Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8636

Search results for: liquid analysis

8636 Numerical Simulation and Analysis on Liquid Nitrogen Spray Heat Exchanger

Authors: Wenjing Ding, Weiwei Shan, Zijuan, Wang, Chao He

Abstract:

Liquid spray heat exchanger is the critical equipment of temperature regulating system by gaseous nitrogen which realizes the environment temperature in the range of -180 ℃~+180 ℃. Liquid nitrogen is atomized into smaller liquid drops through liquid nitrogen sprayer and then contacts with gaseous nitrogen to be cooled. By adjusting the pressure of liquid nitrogen and gaseous nitrogen, the flowrate of liquid nitrogen is changed to realize the required outlet temperature of heat exchanger. The temperature accuracy of shrouds is ±1 ℃. Liquid nitrogen spray heat exchanger is simulated by CATIA, and the numerical simulation is performed by FLUENT. The comparison between the tests and numerical simulation is conducted. Moreover, the results help to improve the design of liquid nitrogen spray heat exchanger.

Keywords: Liquid nitrogen spray, temperature regulating system, heat exchanger, numerical simulation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 752
8635 Comparative Study of Dynamic Effect on Analysis Approaches for Circular Tanks Using Codal Provisions

Authors: P. Deepak Kumar, Aishwarya Alok, P. R. Maiti

Abstract:

Liquid storage tanks have become widespread during the recent decades due to their extensive usage. Analysis of liquid containing tanks is known to be complex due to hydrodynamic force exerted on tank which makes the analysis a complex one. The objective of this research is to carry out analysis of liquid domain along with structural interaction for various geometries of circular tanks considering seismic effects. An attempt has been made to determine hydrodynamic pressure distribution on the tank wall considering impulsive and convective components of liquid mass. To get a better picture, a comparative study of Draft IS 1893 Part 2, ACI 350.3 and Eurocode 8 for Circular Shaped Tank has been performed. Further, the differences in the magnitude of shear and moment at base as obtained from static (IS 3370 IV) and dynamic (Draft IS 1892 Part 2) analysis of ground supported circular tank highlight the need for us to mature from the old code to a newer code, which is more accurate and reliable.

Keywords: Liquid filled containers, Circular Tanks, IS 1893 (Part 2), Seismic analysis, Sloshing.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1020
8634 On the Characteristics of Liquid Explosive Dispersing Flow

Authors: Lei Li, Xiaobing Ren, Xiaoxia Lu, Xiaofang Yan

Abstract:

In this paper, some experiments of liquid dispersion flow driven by explosion in vertical plane were carried out using a liquid explosive dispersion device with film cylindrical constraints. The separated time series describing the breakup shape and dispersion process of liquid were recorded with high speed CMOS camera. The experimental results were analyzed and some essential characteristics of liquid dispersing flow are presented.

Keywords: Explosive Disseminations, liquid dispersion Flow, Cavitations, Gasification.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1566
8633 Role of Viscosity Ratio in Liquid-Liquid Jets under Radial Electric Field

Authors: Siddharth Gadkari, Rochish Thaokar

Abstract:

The effect of viscosity ratio (λ, defined as viscosity of surrounding medium/viscosity of fluid jet) on stability of axisymmetric (m=0) and asymmetric (m=1) modes of perturbation on a liquid-liquid jet in presence of radial electric field (E0 ), is studied using linear stability analysis. The viscosity ratio is shown to have a damping effect on both the modes of perturbation. However the effect was found more pronounced for the m=1 mode as compared to m=1 mode. Investigating the effect of both E0 and λ simultaneously, an operating diagram is generated, which clearly shows the regions of dominance of the two modes for a range of electric field and viscosity ratio values.

