Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 521

Search results for: low back pain

521 Factors Affecting Low Back Pain during Breastfeeding of Thai Women

Authors: N. Klinpikul, P. Srichandr, N. Poolthong, N. Thavarungkul

Abstract:

Breastfeeding has been receiving much attention of late. Prolonged sitting for breastfeeding often results in back pain of the mothers. This paper reports the findings of a study on the effect of some factors, especially lumbar support, on back pain of breastfeeding mothers. The results showed that the use of lumbar support can reduce back pain of breastfeeding mothers significantly. Back pain was found to increase with breastfeeding time and the rate of increase was lower when lumbar supports were used. When lumbar support thickness was increased gradually from zero (no support) to 11 cm., the degree of low back pain decreased; rapidly at first, then slowly, and leveled off when the thickness reached 9 cm. Younger mothers were less prone to back pain than older mothers. The implications of the findings are discussed.

Keywords: back pain, breastfeeding, lumbar support

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520 Pain and Lumbar Muscle Activation before and after Functional Task in Nonspecific Chronic Low Back Pain

Authors: Lídia E. O. Cruz, Adriano P. C. Calvo, Renato J. Soares, Regiane A. Carvalho

Abstract:

Individuals with non-specific chronic low back pain may present altered movement patterns during functional activities. However, muscle behavior before and after performing a functional task with different load conditions is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study is to analyze lumbar muscle activity before and after performing the functional task of picking up and placing an object on the ground (with and without load) in individuals with nonspecific chronic low back pain. 20 subjects with nonspecific chronic low back pain and 20 healthy subjects participated in this study. A surface electromyography was performed in the ilio-costal, longissimus and multifidus muscles to evaluate lumbar muscle activity before and after performing the functional task of picking up and placing an object on the ground, with and without load. The symptomatic participants had greater lumbar muscle activation compared to the asymptomatic group, more evident in performing the task without load, with statistically significant difference (p = 0,033) between groups for the right multifidus muscle. This study showed that individuals with nonspecific chronic low back pain have higher muscle activation before and after performing a functional task compared to healthy participants.

Keywords: Chronic low back pain, functional task, lumbar muscles, muscle activity.

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519 The Study of the Variability of Anticipatory Postural Adjustments in Recurrent Non-specific LBP Patients

Authors: Rosita Hedayati , Sedighe Kahrizi , Mohammad Parnianpour , Fariba Bahrami , Anoshirvan Kazemnejad

Abstract:

The study of the variability of the postural strategies in low back pain patients, as a criterion in evaluation of the adaptability of this system to the environmental demands is the purpose of this study. A cross-sectional case-control study was performed on 21 recurrent non-specific low back pain patients and 21 healthy volunteers. The electromyography activity of Deltoid, External Oblique (EO), Transverse Abdominis/Internal Oblique (TrA/IO) and Erector Spine (ES) muscles of each person was recorded in 75 rapid arm flexion with maximum acceleration. Standard deviation of trunk muscles onset relative to deltoid muscle onset were statistically analyzed by MANOVA . The results show that chronic low back pain patients exhibit less variability in their anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) in comparison with the control group. There is a decrease in variability of postural control system of recurrent non-specific low back pain patients that can result in the persistence of pain and chronicity by decreasing the adaptability to environmental demands.

Keywords: EMG Onset Latency, Variability, Posture, Non - specific Low Back Pain

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518 Burnout Recognition for Call Center Agents by Using Skin Color Detection with Hand Poses

Authors: El Sayed A. Sharara, A. Tsuji, K. Terada

Abstract:

Call centers have been expanding and they have influence on activation in various markets increasingly. A call center’s work is known as one of the most demanding and stressful jobs. In this paper, we propose the fatigue detection system in order to detect burnout of call center agents in the case of a neck pain and upper back pain. Our proposed system is based on the computer vision technique combined skin color detection with the Viola-Jones object detector. To recognize the gesture of hand poses caused by stress sign, the YCbCr color space is used to detect the skin color region including face and hand poses around the area related to neck ache and upper back pain. A cascade of clarifiers by Viola-Jones is used for face recognition to extract from the skin color region. The detection of hand poses is given by the evaluation of neck pain and upper back pain by using skin color detection and face recognition method. The system performance is evaluated using two groups of dataset created in the laboratory to simulate call center environment. Our call center agent burnout detection system has been implemented by using a web camera and has been processed by MATLAB. From the experimental results, our system achieved 96.3% for upper back pain detection and 94.2% for neck pain detection.

