Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 609

Search results for: local specific area

609 Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Gas-Liquid Phase Stirred Tank

Authors: Thiyam Tamphasana Devi, Bimlesh Kumar

Abstract:

A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique has been applied to simulate the gas-liquid phase in double stirred tank of Rushton impeller. Eulerian-Eulerian model was adopted to simulate the multiphase with standard correlation of Schiller and Naumann for drag co-efficient. The turbulence was modeled by using standard k-ε turbulence model. The present CFD model predicts flow pattern, local gas hold-up, and local specific area. It also predicts local kLa (mass transfer rate) for single impeller. The predicted results were compared with experimental and CFD results of published literature. The predicted results are slightly over predicted with the experimental results; however, it is in reasonable agreement with other simulated results of published literature.

Keywords: Eulerian-Eulerian, gas-hold up, gas-liquid phase, local mass transfer rate, local specific area, Rushton Impeller.

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608 Effect of Selenite and Selenate Uptake by Maize Plants on Specific Leaf Area

Authors: F. Garousi, Sz. Veres, É. Bódi, Sz. Várallyay, B. Kovács

Abstract:

Specific leaf area (SLA; cm2leaf g-1leaf) the ratio of leaf area to leaf dry mass is a key ecophysiological parameter influencing leaf physiology, photosynthesis, and whole plant carbon gain and also can be used as a rapid and diagnostic tool. In this study, two species of soluble inorganic selenium forms, selenite (Se^IV) and selenate (Se^VI) at different concentrations were investigated on maize plants that were growing in nutrient solutions during 2 weeks and at the end of the experiment, amounts of SLA for first and second leaves of maize were measured. In accordance with the results we observed that our regarded Se concentrations in both forms of Se^IV and Se^VI were not effective on maize plants’ SLA significantly although high level of 3 mg.kg-1 Se^IV had negative affect on growth of the samples that had been treated by it but about Se^VI samples we did not observe this state and our different considered Se^VI concentrations were not toxic for maize plants.

Keywords: Maize, Sodium selenate, sodium selenite, specific leaf area.

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607 Performance of Total Vector Error of an Estimated Phasor within Local Area Networks

Authors: Ahmed Abdolkhalig, Rastko Zivanovic

Abstract:

This paper evaluates the Total Vector Error of an estimated Phasor as define in IEEE C37.118 standard within different medium access in Local Area Networks (LAN). Three different LAN models (CSMA/CD, CSMA/AMP and Switched Ethernet) are evaluated. The Total Vector Error of the estimated Phasor has been evaluated for the effect of Nodes Number under the standardized network Band-width values defined in IEC 61850-9-2 communication standard (i.e. 0.1, 1 and 10 Gbps).

Keywords: Phasor, Local Area Network, Total Vector Error, IEEE C37.118, IEC 61850.

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606 Patient-Specific Modeling Algorithm for Medical Data Based on AUC

Authors: Guilherme Ribeiro, Alexandre Oliveira, Antonio Ferreira, Shyam Visweswaran, Gregory Cooper

Abstract:

Patient-specific models are instance-based learning algorithms that take advantage of the particular features of the patient case at hand to predict an outcome. We introduce two patient-specific algorithms based on decision tree paradigm that use AUC as a metric to select an attribute. We apply the patient specific algorithms to predict outcomes in several datasets, including medical datasets. Compared to the patient-specific decision path (PSDP) entropy-based and CART methods, the AUC-based patient-specific decision path models performed equivalently on area under the ROC curve (AUC). Our results provide support for patient-specific methods being a promising approach for making clinical predictions.

Keywords: Approach instance-based, area Under the ROC Curve, Patient-specific Decision Path, clinical predictions.