Keywords: liquid-liquid jet, axisymmetric perturbation, asymmetric perturbation, radial electric field

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1631
8632 Analysis of Foaming Flow Instabilities for Dynamic Liquid Saturation in Trickle Bed Reactor

Authors: Vijay Sodhi, Ajay Bansal

Abstract:

The effects of different parameters on the hydrodynamics of trickle bed reactors were discussed for Newtonian and non-Newtonian foaming systems. The varying parameters are varying liquid velocities, gas flow velocities and surface tension. The range for gas velocity is particularly large, thanks to the use of dense gas to simulate very high pressure conditions. This data bank has been used to compare the prediction accuracy of the different trendlines and transition points from the literature. More than 240 experimental points for the trickle flow (GCF) and foaming pulsing flow (PF/FPF) regime were obtained for present study. Hydrodynamic characteristics involving dynamic liquid saturation significantly influenced by gas and liquid flow rates. For 15 and 30 ppm air-aqueous surfactant solutions, dynamic liquid saturation decreases with higher liquid and gas flow rates considerably in high interaction regime. With decrease in surface tension i.e. for 45 and 60 ppm air-aqueous surfactant systems, effect was more pronounced with decreases dynamic liquid saturation very sharply during regime transition significantly at both low liquid and gas flow rates.

Keywords: Trickle Bed Reactor, Dynamic Liquid Saturation, Foaming, Flow Regime Transition

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1547
8631 Gas-Liquid Interaction on Perforated Plates

Authors: M.O. Balabekova, O.S. Balabekov

Abstract:

The paper deals with hydrodynamics of liquid-gas layers under gas streaming through liquid layer on perforated plates in column apparatuses. The plates with large apertures have been investigated especially. It was shown that hydrodynamic regularities for these plates are essentially different from known laws for foam forming on fine-perforated plates. Main regularities of liquid-gas interaction on plates with large apertures have been established.

Keywords: column apparatus, large aperture, liquid-gas layer, perforated plate.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1262
8630 Analysis of Evaporation of Liquid Ammonia in a Vertical Cylindrical Storage Tank

Authors: S. Chikh, S. Boulifa

Abstract:

The present study addresses the problem of ammonia evaporation during filling of a vertical cylindrical tank and the influence of various external factors on the stability of storage by determining the conditions for minimum evaporation. Numerical simulation is carried out by solving the governing equations namely, continuity, momentum, energy, and diffusion of species. The effect of temperature of surrounding air, the filling speed of the reservoir and the temperature of the filling liquid ammonia on the evaporation rate is investigated. Results show that the temperature of the filling liquid has little effect on the liquid ammonia for a short period, which, in fact, is function of the filling speed. The evaporation rate along the free surface of the liquid is non-uniform. The inlet temperature affects the vapor ammonia temperature because of pressure increase. The temperature of the surrounding air affects the temperature of the vapor phase rather than the liquid phase. The maximum of evaporation is reached at the final step of filling. In order to minimize loss of ammonia vapors automatically causing losses in quantity of the liquid stored, it is suggested to ensure the proper insulation for the walls and roof of the reservoir and to increase the filling speed.

Keywords: Evaporation, liquid ammonia, storage tank, numerical simulation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2080
8629 Ionic Liquid Promoted One-pot Synthesis of Benzo[b][1,4]oxazines

Authors: Ebrahim Soleimani, Afsaneh Taheri Kal koshvandi

Abstract:

benzo[b][1,4]oxazines have been synthesized in good to excellent yields in the presence of the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3- methylimidazolium bromide [bmim]Br under relatively mild conditions without any added catalyst, the reaction workup is simple and the ionic liquid can be easily separated from the product and reused.

Keywords: Isocyanide, Benzo[b][1, 4]oxazines, Multi-componentreactions, [bmim]Br, Ionic Liquid.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1544
8628 Influence of Gas-Liquid Separator Design on Performance of Airlift Bioreactors

Authors: Mateus N. Esperança, Marcel O. Cerri, Alberto C. Badino

Abstract:

The performance of airlift bioreactors are closely related with their geometry, especially the gas-liquid separator design. In this study, the influence of the gas-liquid separator geometry on oxygen transfer and gas hold-up was evaluated in 10-L concentric-tube airlift bioreactor operating with distilled water and xanthan gum solution. The specific airflow rate (ɸAIR) exhibited the higher effect on the oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa) for both fluids. While the gas-liquid separator openness angle (α) and liquid volume fraction on the gas-liquid separator (VGLS) have presented opposite effects on oxygen mass transfer, they affected negatively the global gas hold-up of distilled water system. The best degassing zone geometry corresponded to a 90° openness angle with 10% of the liquid on it.