Keywords: Call center agents, fatigue, skin color detection, face recognition.

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517 Arduino Pressure Sensor Cushion for Tracking and Improving Sitting Posture

Authors: Andrew Hwang

Abstract:

The average American worker sits for thirteen hours a day, often with poor posture and infrequent breaks, which can lead to health issues and back problems. The Smart Cushion was created to alert individuals of their poor postures, and may potentially alleviate back problems and correct poor posture. The Smart Cushion is a portable, rectangular, foam cushion, with five strategically placed pressure sensors, that utilizes an Arduino Uno circuit board and specifically designed software, allowing it to collect data from the five pressure sensors and store the data on an SD card. The data is then compiled into graphs and compared to controlled postures. Before volunteers sat on the cushion, their levels of back pain were recorded on a scale from 1-10. Data was recorded for an hour during sitting, and then a new, corrected posture was suggested. After using the suggested posture for an hour, the volunteers described their level of discomfort on a scale from 1-10. Different patterns of sitting postures were generated that were able to serve as early warnings of potential back problems. By using the Smart Cushion, the areas where different volunteers were applying the most pressure while sitting could be identified, and the sitting postures could be corrected. Further studies regarding the relationships between posture and specific regions of the body are necessary to better understand the origins of back pain; however, the Smart Cushion is sufficient for correcting sitting posture and preventing the development of additional back pain.

Keywords: Arduino Sketch Algorithm, biomedical technology, pressure sensors, Smart Cushion.

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516 Musculoskeletal Pain, Work Characteristics and Presenteeism among Hotel Employees

Authors: Ruey-Yu Chen, Yao-Tsung Chang, Ching-Ying Yeh, Yu-Ting Huang

Abstract:

Musculoskeletal problems in the hotel sector have been little studied. The aim of this study was to examine relationships of musculoskeletal pain and work characteristics with presenteeism, i.e., feeling sick but going to work anyway. Data of a self-reported questionnaire were collected from 1,101 employees, who joined the study on a voluntary basis from four hotels in northern Taiwan. The results showed that respondents who were female, were younger, had a higher educational level, and worked in the real-service department had higher presenteeism. There were significant positive associations between presenteeism and heavy loads, frequent beatings or hits of hard objects, improper bench height, employees’ lower limb and lower back pain. Our study results imply that knowledge of work characteristics and employees' musculoskeletal problems could be advantageously used to reduce presenteeism in the workplace.

Keywords: Musculoskeletal pain, absenteeism, presenteeism, hotel employees.

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515 The Effects of Pilates and McKenzie Exercises on Quality of Life and Lumbar Spine Position Sense in Patients with Low Back Pain: A Comparative Study with a 4-Week Follow-Up

Authors: Vahid Mazloum, Mansour Sahebozamani, Amirhossein Barati, Nouzar Nakhaee, Pouya Rabiei

Abstract:

Non-specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP) is a common condition with no exact diagnosis and mechanism for its occurrence. Recently, different therapeutic exercises have taken into account to manage NSCLBP. So, the aim of this study has mainly been placed on comparing the effects of Pilates and Mackenzie exercises on quality of life (QOL) lumbar spine position sense (LSPS) in patients with NSCLBP. In this randomized clinical trial, 47 patients with NSCLBP were voluntarily divided into three groups of Pilates (n=16) (with mean age 37.1 ± 9.5 years, height 168.9 ± 7.4 cm, body mass 76.1 ± 5.9 k), McKenzie (n=15) (with mean age 42.7 ± 8.1 years, height 165.7 ± 6.8, body mass 74.1 ± 4.8 kg) and control (n=16) (with mean age 39.3 ± 9.8 years, height 168.1 ± 8.1 cm, body mass 74.2 ± 5.8 kg). Primary outcome included QOL and secondary was LSPS. Both variables were assessed by the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaires and electrogoniameter, respectively. The measurements were performed at baseline, following a 6-week intervention, and after a 4-week follow-up. The ANCOVA test at P < 0.05 was administrated to analyze the collected data using SPSS software. There was a statistically significant difference between experimental groups and the control group to improve QOL. But, no difference was seen regarding the effects of two exercises on LSPS (p < 0.05). Both Pilates and Mackenzie exercises demonstrated improvement in QOL after 6-week intervention and a 4-week follow-up while none of them considerably affected LSPS. Further studies are required to establish a supporting evidence for the effectiveness of two exercises on NSCLBP.