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605 Statistical Modeling of Local Area Fading Channels Based on Triply Stochastic Filtered Marked Poisson Point Processes

Authors: Jihad S. Daba, J. P. Dubois

Abstract:

Fading noise degrades the performance of cellular communication, most notably in femto- and pico-cells in 3G and 4G systems. When the wireless channel consists of a small number of scattering paths, the statistics of fading noise is not analytically tractable and poses a serious challenge to developing closed canonical forms that can be analysed and used in the design of efficient and optimal receivers. In this context, noise is multiplicative and is referred to as stochastically local fading. In many analytical investigation of multiplicative noise, the exponential or Gamma statistics are invoked. More recent advances by the author of this paper utilized a Poisson modulated-weighted generalized Laguerre polynomials with controlling parameters and uncorrelated noise assumptions. In this paper, we investigate the statistics of multidiversity stochastically local area fading channel when the channel consists of randomly distributed Rayleigh and Rician scattering centers with a coherent Nakagami-distributed line of sight component and an underlying doubly stochastic Poisson process driven by a lognormal intensity. These combined statistics form a unifying triply stochastic filtered marked Poisson point process model.

Keywords: Cellular communication, femto- and pico-cells, stochastically local area fading channel, triply stochastic filtered marked Poisson point process.

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604 The Use of Local Knowledge and its Transferfor Community Self-Protection Development in Flood Prone Residential Area

Authors: Siyanee Hirunsalee, Hidehiko Kanegae

Abstract:

This paper aims to study at the use of local knowledge to develop community self-protection in flood prone residential area, Ayutthaya Island has been chosen as a case study. This study tries to examine the strength of local knowledge which is able to develop community self-protection and cope with flood disaster. In-depth, this paper focuses on the influence of social network on knowledge transfer. After conducted the research, authors reviewed the strength of local knowledge and also mentioned the obstacles of community to use and also transfer local knowledge. Moreover, the result of the study revealed that local knowledge is not always transferred by the strongest-tie social network (family or kinship) as we used to believe. Surprisingly, local knowledge could be also transferred by the weaker-tie social network (teacher/ monk) with the better effectiveness in some knowledge.

Keywords: Community Self-Protection Development, FloodRisk Reduction, Knowledge Transfer, Local Knowledge

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603 High Specific Speed in Circulating Water Pump Can Cause Cavitation, Noise and Vibration

Authors: Chandra Gupt Porwal

Abstract:

Excessive vibration means increased wear, increased repair efforts, bad product selection & quality and high energy consumption. This may be sometimes experienced by cavitation or suction/discharge recirculation which could occur only when net positive suction head available NPSHA drops below the net positive suction head required NPSHR. Cavitation can cause axial surging, if it is excessive, will damage mechanical seals, bearings, possibly other pump components frequently, and shorten the life of the impeller. Efforts have been made to explain Suction Energy (SE), Specific Speed (Ns), Suction Specific Speed (Nss), NPSHA, NPSHR & their significance, possible reasons of cavitation /internal recirculation, its diagnostics and remedial measures to arrest and prevent cavitation in this paper. A case study is presented by the author highlighting that the root cause of unwanted noise and vibration is due to cavitation, caused by high specific speeds or inadequate net- positive suction head available which results in damages to material surfaces of impeller & suction bells and degradation of machine performance, its capacity and efficiency too. Author strongly recommends revisiting the technical specifications of CW pumps to provide sufficient NPSH margin ratios >1.5, for future projects and Nss be limited to 8500 - 9000 for cavitation free operation.

Keywords: Best efficiency point (BEP), Net positive suction head NPSHA, NPSHR, Specific Speed NS, Suction Specific Speed Nss.

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602 Moving towards Zero Waste in a UK Local Authority Area: Challenges to the Introduction of Separate Food Waste Collections

Authors: C. Cole, M. Osmani, A. Wheatley, M. Quddus

Abstract:

EU and UK Government targets for minimising and recycling household waste has led the responsible authorities to research the alternatives to landfill. In the work reported here the local waste collection authority (Charnwood Borough Council) has adopted the aspirational strategy of becoming a “Zero Waste Borough” to lead the drive for public participation. The work concludes that the separate collection of food waste would be needed to meet the two regulatory standards on recycling and biologically active wastes.

An analysis of a neighbouring Authority (Newcastle-Under-Lyne Borough Council (NBC), a similar sized local authority that has a successful weekly food waste collection service was undertaken. Results indicate that the main challenges for Charnwood Borough Council would be gaining householder co-operation, the extra costs of collection and organising alternative treatment. The analysis also demonstrated that there was potential offset value via anaerobic digestion for CBC to overcome these difficulties and improve its recycling performance.