Keywords: Airlift bioreactor, gas holdup, gas-liquid separator, oxygen transfer.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1956
8627 Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium Data for Butan-2-ol - Ethanol - Water, Pentan-1-ol - Ethanol - Water and Toluene - Acetone - Water Systems

Authors: Tinuade Jolaade Afolabi, Theresa Ibibia Edewor

Abstract:

Experimental liquid-liquid equilibra of butan-2-ol - ethanol -water; pentan-1-ol - ethanol - water and toluene - acetone - water ternary systems were investigated at (25oC). The reliability of the experimental tie-line data was ascertained by using Othmer-Tobias and Hand plots. The distribution coefficients (D) and separation factors (S) of the immiscibility region were evaluated for the three systems.

Keywords: Distribution coefficient, Liquid-liquid equilibrium, separation factors, thermodynamic models

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3559
8626 Preparation of Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced HDPE Using Dialkylimidazolium as a Dispersing Agent: Effect on Thermal and Rheological Properties

Authors: J. Samuel, S. Al-Enezi, A. Al-Banna

Abstract:

High-density polyethylene reinforced with carbon nanofibers (HDPE/CNF) have been prepared via melt processing using dialkylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (ionic liquid) as a dispersion agent. The prepared samples were characterized by thermogravimetric (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analyses. The samples blended with imidazolium ionic liquid exhibit higher thermal stability. DSC analysis showed clear miscibility of ionic liquid in the HDPE matrix and showed single endothermic peak. The melt rheological analysis of HDPE/CNF composites was performed using an oscillatory rheometer. The influence of CNF and ionic liquid concentration (ranging from 0, 0.5, and 1 wt%) on the viscoelastic parameters was investigated at 200 °C with an angular frequency range of 0.1 to 100 rad/s. The rheological analysis shows the shear-thinning behavior for the composites. An improvement in the viscoelastic properties was observed as the nanofiber concentration increases. The progress in the modulus values was attributed to the structural rigidity imparted by the high aspect ratio CNF. The modulus values and complex viscosity of the composites increased significantly at low frequencies. Composites blended with ionic liquid exhibit slightly lower values of complex viscosity and modulus over the corresponding HDPE/CNF compositions. Therefore, reduction in melt viscosity is an additional benefit for polymer composite processing as a result of wetting effect by polymer-ionic liquid combinations.

Keywords: HDPE, carbon nanofiber, ionic liquid, complex viscosity, modulus.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 469
8625 Optimization of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for Determination of Quantum Dots (Qds) in Liquid Solutions

Authors: David Prochazka, Ľudmila Ballová, Karel Novotný, Jan Novotný, Radomír Malina, Petr Babula, Vojtěch Adam, René Kizek, Klára Procházková, Jozef Kaiser

Abstract:

Here we report on the utilization of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for determination of Quantum Dots (QDs) in liquid solution. The process of optimization of experimental conditions from choosing the carrier medium to application of colloid QDs is described. The main goal was to get the best possible signal to noise ratio. The results obtained from the measurements confirmed the capability of LIBS technique for qualitative and afterwards quantitative determination of QDs in liquid solution.

Keywords: Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, liquid analysis, nanocrystals, nanotechnology, Quantum dots.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1953
8624 Voltage-Controllable Liquid Crystals Lens

Authors: Wen-Chi Hung, Tung-Kai Liu, Ming-Shan Tsai, Chun-Che Lee, I-Min Jiang

Abstract:

This study investigates a voltage-controllable liquid crystals lens with a Fresnel zone electrode. When applying a proper voltage on the liquid crystal cell, a Fresnel-zone-distributed electric field is induced to direct liquid crystals aligned in a concentric structure. Owing to the concentrically aligned liquid crystals, a Fresnel lens is formed. We probe the Fresnel liquid crystal lens using a polarized incident beam with a wavelength of 632.8 nm, finding that the diffraction efficiency depends on the applying voltage. A remarkable diffraction efficiency of ~39.5 % is measured at the voltage of 0.9V. Additionally, a dual focus lens is fabricated by attaching a plane-convex lens to the Fresnel liquid crystals cell. The Fresnel LC lens and the dual focus lens may be applied for DVD/CD pick-up head, confocal microscopy system, or electrically-controlling optical systems.