Keywords: Pilates, Mackenzie, proprioception, low back pain, physical health.

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514 Three-Level Converters Back-to-Back DC Bus Control for Torque Ripple Reduction of Induction Motor

Authors: T. Abdelkrim, K. Benamrane, B. Bezza, Aeh Benkhelifa, A. Borni

Abstract:

This paper proposes a regulation method of back-to-back connected three-level converters in order to reduce the torque ripple in induction motor. First part is dedicated to the presentation of the feedback control of three-level PWM rectifier. In the second part, three-level NPC voltage source inverter balancing DC bus algorithm is presented. A theoretical analysis with a complete simulation of the system is presented to prove the excellent performance of the proposed technique.

Keywords: Back-to-back connection, Feedback control, Neutral-point balance, Three-level converter, Torque ripple.

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513 Improved Back Propagation Algorithm to Avoid Local Minima in Multiplicative Neuron Model

Authors: Kavita Burse, Manish Manoria, Vishnu P. S. Kirar

Abstract:

The back propagation algorithm calculates the weight changes of artificial neural networks, and a common approach is to use a training algorithm consisting of a learning rate and a momentum factor. The major drawbacks of above learning algorithm are the problems of local minima and slow convergence speeds. The addition of an extra term, called a proportional factor reduces the convergence of the back propagation algorithm. We have applied the three term back propagation to multiplicative neural network learning. The algorithm is tested on XOR and parity problem and compared with the standard back propagation training algorithm.

Keywords: Three term back propagation, multiplicative neuralnetwork, proportional factor, local minima.

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512 Statistical Estimation of Spring-back Degree Using Texture Database

Authors: Takashi Sakai, Shinsaku Kikuta, Jun-ichi Koyama

Abstract:

Using a texture database, a statistical estimation of spring-back was conducted in this study on the basis of statistical analysis. Both spring-back in bending deformation and experimental data related to the crystal orientation show significant dispersion. Therefore, a probabilistic statistical approach was established for the proper quantification of these values. Correlation was examined among the parameters F(x) of spring-back, F(x) of the buildup fraction to three orientations after 92° bending, and F(x) at an as-received part on the basis of the three-parameter Weibull distribution. Consequent spring-back estimation using a texture database yielded excellent estimates compared with experimental values.

Keywords: Bending, Spring-back, Database, Crystallographic Orientation, Texture, SEM-EBSD, Weibull distribution, Statistical analysis.

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511 Analysis of Take-off Phase of Somersaults with Twisting along the Longitudinal Body Axis

Authors: P. Hedbávný, M. Kalichová

Abstract:

The contribution deals with problem of take-off phase of back somersault with twisting with various numbers of twists along longitudinal body axis. The aim was to evaluate the changes in angles during transition phase from back handspring to back somersault using 3D kinematic analysis of the somersaults. We used Simi Motion System for the 3D kinematic analysis of the observed gymnastic element performed by Czech Republic female representative and 2008 Summer Olympic Games participant. The results showed that the higher the number of twists, the smaller the touchdown angle in which the gymnasts lands on the pad in the beginning of take-off phase. In back somersault with one twist (180°) the average angle is 54°, in 1080° back somersault the average angle is 45.9°. These results may help to improve technical training of sports gymnasts.

Keywords: back somersault with twisting, biomechanicalanalysis, take-off

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510 An Optimized Virtual Scheme for Reducing Collisions in MAC Layer

Authors: M. Sivakumar, S. Saravanan

Abstract:

The main function of Medium Access Control (MAC) is to share the channel efficiently between all nodes. In the real-time scenario, there will be certain amount of wastage in bandwidth due to back-off periods. More bandwidth will be wasted in idle state if the back-off period is very high and collision may occur if the back-off period is small. So, an optimization is needed for this problem. The main objective of the work is to reduce delay due to back-off period thereby reducing collision and increasing throughput. Here a method, called the virtual back-off algorithm (VBA) is used to optimize the back-off period and thereby it increases throughput and reduces collisions. The main idea is to optimize the number of transmission for every node. A counter is introduced at each node to implement this idea. Here counter value represents the sequence number. VBA is classified into two types VBA with counter sharing (VBA-CS) and VBA with no counter sharing (VBA-NCS). These two classifications of VBA are compared for various parameters. Simulation is done in NS-2 environment. The results obtained are found to be promising. 