Keywords: England, Food Waste Collections, Household Waste, Local Authority.

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601 Effect of Temperature on Specific Retention Volumes of Selected Volatile Organic Compounds Using the Gas - Liquid Chromatographic Technique Revisited

Authors: Edison Muzenda, Ayo S. Afolabi

Abstract:

This paper is a continuation of our interest in the influence of temperature on specific retention volumes and the resulting infinite dilution activity coefficients. This has a direct effect in the design of absorption and stripping columns for the abatement of volatile organic compounds. The interaction of 13 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) at varying temperatures was studied by gas liquid chromatography (GLC). Infinite dilution activity coefficients and specific retention volumes obtained in this study were found to be in agreement with those obtained from static headspace and group contribution methods by the authors as well as literature values for similar systems. Temperature variation also allows for transport calculations for different seasons. The results of this work confirm that PDMS is well suited for the scrubbing of VOCs from waste gas streams. Plots of specific retention volumes against temperature gave linear van-t Hoff plots.

Keywords: Specific retention volume, Waste gas streams, specific retention, infinite dilution, abatement, transport.

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600 Land Suitability Analysis for Maize Production in Egbeda Local Government Area of Oyo State Using GIS Techniques

Authors: Abegunde Linda, Adedeji Oluwatola, Tope-Ajayi Opeyemi

Abstract:

Maize constitutes a major agrarian production for use by the vast population but despite its economic importance; it has not been produced to meet the economic needs of the country. Achieving optimum yield in maize can meaningfully be supported by land suitability analysis in order to guarantee self-sufficiency for future production optimization. This study examines land suitability for maize production through the analysis of the physicochemical variations in soil properties and other land attributes over space using a Geographic Information System (GIS) framework. Physicochemical parameters of importance selected include slope, landuse, physical and chemical properties of the soil, and climatic variables. Landsat imagery was used to categorize the landuse, Shuttle Radar Topographic Mapping (SRTM) generated the slope and soil samples were analyzed for its physical and chemical components. Suitability was categorized into highly, moderately and marginally suitable based on Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) classification, using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique of GIS. This result can be used by small scale farmers for efficient decision making in the allocation of land for maize production.

Keywords: AHP, GIS, MCE, Suitability, Zea mays.

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599 Perceived Determinants of Obesity among Primary School Pupils in Eti Osa Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria

Authors: B. O. Diyaolu, E. A. Okebanjo

Abstract:

Children in today’s world need attention and care even with their physique as obesity is also at the increased. Several factors can be responsible for obesity in children and adequate attention is paramount in other not to accommodate it into adolescent period. This study investigated perceived determinants of obesity among primary school pupils in Eti Osa Local Government area of Lagos State. Descriptive survey research design was used and population was all obese pupils in Eti Osa Local Government Area of Lagos State. 92 pupils were selected from randomly picked 12 primary schools while purposive sampling technique was used to pick primary 4-6 pupils. With the aid of body mass index (BMI) and age percentile chart the obese pupils were selected. The instrument for the study was a self-developed and structured questionnaire on perceived determinant of obesity. The questionnaire was divided into three sections. The Cronbach’s Alpha reliability coefficient of 0.74 was obtained. The hypotheses were tested at 0.05 significant levels. The completed questionnaire was collated coded and analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequency counts and percentage and inferential statistics of chi-square (X2). Findings of this study revealed that physical activities and parental influences were determinant of obesity. Physical activity is essential in reducing the rate of obesity in Eti Osa Local Government Area both at home and within the school environment. Primary schools need to create more playing ground for pupils to exercise themselves. Parents need to cater for their children diet ensuring not just the quantity but the quality as well.

Keywords: Feeding pattern, obese pupils, parental influence, physical activities.