Keywords: Liquid Crystals Lens, Fresnel Lens, and Dual focus

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2048
8623 The Influence of Gravity on The Temporal Instability of Viscoelastic Liquid Curved Jets

Authors: Abdullah Madhi Alsharif, Jamal Uddin

Abstract:

A liquid curved jet has many applications in different industrial and engineering processes, such as the prilling process for generating small spherical pellets (fertilizer or magnesium). The liquids used are usually molten and contain small quantities of polymers and therefore can be modelled as non-Newtonian liquids. In this paper, we model the viscoelastic liquid jet by using the Oldroyd- B model. An asymptotic analysis has been used to simplify the governing equations. Furthermore, the trajectory and a linear temporal stability in the presence of gravity and rotation have been determined.

Keywords: gravity, prilling, rotation, viscoelastic jets.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1690
8622 Sensitive Detection of Nano-Scale Vibrations by the Metal-Coated Fiber Tip at the Liquid-Air Interface

Authors: A. J. Babajanyan, T. A. Abrahamyan, H. A. Minasyan, Kh. V. Nerkararyan

Abstract:

Optical radiation emitted from a metal-coated fiber tip apex at liquid-air interface was measured. The intensity of the output radiation was strongly depend on the relative position of the tip to a liquid-air interface and varied with surface fluctuations. This phenomenon permits in-situ real-time investigation of nano-metric vibrations of the liquid surface and provides a basis for development of various origin ultrasensitive vibration detecting sensors. The described method can be used for detection of week seismic vibrations.

Keywords: Fiber-tip, Liquid-air interface, Nano vibration, Opto-mechanical sensor.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1342
8621 The Analysis of Two-Phase Jet in Pneumatic Powder Injection into Liquid Alloys

Authors: J. Jezierski, K. Janerka

Abstract:

The results of the two-phase gas-solid jet in pneumatic powder injection process analysis were presented in the paper. The researches were conducted on model set-up with high speed camera jet movement recording. Then the recorded material was analyzed to estimate main particles movement parameters. The values obtained from this direct measurement were compared to those calculated with the use of the well-known formulas for the two-phase flows (pneumatic conveying). Moreover, they were compared to experimental results previously achieved by authors. The analysis led to conclusions which to some extent changed the assumptions used even by authors, regarding the two-phase jet in pneumatic powder injection process. Additionally, the visual analysis of the recorded clips supplied data to make a more complete evaluation of the jet behavior in the lance outlet than before.

Keywords: injection lance, liquid metal, powder injection, slip velocity, two-phase jet

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1346
8620 A Numerical Study of a Droplet Impinging on a Liquid Surface

Authors: S.Asadi, H.Panahi

Abstract:

The Navier–Stokes equations for unsteady, incompressible, viscous fluids in the axisymmetric coordinate system are solved using a control volume method. The volume-of-fluid (VOF) technique is used to track the free-surface of the liquid. Model predictions are in good agreement with experimental measurements. It is found that the dynamic processes after impact are sensitive to the initial droplet velocity and the liquid pool depth. The time evolution of the crown height and diameter are obtained by numerical simulation. The critical We number for splashing (Wecr) is studied for Oh (Ohnesorge) numbers in the range of 0.01~0.1; the results compares well with those of the experiments.