Keywords: VBA, sequence number, counter, back-off period.

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509 Quasi Multi-Pulse Back-to-Back Static Synchronous Compensator Employing Line Frequency Switching 2-Level GTO Inverters

Authors: A.M. Vural, K.C. Bayindir

Abstract:

Back-to-back static synchronous compensator (BtBSTATCOM) consists of two back-to-back voltage-source converters (VSC) with a common DC link in a substation. This configuration extends the capabilities of conventional STATCOM that bidirectional active power transfer from one bus to another is possible. In this paper, VSCs are designed in quasi multi-pulse form in which GTOs are triggered only once per cycle in PSCAD/EMTDC. The design details of VSCs as well as gate switching circuits and controllers are fully represented. Regulation modes of BtBSTATCOM are verified and tested on a multi-machine power system through different simulation cases. The results presented in the form of typical time responses show that practical PI controllers are almost robust and stable in case of start-up, set-point change, and line faults.

Keywords: Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS), Backto-Back Static Synchronous Compensator (BtB-STATCOM), quasi multi-pulse voltage source converter, active power transfer; voltage control.

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508 Trunk and Gluteus-Medius Muscles’ Fatigability during Occupational Standing in Clinical Instructors with Low Back Pain

Authors: Eman A. Embaby, Amira A. A. Abdallah

Abstract:

Background: Occupational standing is associated with low back pain (LBP) development. Yet, trunk and gluteus-medius muscles’ fatigability has not been extensively studied during occupational standing. This study examined and correlated the rectus abdominus (RA), erector-spinae (ES), external oblique (EO), and gluteus-medius (GM) muscles’ fatigability on both sides while standing in a confined area for 30min Methods: Median frequency EMG data were collected from 15 female clinical instructors with chronic LBP (group A) and 15 asymptomatic controls (group B) (mean age 29.53±2.4 vs 29.07±2.4years, weight 63.6±7 vs 60±7.8kg, and height 162.73±4 vs 162.8±6cm respectively) using a spectrum analysis program. Data were collected in the first and last 5min of the standing task. Results: Using Mixed three-way ANOVA, group A showed significantly (p<0.05) lower frequencies for the right and left ES, and right GM in the last 5min and significantly higher frequencies for the left RA in the first and last 5min than group B. In addition, the left ES and right EO, ES and GM in group B showed significantly higher frequencies and the left ES in group A showed significantly lower frequencies in the last 5min compared with the first. Moreover, the right RA showed significantly higher frequencies than the left in the last 5min in group B. Finally, there were significant (p<0.05) correlations among the median frequencies of the tested four muscles on the same side and between both sides in both groups. Discussion/Conclusions: Clinical instructors with LBP are more liable to have higher trunk and gluteus-medius muscle fatigue than asymptomatic individuals. Thus, endurance training for these muscles should be included in the rehabilitation of such patients.

Keywords: EMG, Fatigability, Gluteus-medius, LBP, Standing, Trunk.

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507 Study of the Appropriate Factors for Laminated Bamboo Bending by Design of Experiments

Authors: Vanchai Laemlaksakul, Sompoap Talabgaew

Abstract:

This research studied the appropriate factors and conditions for laminated bamboo bending by Design of Experiments (DOE). The interested factors affecting the spring back in laminates bamboo were (1) time, (2) thickness, and (3) frequency. This experiment tested the specimen by using high frequency machine and measured its spring back immediately and next 24 hours for comparing the spring back ratio. Results from the experiments showed that significant factors having major influence to bending of laminates bamboo were thickness and frequency. The appropriate conditions of thickness and frequency were 4 mm. and 1.5 respectively.

Keywords: Bamboo, bending, spring back, design of experiments.