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598 New Features for Specific JPEG Steganalysis

Authors: Johann Barbier, Eric Filiol, Kichenakoumar Mayoura

Abstract:

We present in this paper a new approach for specific JPEG steganalysis and propose studying statistics of the compressed DCT coefficients. Traditionally, steganographic algorithms try to preserve statistics of the DCT and of the spatial domain, but they cannot preserve both and also control the alteration of the compressed data. We have noticed a deviation of the entropy of the compressed data after a first embedding. This deviation is greater when the image is a cover medium than when the image is a stego image. To observe this deviation, we pointed out new statistic features and combined them with the Multiple Embedding Method. This approach is motivated by the Avalanche Criterion of the JPEG lossless compression step. This criterion makes possible the design of detectors whose detection rates are independent of the payload. Finally, we designed a Fisher discriminant based classifier for well known steganographic algorithms, Outguess, F5 and Hide and Seek. The experiemental results we obtained show the efficiency of our classifier for these algorithms. Moreover, it is also designed to work with low embedding rates (< 10-5) and according to the avalanche criterion of RLE and Huffman compression step, its efficiency is independent of the quantity of hidden information.

Keywords: Compressed frequency domain, Fisher discriminant, specific JPEG steganalysis.

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597 Specific Frequency of Globular Clusters in Different Galaxy Types

Authors: Ahmed H. Abdullah, Pavel Kroupa

Abstract:

Globular clusters (GC) are important objects for tracing the early evolution of a galaxy. We study the correlation between the cluster population and the global properties of the host galaxy. We found that the correlation between cluster population (NGC) and the baryonic mass (Mb) of the host galaxy are best described as 10 −5.6038Mb. In order to understand the origin of the U -shape relation between the GC specific frequency (SN) and Mb (caused by the high value of SN for dwarfs galaxies and giant ellipticals and a minimum SN for intermediate mass galaxies≈ 1010M), we derive a theoretical model for the specific frequency (SNth). The theoretical model for SNth is based on the slope of the power-law embedded cluster mass function (β) and different time scale (Δt) of the forming galaxy. Our results show a good agreement between the observation and the model at a certain β and Δt. The model seems able to reproduce higher value of SNth of β = 1.5 at the midst formation time scale.

Keywords: Galaxies, dwarf, globular cluster, specific frequency, formation time scale.

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596 The Study of the Variability of Anticipatory Postural Adjustments in Recurrent Non-specific LBP Patients

Authors: Rosita Hedayati , Sedighe Kahrizi , Mohammad Parnianpour , Fariba Bahrami , Anoshirvan Kazemnejad

Abstract:

The study of the variability of the postural strategies in low back pain patients, as a criterion in evaluation of the adaptability of this system to the environmental demands is the purpose of this study. A cross-sectional case-control study was performed on 21 recurrent non-specific low back pain patients and 21 healthy volunteers. The electromyography activity of Deltoid, External Oblique (EO), Transverse Abdominis/Internal Oblique (TrA/IO) and Erector Spine (ES) muscles of each person was recorded in 75 rapid arm flexion with maximum acceleration. Standard deviation of trunk muscles onset relative to deltoid muscle onset were statistically analyzed by MANOVA . The results show that chronic low back pain patients exhibit less variability in their anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) in comparison with the control group. There is a decrease in variability of postural control system of recurrent non-specific low back pain patients that can result in the persistence of pain and chronicity by decreasing the adaptability to environmental demands.

Keywords: EMG Onset Latency, Variability, Posture, Non - specific Low Back Pain

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595 Effectiveness Evaluation of a Machine Design Process Based on the Computation of the Specific Output

Authors: Barenten Suciu

Abstract:

In this paper, effectiveness of a machine design process is evaluated on the basis of the specific output calculus. Concretely, a screw-worm gear mechanical transmission is designed by using the classical and the 3D-CAD methods. Strength analysis and drawing of the designed parts is substantially aided by employing the SolidWorks software. Quality of the design process is assessed by manufacturing (printing) the parts, and by computing the efficiency, specific load, as well as the specific output (work) of the mechanical transmission. Influence of the stroke, travelling velocity and load on the mechanical output, is emphasized. Optimal design of the mechanical transmission becomes possible by the appropriate usage of the acquired results.

Keywords: Mechanical transmission, design, screw, worm-gear, efficiency, specific output, 3D-printing.