Keywords: Droplet impingement, free surface flows, liquid crown, numerical simulation, thin liquid film.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1697
8619 Preliminary Tests on the Buffer Tank for the Vented Liquid Nitrogen Flow of an SRF Module

Authors: Ming-Hsun Tsai, Ming-Chyuan Lin, Fu-Tsai Chung, Ling-Jhen Chen, Yu-Hang Lin, Meng-Shu Yeh, Lee-Long Han

Abstract:

Since 2005, an SRF module of CESR type serves as the accelerating cavity at the Taiwan Light Source in the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center. A 500-MHz niobium cavity is immersed in liquid helium inside this SRF module. To reduce heat load, the liquid helium vessel is thermally shielded by liquid-nitrogen-cooled copper layer, and the beam chambers are also anchored with pipes of the liquid nitrogen flow in middle of the liquid helium vessel and the vacuum vessel. A strong correlation of the movement of the cavity-s frequency tuner with the temperature variation of parts cooled with liquid nitrogen was observed. A previous study on a spare SRF module with the niobium cavity cooled by liquid nitrogen instead of liquid helium, satisfactory suppression of the thermal oscillation was achieved by attaching a temporary buffer tank for the vented shielding nitrogen flow from the SRF module. In this study, a home-made buffer tank is designed and integrated to the spare SRF module with cavity cooled by liquid helium. Design, construction, integration, and preliminary test results of this buffer tank are presented.

Keywords: Cryogenics, flow control, oscillation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1684
8618 Triple Diffusive Convection in a Vertically Oscillating Oldroyd-B Liquid

Authors: Sameena Tarannum, S. Pranesh

Abstract:

The effect of linear stability analysis of triple diffusive convection in a vertically oscillating viscoelastic liquid of Oldroyd-B type is studied. The correction Rayleigh number is obtained by using perturbation method which gives prospect to control the convection. The eigenvalue is obtained by using perturbation method by adopting Venezian approach. From the study, it is observed that gravity modulation advances the onset of triple diffusive convection.

Keywords: Gravity modulation, Oldroyd-B liquid, triple diffusive convection, Venezian approach.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 527
8617 Analysis of Liquid Nitrogen Spray Atomization Characteristics by Internal-Mixing Atomizers

Authors: Zhang Lei, Liu Gaotong

Abstract:

The atomization effect is an important factor of the heat transfer of liquid nitrogen spray. In this paper, two kinds of internal-mixing twin-fluid atomizers were design. According to the fracture theory and fluid mechanics, the model is established to simulate atomization effect. The results showed that: Internal-mixing atomizers, with the liquid nitrogen atomization size from 20um to 40um, have superior performance. Y-jet atomizer spray speed is greater than Multi-jet atomizer, and it can improve the efficiency of heat transfer between the liquid nitrogen and its spray object. Multi-jet atomizer atomization cone angle is about 30°, Y-jet atomizer atomization cone angle is about 20°. During atomizer selection, the size of the heat transfer area should be considered.

Keywords: Atomization, two-phase flow, atomizer, heat transfer.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2614
8616 Substructure Method for Thermal-Stress Analysis of Liquid-Propellant Rocket Engine Combustion Chamber

Authors: Olga V. Korotkaya

Abstract:

This article is devoted to an important problem of calculation of deflected mode of the combustion chamber and the nozzle end of a new liquid-propellant rocket cruise engine. A special attention is given to the methodology of calculation. Three operating modes are considered. The analysis has been conducted in ANSYS software. The methods of conducted research are mathematical modeling, substructure method, cyclic symmetry, finite element method. The calculation has been carried out to order of S.P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation «Energia». The main results are practical. Proposed methodology and created models would be able to use for a wide range of strength problems.

Keywords: Combustion chamber, cyclic symmetry, finite element method, liquid-propellant rocket engine, nozzle end, substructure.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2737
8615 Prediction for the Pressure Drop of Gas-Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone in Sub-Sea Production System

Authors: Xu Rumin, Chen Jianyi, Yue Ti, Wang Yaan

Abstract:

With the rapid development of subsea oil and gas exploitation, the demand for the related underwater process equipment is increasing fast. In order to reduce the energy consuming, people tend to separate the gas and oil phase directly on the seabed. Accordingly, an advanced separator is needed. In this paper, the pressure drop of a new type of separator named Gas Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone (GLCC) which is used in the subsea system is investigated by both experiments and numerical simulation. In the experiments, the single phase flow and gas-liquid two phase flow in GLCC were tested. For the simulation, the performance of GLCC under both laboratory and industrial conditions was calculated. The Eulerian model was implemented to describe the mixture flow field in the GLCC under experimental conditions and industrial oil-natural gas conditions. Furthermore, a relationship among Euler number (Eu), Reynolds number (Re), and Froude number (Fr) is generated according to similarity analysis and simulation data, which can present the GLCC separation performance of pressure drop. These results can give reference to the design and application of GLCC in deep sea.