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506 Applying the Regression Technique for Prediction of the Acute Heart Attack

Authors: Paria Soleimani, Arezoo Neshati

Abstract:

Myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of death in the world. Some of these deaths occur even before the patient reaches the hospital. Myocardial infarction occurs as a result of impaired blood supply. Because the most of these deaths are due to coronary artery disease, hence the awareness of the warning signs of a heart attack is essential. Some heart attacks are sudden and intense, but most of them start slowly, with mild pain or discomfort, then early detection and successful treatment of these symptoms is vital to save them. Therefore, importance and usefulness of a system designing to assist physicians in early diagnosis of the acute heart attacks is obvious. The main purpose of this study would be to enable patients to become better informed about their condition and to encourage them to seek professional care at an earlier stage in the appropriate situations. For this purpose, the data were collected on 711 heart patients in Iran hospitals. 28 attributes of clinical factors can be reported by patients; were studied. Three logistic regression models were made on the basis of the 28 features to predict the risk of heart attacks. The best logistic regression model in terms of performance had a C-index of 0.955 and with an accuracy of 94.9%. The variables, severe chest pain, back pain, cold sweats, shortness of breath, nausea and vomiting, were selected as the main features.

Keywords: Coronary heart disease, acute heart attacks, prediction, logistic regression.

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505 Chase Trainer Exercise Program in Athlete with Unilateral Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS)

Authors: Asha Hasnimy Mohd Hashim, Lee Ai Choo

Abstract:

We investigated the effects of modified preprogrammed training mode Chase Trainer from Balance Trainer (BT3, HurLab, Tampere, Finland) on athlete who experienced unilateral Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS). Twenty-seven athletes with mean age= 14.23 ±1.31 years, height = 164.89 ± 7.85 cm, weight = 56.94 ± 9.28 kg were randomly assigned to two groups: experiment (EG; n = 14) and injured (IG; n = 13). EG performed a series of Chase Trainer program which required them to shift their body weight at different directions, speeds and angle of leaning twice a week for duration of 8 weeks. The static postural control and perceived pain level measures were taken at baseline, after 6 weeks and 8 weeks of training. There was no significant difference in any of tested variables between EG and IG before and after 6-week the intervention period. However, after 8-week of training, the postural control (eyes open) and perceived pain level of EG improved compared to IG (p<0.05). The postural control with eyes closed of EG improved (p<0.05) but the values were not significantly different compared to IG after training. The results suggest that using Chase Trainer exercise program it is possible to improve individual postural control and decreased perceived pain level in athlete with unilateral Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS).

Keywords: Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome, perceived pain level, postural control.

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504 Optimization of Process Parameters Affecting on Spring-Back in V-Bending Process for High Strength Low Alloy Steel HSLA 420 Using FEA (HyperForm) and Taguchi Technique

Authors: Navajyoti Panda, R. S. Pawar

Abstract:

In this study, process parameters like punch angle, die opening, grain direction, and pre-bend condition of the strip for deep draw of high strength low alloy steel HSLA 420 are investigated. The finite element method (FEM) in association with the Taguchi and the analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques are carried out to investigate the degree of importance of process parameters in V-bending process for HSLA 420&ST12 grade material. From results, it is observed that punch angle had a major influence on the spring-back. Die opening also showed very significant role on spring back. On the other hand, it is revealed that grain direction had the least impact on spring back; however, if strip from flat sheet is taken, then it is less prone to spring back as compared to the strip from sheet metal coil. HyperForm software is used for FEM simulation and experiments are designed using Taguchi method. Percentage contribution of the parameters is obtained through the ANOVA techniques.

Keywords: Bending, V-bending, FEM, spring-back, Taguchi, HyperForm, profile projector, HSLA 420 & St12 materials.

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503 Illicit Return Practices of Irregular Migrants from Greece to Turkey

Authors: Enkelejda Koka, Denard Veshi

Abstract:

Since 2011, in the name of ‘humanitarianism’ and deaths in the Mediterranean Sea, the legal and political justification delivered by Greece to manage the refugee crisis is pre-emptive interception. Although part of the EU, Greece adopted its own strategy. These practices have also created high risks for migrants generally resulting in non-rescue episodes and push-back practices having lethal consequences to the life of the irregular migrant. Thus, this article provides an analysis of the Greek ‘compassionate border work’ policy, a practice known as push-back. It is argued that these push-back practices violate international obligations, notably the ‘right to life’, the ‘duty to search and rescue’, the prohibition of inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment and the principle of non-refoulement.