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594 Denoising by Spatial Domain Averaging for Wireless Local Area Network Terminal Localization

Authors: Diego Felix, Eugene Hyun, Michael McGuire, Mihai Sima

Abstract:

Terminal localization for indoor Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) is critical for the deployment of location-aware computing inside of buildings. A major challenge is obtaining high localization accuracy in presence of fluctuations of the received signal strength (RSS) measurements caused by multipath fading. This paper focuses on reducing the effect of the distance-varying noise by spatial filtering of the measured RSS. Two different survey point geometries are tested with the noise reduction technique: survey points arranged in sets of clusters and survey points uniformly distributed over the network area. The results show that the location accuracy improves by 16% when the filter is used and by 18% when the filter is applied to a clustered survey set as opposed to a straight-line survey set. The estimated locations are within 2 m of the true location, which indicates that clustering the survey points provides better localization accuracy due to superior noise removal.

Keywords: Position measurement, Wireless LAN, Radio navigation, Filtering

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593 Channels Splitting Strategy for Optical Local Area Networks of Passive Star Topology

Authors: Peristera Baziana

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In this paper, we present a network configuration for a WDM LANs of passive star topology that assume that the set of data WDM channels is split into two separate sets of channels, with different access rights over them. Especially, a synchronous transmission WDMA access algorithm is adopted in order to increase the probability of successful transmission over the data channels and consequently to reduce the probability of data packets transmission cancellation in order to avoid the data channels collisions. Thus, a control pre-transmission access scheme is followed over a separate control channel. An analytical Markovian model is studied and the average throughput is mathematically derived. The performance is studied for several numbers of data channels and various values of control phase duration.

Keywords: Access algorithm, channels division, collisions avoidance, wavelength division multiplexing.

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592 The Fatigue Damage Accumulation on Systems of Concentrators

Authors: Alexander Urbach, Mukharbij Banov, Vladislav Turko

Abstract:

Fatigue tests of specimen-s with numerous holes are presented. The tests were made up till fatigue cracks have been created on both sides of the hole. Their extension was stopping with pressed plastic deformation at the mouth of the detected crack. It is shown that the moments of occurrence of cracks on holes are stochastically dependent. This dependence has positive and negative correlation relations. Shown that the positive correlation is formed across of the applied force, while negative one – along it. The negative relationship extends over a greater distance. The mathematical model of dependence area formation is represented as well as the estimating of model parameters. The positive correlation of fatigue cracks origination can be considered as an extension of one main crack. With negative correlation the first crack locates the place of its origin, leading to the appearance of multiple cracks; do not merge with each other.

Keywords: Correlation analysis, fatigue damage accumulation, local area, mathematical model.

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591 Phase Transition Characteristics of Flame-Synthesized Gamma-Al2O3 Nanoparticles with Heat Treatment

Authors: Gyo Woo Lee

Abstract:

In this study, the phase transition characteristics of flame-synthesized γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles to α-Al2O3 have been investigated. The nanoparticles were synthesized by using a coflow hydrogen diffusion flame. The phase transition and particle characteristics of the Al2O3 nanoparticles were determined by examining the crystalline structure and the shape of the collected nanoparticles before and after the heat treatment. The morphology and crystal structure of the Al2O3 nanoparticles were determined from SEM images and XRD analyses, respectively. The measured specific surface area and averaged particle size were 63.44m2/g and 23.94nm, respectively. Based on the scanning electron microscope images and x-ray diffraction patterns, it is believed that the onset temperature of the phase transition to α-Al2O3 was existed near 1200oC. The averaged diameters of the sintered particles heat treated at 1,260oC were approximately 80nm.

Keywords: BET Specific Surface Area, Gamma-Al2O3 Nanoparticles, Flame Synthesis, Phase Transition, X-ray Diffraction.

