by businesses for more than a decade. Customers use mobile payments if they trust in this relatively new payment method, have a belief and confidence in, as well as reliance on its services and applications. Despite its potential, the current literature shows that there is lack of customer trust in B2C mobile payments, and a lack of studies that determine the factors that influence their trust in these payments; which make these factors yet to be understood, especially in the Middle East region. Thus, this study aims to explore the factors that influence customer trust in mobile payments. The empirical data for this explorative study was collected by establishing four focus group sessions in the UAE. The results indicate that the explored significant factors can be classified into five main groups: customer characteristics, environmental (social and cultural) influences, provider characteristics, mobile-device characteristics, and perceived risks.

Keywords: B2C mobile payments, Mobile commerce, Mobile payment services and application, Trust in mobile payments.

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927 Mobile Cloud Middleware: A New Service for Mobile Users

Authors: K. Akherfi, H. Harroud

Abstract:

Cloud computing (CC) and mobile cloud computing (MCC) have advanced rapidly the last few years. Today, MCC undergoes fast improvement and progress in terms of hardware (memory, embedded sensors, power consumption, touch screen, etc.) software (more and more sophisticated mobile applications) and transmission (higher data transmission rates achieved with different technologies such as 3Gs). This paper presents a review on the concept of CC and MCC. Then, it discusses what has been done regarding middleware in cloud and mobile cloud computing. Later, it shows the architecture of our proposed middleware along with its functionalities which will be provided to mobile clients in order to overcome the well known problems (such as low battery power, slow CPU speed and little memory…).

Keywords: Context-aware, cloud computing, middleware, mobile cloud.

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926 Study of Two Writing Schemes for a Magnetic Tunnel Junction Based On Spin Orbit Torque

Authors: K. Jabeur, L. D. Buda-Prejbeanu, G. Prenat, G. Di Pendina

Abstract:

MRAM technology provides a combination of fast access time, non-volatility, data retention and endurance. While a growing interest is given to two-terminal Magnetic Tunnel Junctions (MTJ) based on Spin-Transfer Torque (STT) switching as the potential candidate for a universal memory, its reliability is dramatically decreased because of the common writing/reading path. Three-terminal MTJ based on Spin-Orbit Torque (SOT) approach revitalizes the hope of an ideal MRAM. It can overcome the reliability barrier encountered in current two-terminal MTJs by separating the reading and the writing path. In this paper, we study two possible writing schemes for the SOT-MTJ device based on recently fabricated samples. While the first is based on precessional switching, the second requires the presence of permanent magnetic field. Based on an accurate Verilog-A model, we simulate the two writing techniques and we highlight advantages and drawbacks of each one. Using the second technique, pioneering logic circuits based on the three-terminal architecture of the SOT-MTJ described in this work are under development with preliminary attractive results.

Keywords: Spin orbit Torque, Magnetic Tunnel Junction, MRAM, Spintronic, Circuit simulation.

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925 A Proposal to Mobile Payment Implementing 2AF+

Authors: Nael Hirzallah, Sana Nseir

Abstract:

Merchants are competing to offer the use of mobile payment to encourage shopping. many mobile payment systems were made available in various locations worldwide; however, they have various drawbacks. This paper proposes a new mobile payment system that discusses the main drawbacks of these systems, namely security and speed of transaction. The proposal is featured by being simple to use by customers and merchants. Furthermore, the proposed system depends on a new authentication factor that is introduced in this paper and called by Two-Factors Authentication Plus, (2FA+).

Keywords: Electronic Commerce, Payment schemes, Mobile Payment, Authentication Factors, Mobile Applications.

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