Keywords: Greece, migrants, push-back policy, violation of international law.

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502 Study of Chest Pain and its Risk Factors in Over 30 Year-Old Individuals

Authors: S. Dabiran

Abstract:

Chest pain is one of the most prevalent complaints among adults that cause the people to attend to medical centers. The aim was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of chest pain among over 30 years old people in Tehran. In this cross-sectional study, 787 adults took part from Apr 2005 until Apr 2006. The sampling method was random cluster sampling and there were 25 clusters. In each cluster, interviews were performed with 32 over 30 years old, people lived in those houses. In cases with chest pain, extra questions asked. The prevalence of CP was 9% (71 cases). Of them 21 cases (6.5%) were in 41-60 year age ranges and the remainders were over 61 year old. 19 cases (26.8%) mentioned CP in resting state and all of the cases had exertion onset CP. The CP duration was 10 minutes or less in all of the cases and in most of them (84.5%), the location of pain mentioned left anterior part of chest, left anterior part of sternum and or left arm. There was positive history of myocardial infarction in 12 cases (17%). There was significant relation between CP and age, sex and between history of myocardial infarction and marital state of study people. Our results are similar to other studies- results in most parts, however it is necessary to perform supplementary tests and follow up studies to differentiate between cardiac and non-cardiac CP exactly.

Keywords: Chest pain, myocardial infarction, risk factor, prevalence

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501 Understanding Grip Choice and Comfort Whilst Hoovering

Authors: S.R.Kamat, A.Yoxall, C.Craig , M.J.Carré, J.Rowson

Abstract:

The hand is one of the essential parts of the body for carrying out Activities of Daily Living (ADLs). Individuals use their hands and fingers in everyday activities in the both the workplace and home. Hand-intensive tasks require diverse and sometimes extreme levels of exertion, depending on the action, movement or manipulation involved. The authors have undertaken several studies looking at grip choice and comfort. It is hoped that in providing improved understanding of discomfort during ADLs this will aid in the design of consumer products. Previous work by the authors outlined a methodology for calculating pain frequency and pain level for a range of tasks. From an online survey undertaken by the authors with regards manipulating objects during everyday tasks, tasks involving gripping were seen to produce the highest levels of pain and discomfort. Questioning of the participants showed that cleaning tasks were seen to be ADL's that produced the highest levels of discomfort, with women feeling higher levels of discomfort than men. This paper looks at the methodology for calculating pain frequency and pain level with particular regards to gripping activities. This methodology shows that activities such as mopping, sweeping and hoovering shows the highest numbers of pain frequency and pain level at 3112.5 frequency per month while the pain level per person doing this action was 0.78.The study then uses thin-film force sensors to analyze the force distribution in the hand whilst hoovering and compares this for differing grip styles and genders. Women were seen to have more of their hand under a higher pressure than men when undertaking hoovering. This suggests that women may feel greater discomfort than men since their hand is at a higher pressure more of the time.

Keywords: hovering, grip, pain

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500 Sociocultural Context of Pain Management in Oncology and Palliative Nursing Care

Authors: Andrea Zielke-Nadkarni

Abstract:

Pain management is a question of quality of life and an indicator for nursing quality. Chronic pain which is predominant in oncology and palliative nursing situations is perceived today as a multifactorial, individual emotional experience with specific characteristics including the sociocultural dimension when dealing with migrant patients. This dimension of chronic pain is of major importance in professional nursing of migrant patients in hospices or palliative care units. Objectives of the study are: 1. To find out more about the sociocultural views on pain and nursing care, on customs and nursing practices connected with pain of both Turkish Muslim and German Christian women, 2. To improve individual and family oriented nursing practice with view to sociocultural needs of patients in severe pain in palliative care. In a qualitative-explorative comparative study 4 groups of women, Turkish Muslims immigrants (4 from the first generation, 5 from the second generation) and German Christian women of two generations (5 of each age group) of the same age groups as the Turkish women and with similar educational backgrounds were interviewed (semistructured ethnographic interviews using Spradley, 1979) on their perceptions and experiences of pain and nursing care within their families. For both target groups the presentation will demonstrate the following results in detail: Utterance of pain as well as “private” and “public” pain vary within different societies and cultures. Permitted forms of pain utterance are learned in childhood and determine attitudes and expectations in adulthood. Language, especially when metaphors and symbols are used, plays a major role for misunderstandings. The sociocultural context of illness may include specific beliefs that are important to the patients and yet seem more than far-fetched from a biomedical perspective. Pain can be an influential factor in family relationships where respect or hierarchies do not allow the direct utterance of individual needs. Specific resources are often, although not exclusively, linked to religious convictions and are significantly helpful in reducing pain. The discussion will evaluate the results of the study with view to the relevant literature and present nursing interventions and instruments beyond medication that are helpful when dealing with patients from various socio-cultural backgrounds in painful end-oflife situations.