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590 A Prevalence of Phonological Disorder in Children with Specific Language Impairment

Authors: Etim, Victoria Enefiok, Dada, Oluseyi Akintunde, Bassey Okon

Abstract:

Phonological disorder is a serious and disturbing issue to many parents and teachers. Efforts towards resolving the problem have been undermined by other specific disabilities which were hidden to many regular and special education teachers. It is against this background that this study was motivated to provide data on the prevalence of phonological disorders in children with specific language impairment (CWSLI) as the first step towards critical intervention. The study was a survey of 15 CWSLI from St. Louise Inclusive schools, Ikot Ekpene in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. Phonological Processes Diagnostic Scale (PPDS) with 17 short sentences, which cut across the five phonological processes that were examined, were validated by experts in test measurement, phonology and special education. The respondents were made to read the sentences with emphasis on the targeted sounds. Their utterances were recorded and analyzed in the language laboratory using Praat Software. Data were also collected through friendly interactions at different times from the clients. The theory of generative phonology was adopted for the descriptive analysis of the phonological processes. Data collected were analyzed using simple percentage and composite bar chart for better understanding of the result. The study found out that CWSLI exhibited the five phonological processes under investigation. It was revealed that 66.7%, 80%, 73.3%, 80%, and 86.7% of the respondents have severe deficit in fricative stopping, velar fronting, liquid gliding, final consonant deletion and cluster reduction, respectively. It was therefore recommended that a nationwide survey should be carried out to have national statistics of CWSLI with phonological deficits and develop intervention strategies for effective therapy to remediate the disorder.

Keywords: Language disorders, phonology, phonological processes, specific language impairment.

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589 Critical Approach to Define the Architectural Structure of a Health Prototype in a Rural Area of Brazil

Authors: Domenico Chizzoniti, Monica Moscatelli, Letizia Cattani, Luca Preis

Abstract:

A primary healthcare facility in developing countries should be a multifunctional space able to respond to different requirements: Flexibility, modularity, aggregation and reversibility. These basic features could be better satisfied if applied to an architectural artifact that complies with the typological, figurative and constructive aspects of the context in which it is located. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to identify a procedure that can define the figurative aspects of the architectural structure of the health prototype for the marginal areas of developing countries through a critical approach. The application context is the rural areas of the Northeast of Bahia in Brazil. The prototype should be located in the rural district of Quingoma, in the municipality of Lauro de Freitas, a particular place where there is still a cultural fusion of black and indigenous populations. Based on the historical analysis of settlement strategies and architectural structures in spaces of public interest or collective use, this paper aims to provide a procedure able to identify the categories and rules underlying typological and figurative aspects, in order to detect significant and generalizable elements, as well as materials and constructive techniques typically adopted in the rural areas of Brazil. The object of this work is therefore not only the recovery of certain constructive approaches but also the development of a procedure that integrates the requirements of the primary healthcare prototype with its surrounding economic, social, cultural, settlement and figurative conditions.

Keywords: Architectural typology, Developing countries, Local construction techniques, Primary health care.

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588 The Performance of an 802.11g/Wi-Fi Network Whilst Streaming Voice Content

Authors: P. O. Umenne, Odhiambo Marcel O.

Abstract:

A simple network model is developed in OPNET to study the performance of the Wi-Fi protocol. The model is simulated in OPNET and performance factors such as load, throughput and delay are analysed from the model. Four applications such as oracle, http, ftp and voice are applied over the Wireless LAN network to determine the throughput. The voice application utilises a considerable amount of bandwidth of up to 5Mbps, as a result the 802.11g standard of the Wi-Fi protocol was chosen which can support a data rate of up to 54Mbps. Results indicate that when the load in the Wi-Fi network is increased the queuing delay on the point-to-point links in the Wi-Fi network significantly reduces until it is comparable to that of WiMAX. In conclusion, the queuing delay of the Wi-Fi protocol for the network model simulated was about 0.00001secs comparable to WiMAX network values.

Keywords: WLAN-Wireless Local Area Network, MIMO-Multiple Input Multiple Output, Queuing delay, Throughput, AP-Access Point, IP-Internet protocol, TOS-Type of Service.

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587 Domin-Specific Language for Enabling End- Users Model-Driven Information System Engineering

Authors: Ahmad F. Subahi, Anthony J. H. Simons

Abstract:

This Paper presents an on-going research in the area of Model-Driven Engineering (MDE). The premise is that UML is too unwieldy to serve as the basis for model-driven engineering. We need a smaller, simpler notation with a cleaner semantics. We propose some ideas for a simpler notation with a clean semantics. The result is known as μML, or the Micro-Modelling Language.