Keywords: Pain management, migrants, sociocultural context, palliative care.

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499 Back Analysis of Tehran Metro Tunnel Construction Using FLAC-3D

Authors: M. Mahdi, N. Shariatmadari

Abstract:

An important aspect of planning for shallow tunneling under urban areas is the determination of likely surface movements and interaction with existing structures. Back analysis of built tunnels that their settlements magnitude is available, could aid the designers to have a more accuracy in future projects.

In this paper, one single Tehran Metro Tunnel (at west of Hor square, Jang University Street) was selected. At first, surface settlements of this tunnel were measured in situ. Then this tunnel was modeled using the commercial finite deference software FLAC-3D. Finally, Results of modeling and in situ measurements compared for verification.

Keywords: Shallow Tunnel, Back Analysis, Surface Movement, Numerical Modeling.

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498 Study of Tower Grounding Resistance Effected Back Flashover to 500 kV Transmission Line in Thailand by using ATP/EMTP

Authors: B. Marungsri, S. Boonpoke, A. Rawangpai, A. Oonsivilai, C. Kritayakornupong

Abstract:

This study describes analysis of tower grounding resistance effected the back flashover voltage across insulator string in a transmission system. This paper studies the 500 kV transmission lines from Mae Moh, Lampang to Nong Chok, Bangkok, Thailand, which is double circuit in the same steel tower with two overhead ground wires. The factor of this study includes magnitude of lightning stroke, and front time of lightning stroke. Steel tower uses multistory tower model. The assumption of studies based on the return stroke current ranged 1-200 kA, front time of lightning stroke between 1 μs to 3 μs. The simulations study the effect of varying tower grounding resistance that affect the lightning current. Simulation results are analyzed lightning over voltage that causes back flashover at insulator strings. This study helps to know causes of problems of back flashover the transmission line system, and also be as a guideline solving the problem for 500 kV transmission line systems, as well.

Keywords: Tower grounding resistance, back flashover, multistory tower model, lightning stroke current.

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497 The Effects of Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy on Pain, Function, Range of Motion and Strength in Patients with Plantar Fasciitis

Authors: P. Sanzo

Abstract:

Ten percent of the population will develop plantar fasciitis (PF) during their lifetime. Two million people are treated yearly accounting for 11-15% of visits to medical professionals. Treatment ranges from conservative to surgical intervention. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ECSWT) on heel pain, function, range of motion (ROM), and strength in patients with PF. One hundred subjects were treated with ECSWT and measures were taken before and three months after treatment. There was significant differences in visual analog scale scores for pain at rest (p=0.0001); after activity (p= 0.0001) and; overall improvement (p=0.0001). There was also significant improvement in Lower Extremity Functional Scale scores (p=0.0001); ankle plantarflexion (p=0.0001), dorsiflexion (p=0.001), and eversion (p=0.017),and first metatarsophalangeal joint flexion (p=0.002) and extension (p=0.003) ROM. ECSWT is an effective treatment improving heel pain, function and ROM in patients with PF.

Keywords: Extracorporeal shockwave therapy, shockwave therapy, plantar fasciitis, heel pain, function, range of motion, strength.

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496 An Improved Learning Algorithm based on the Conjugate Gradient Method for Back Propagation Neural Networks

Authors: N. M. Nawi, M. R. Ransing, R. S. Ransing

Abstract:

The conjugate gradient optimization algorithm usually used for nonlinear least squares is presented and is combined with the modified back propagation algorithm yielding a new fast training multilayer perceptron (MLP) algorithm (CGFR/AG). The approaches presented in the paper consist of three steps: (1) Modification on standard back propagation algorithm by introducing gain variation term of the activation function, (2) Calculating the gradient descent on error with respect to the weights and gains values and (3) the determination of the new search direction by exploiting the information calculated by gradient descent in step (2) as well as the previous search direction. The proposed method improved the training efficiency of back propagation algorithm by adaptively modifying the initial search direction. Performance of the proposed method is demonstrated by comparing to the conjugate gradient algorithm from neural network toolbox for the chosen benchmark. The results show that the number of iterations required by the proposed method to converge is less than 20% of what is required by the standard conjugate gradient and neural network toolbox algorithm.