Keywords: Model-driven engineering, model transformations, domain-specific languages, end-user development.

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586 Present State of Local Public Transportation Service in Local Municipalities of Japan and Its Effects on Population

Authors: Akiko Kondo, Akio Kondo

Abstract:

We are facing regional problems to low birth rate and longevity in Japan. Under this situation, there are some local municipalities which lose their vitality. The aims of this study are to clarify the present state of local public transportation services in local municipalities and relation between local public transportation services and population quantitatively. We conducted a questionnaire survey concerning regional agenda in all local municipalities in Japan. We obtained responses concerning the present state of convenience in use of public transportation and local public transportation services. Based on the data gathered from the survey, it is apparent that we should some sort of measures concerning public transportation services. Convenience in use of public transportation becomes an object of public concern in many rural regions. It is also clarified that some local municipalities introduce a demand bus for the purpose of promotion of administrative and financial efficiency. They also introduce a demand taxi in order to secure transportation to weak people in transportation and eliminate of blank area related to public transportation services. In addition, we construct a population model which includes explanatory variables of present states of local public transportation services. From this result, we can clarify the relation between public transportation services and population quantitatively.

Keywords: Public transportation, local municipality, regional analysis, regional issue.

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585 Third Places for Social Sustainability: A Planning Framework Based on Local and International Comparisons

Authors: Z. Goosen, E. J. Cilliers

Abstract:

Social sustainability, as an independent perspective of sustainable development, has gained some acknowledgement, becoming an important aspect in sustainable urban planning internationally. However, limited research aiming at promoting social sustainability within urban areas exists within the South African context. This is mainly due to the different perspectives of sustainable development (e.g., Environmental, Economic, and Social) not being equally prioritized by policy makers and supported by implementation strategies, guidelines, and planning frameworks. The enhancement of social sustainability within urban areas relies on urban dweller satisfaction and the quality of urban life. Inclusive cities with high-quality public spaces are proposed within this research through implementing the third place theory. Third places are introduced as any place other than our homes (first place) and work (second place) and have become an integrated part of sustainable urban planning. As Third Places consist of every place 'in between', the approach has taken on a large role of the everyday life of city residents, and the importance of planning for such places can only be measured through identifying and highlighting the social sustainability benefits thereof. The aim of this research paper is to introduce third place planning within the urban area to ultimately enhance social sustainability. Selected background planning approaches influencing the planning of third places will briefly be touched on, as the focus will be placed on the social sustainability benefits provided through third place planning within an urban setting. The study will commence by defining and introducing the concept of third places within urban areas as well as a discussion on social sustainability, acting as one of the three perspectives of sustainable development. This will gain the researcher an improved understanding on social sustainability in order for the study to flow into an integrated discussion of the benefits Third places provide in terms of social sustainability and the impact it has on improved quality of life within urban areas. Finally, a visual case study comparison of local and international examples of third places identified will be illustrated. These international case studies will contribute towards the conclusion of this study where a local gap analysis will be formulated, based on local third place evidence and international best practices in order to formulate a strategic planning framework on improving social sustainability through third place planning within the local South African context.

Keywords: Planning benefits, social sustainability, third places, urban area.

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584 Design of Compact Dual-Band Planar Antenna for WLAN Systems

Authors: Anil Kumar Pandey

Abstract:

A compact planar monopole antenna with dual-band operation suitable for wireless local area network (WLAN) application is presented in this paper. The antenna occupies an overall area of 18 ×12 mm2. The antenna is fed by a coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission line and it combines two folded strips, which radiates at 2.4 and 5.2 GHz. In the proposed antenna, by optimally selecting the antenna dimensions, dual-band resonant modes with a much wider impedance matching at the higher band can be produced. Prototypes of the obtained optimized design have been simulated using EM solver. The simulated results explore good dual-band operation with -10 dB impedance bandwidths of 50 MHz and 2400 MHz at bands of 2.4 and 5.2 GHz, respectively, which cover the 2.4/5.2/5.8 GHz WLAN operating bands. Good antenna performances such as radiation patterns and antenna gains over the operating bands have also been observed. The antenna with a compact size of 18×12×1.6 mm3 is designed on an FR4 substrate with a dielectric constant of 4.4.