Keywords: Back-propagation, activation function, conjugategradient, search direction, gain variation.

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495 Back Stepping Sliding Mode Control of Blood Glucose for Type I Diabetes

Authors: N. Tadrisi Parsa, A. R. Vali, R. Ghasemi

Abstract:

Diabetes is a growing health problem in worldwide. Especially, the patients with Type 1 diabetes need strict glycemic control because they have deficiency of insulin production. This paper attempts to control blood glucose based on body mathematical body model. The Bergman minimal mathematical model is used to develop the nonlinear controller. A novel back-stepping based sliding mode control (B-SMC) strategy is proposed as a solution that guarantees practical tracking of a desired glucose concentration. In order to show the performance of the proposed design, it is compared with conventional linear and fuzzy controllers which have been done in previous researches. The numerical simulation result shows the advantages of sliding mode back stepping controller design to linear and fuzzy controllers.

Keywords: Back stepping, Bergman Model, Nonlinear control, Sliding mode control.

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494 Payment for Pain: Differences between Hypothetical and Real Preferences

Authors: J. Trarbach, S. Schosser, B. Vogt

Abstract:

Decision-makers tend to prefer the first alternative over subsequent alternatives which is called the primacy effect. To reliably measure this effect, we conducted an experiment with real consequences for preference statements. Therefore, we elicit preferences of subjects using a rating scale, i.e. hypothetical preferences, and willingness to pay, i.e. real preferences, for two sequences of pain. Within these sequences, both overall intensity and duration of pain are identical. Hence, a rational decision-maker should be indifferent, whereas the primacy effect predicts a stronger preference for the first sequence. What we see is a primacy effect only for hypothetical preferences. This effect vanishes for real preferences.

Keywords: Decision making, primacy effect, real incentives, willingness to pay.

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493 An Improved Conjugate Gradient Based Learning Algorithm for Back Propagation Neural Networks

Authors: N. M. Nawi, R. S. Ransing, M. R. Ransing

Abstract:

The conjugate gradient optimization algorithm is combined with the modified back propagation algorithm to yield a computationally efficient algorithm for training multilayer perceptron (MLP) networks (CGFR/AG). The computational efficiency is enhanced by adaptively modifying initial search direction as described in the following steps: (1) Modification on standard back propagation algorithm by introducing a gain variation term in the activation function, (2) Calculation of the gradient descent of error with respect to the weights and gains values and (3) the determination of a new search direction by using information calculated in step (2). The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated by comparing accuracy and computation time with the conjugate gradient algorithm used in MATLAB neural network toolbox. The results show that the computational efficiency of the proposed method was better than the standard conjugate gradient algorithm.

Keywords: Adaptive gain variation, back-propagation, activation function, conjugate gradient, search direction.

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492 A New Self-Tuning Fuzzy PD Controller of a BDFIG for Wind Energy Conversion

Authors: Zoheir Tir, Rachid Abdessemed

Abstract:

This paper presents a new control scheme to control a brushless doubly fed induction generator (BDFIG) using back-to-back PWM converters for wind power generation. The proposed control scheme is a New Self-Tuning Fuzzy Proportional-Derivative Controller (NSTFPDC). The goal of BDFIG control is to achieve a similar dynamic performance to the doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), exploiting the well-known induction machine vector control philosophy. The performance of NSTFPDC controller has been investigated and compared with the two controllers, called Proportional–Integral (PI) and PD-like Fuzzy Logic controller (PD-like FLC) based BDFIG. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and the robustness of the NSTFPDC controller.

Keywords: Brushless Doubly Fed Induction Generator (BDFIG), PI controller, PD-like Fuzzy Logic controller, New Self-Tuning Fuzzy Proportional-Derivative Controller (NSTFPDC), Scaling factor, back-to-back PWM converters, wind energy system.

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