Keywords: CPW fed antenna, dual-band, electromagnetic simulation, wireless local area network, WLAN.

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583 Wireless Control for an Induction Motor

Authors: Benmabrouk. Zaineb, Ben Hamed. Mouna, Lassaad. Sbita

Abstract:

This paper discusses the development of wireless structure control of an induction motor scalar drives. This was realised up on the wireless WiFi networks. This strategy of control is ensured by the use of Wireless ad hoc networks and a virtual network interface based on VNC which is used to make possible to take the remote control of a PC connected on a wireless Ethernet network. Verification of the proposed strategy of control is provided by experimental realistic tests on scalar controlled induction motor drives. The experimental results of the implementations with their analysis are detailed.

Keywords: Digital drives, Induction motor, Remote control, Virtual Network Computing VNC, Wireless Local Area NetworkWiFi.

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582 Study on Specific Energy in Grinding of DRACs: A Response Surface Methodology Approach

Authors: Dayananda Pai, Shrikantha S. Rao, Savitha G.Kini

Abstract:

In this study, the effects of machining parameters on specific energy during surface grinding of 6061Al-SiC35P composites are investigated. Vol% of SiC, feed and depth of cut were chosen as process variables. The power needed for the calculation of the specific energy is measured from the two watt meter method. Experiments are conducted using standard RSM design called Central composite design (CCD). A second order response surface model was developed for specific energy. The results identify the significant influence factors to minimize the specific energy. The confirmation results demonstrate the practicability and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: ANOVA, Metal matrix composites, Response surface methodology, Specific energy, Two watt meter method.

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581 Distributed 2-Vertex Connectivity Test of Graphs Using Local Knowledge

Authors: Brahim Hamid, Bertrand Le Saec, Mohamed Mosbah

Abstract:

The vertex connectivity of a graph is the smallest number of vertices whose deletion separates the graph or makes it trivial. This work is devoted to the problem of vertex connectivity test of graphs in a distributed environment based on a general and a constructive approach. The contribution of this paper is threefold. First, using a preconstructed spanning tree of the considered graph, we present a protocol to test whether a given graph is 2-connected using only local knowledge. Second, we present an encoding of this protocol using graph relabeling systems. The last contribution is the implementation of this protocol in the message passing model. For a given graph G, where M is the number of its edges, N the number of its nodes and Δ is its degree, our algorithms need the following requirements: The first one uses O(Δ×N2) steps and O(Δ×logΔ) bits per node. The second one uses O(Δ×N2) messages, O(N2) time and O(Δ × logΔ) bits per node. Furthermore, the studied network is semi-anonymous: Only the root of the pre-constructed spanning tree needs to be identified.

Keywords: Distributed computing, fault-tolerance, graph relabeling systems, local computations, local knowledge, message passing system, networks, vertex connectivity.

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580 A Novel Approach for Tracking of a Mobile Node Based on Particle Filter and Trilateration

Authors: Muhammad Haroon Siddiqui, Muhammad Rehan Khalid

Abstract:

This paper evaluates the performance of a novel algorithm for tracking of a mobile node, interms of execution time and root mean square error (RMSE). Particle Filter algorithm is used to track the mobile node, however a new technique in particle filter algorithm is also proposed to reduce the execution time. The stationary points were calculated through trilateration and finally by averaging the number of points collected for a specific time, whereas tracking is done through trilateration as well as particle filter algorithm. Wi-Fi signal is used to get initial guess of the position of mobile node in x-y coordinates system. Commercially available software “Wireless Mon" was used to read the WiFi signal strength from the WiFi card. Visual Cµ version 6 was used to interact with this software to read only the required data from the log-file generated by “Wireless Mon" software. Results are evaluated through mathematical modeling and MATLAB simulation.

Keywords: Particle Filter, Tracking, Wireless Local Area Network, WiFi, Trilateration

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