Keywords: Dimensionless analysis, gas-liquid cylindrical cyclone, numerical simulation; pressure drop.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 769
8614 CFD Analysis of Two Phase Flow in a Horizontal Pipe – Prediction of Pressure Drop

Authors: P. Bhramara, V. D. Rao, K. V. Sharma , T. K. K. Reddy

Abstract:

In designing of condensers, the prediction of pressure drop is as important as the prediction of heat transfer coefficient. Modeling of two phase flow, particularly liquid – vapor flow under diabatic conditions inside a horizontal tube using CFD analysis is difficult with the available two phase models in FLUENT due to continuously changing flow patterns. In the present analysis, CFD analysis of two phase flow of refrigerants inside a horizontal tube of inner diameter, 0.0085 m and 1.2 m length is carried out using homogeneous model under adiabatic conditions. The refrigerants considered are R22, R134a and R407C. The analysis is performed at different saturation temperatures and at different flow rates to evaluate the local frictional pressure drop. Using Homogeneous model, average properties are obtained for each of the refrigerants that is considered as single phase pseudo fluid. The so obtained pressure drop data is compared with the separated flow models available in literature.

Keywords: Adiabatic conditions, CFD analysis, Homogeneousmodel and Liquid – Vapor flow.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3461
8613 Tritium Determination in Danube River Water in Serbia by Liquid Scintillation Counter

Authors: S. Forkapic, J. Nikolov, N. Todorovic, D. Mrdja, I. Bikit

Abstract:

Tritium activity concentration in Danube river water in Serbia has been determinate using a liquid scintillation counter Quantulus 1220. During December 2010, water samples were taken along the entire course of Danube through Serbia, from Hungarian- Serbian to Romanian-Serbian border. This investigation is very important because of the nearness of nuclear reactor Paks in Hungary. Sample preparation was performed by standard test method using Optiphase HiSafe 3 scintillation cocktail. We used a rapid method for the preparation of environmental samples, without electrolytic enrichment.

Keywords: detection limit, liquid scintillation counter, low-leveltritium analysis, monitoring.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1927
8612 Hydrodynamic Processes in Bubbly Liquid Flow in Tubes and Nozzles

Authors: Raisa Kh. Bolotnova, Marat N. Galimzianov, Andrey S. Topolnikov, Valeria A. Buzina, Uliana O. Agisheva

Abstract:

The hydrodynamic processes in bubbly liquid flowing in tubes and nozzles are studied theoretically and numerically. The principal regularities of non-stationary processes of boiling liquid outflow are established under conditions of experiments when the depressurization of a tube with high pressure inside occurs. The steady-state solution of bubbly liquid flow in the nozzle of round cross section with high pressure and temperature conditions inside bubbles is studied accounting for phase transition and chemical reactions.

Keywords: bubbly liquid, cavitation, chemical reactions, phase transition.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1762
8611 Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Liquid-Vapor Interface on the Solid Surface Using the GEAR-S Algorithm

Authors: D. Toghraie, A. R. Azimian

Abstract:

In this paper, the Lennard -Jones potential is applied to molecules of liquid argon as well as its vapor and platinum as solid surface in order to perform a non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation to study the microscopic aspects of liquid-vapor-solid interactions. The channel is periodic in x and y directions and along z direction it is bounded by atomic walls. It was found that density of the liquids near the solid walls fluctuated greatly and that the structure was more like a solid than a liquid. This indicates that the interactions of solid and liquid molecules are very strong. The resultant surface tension, liquid density and vapor density are found to be well predicted when compared with the experimental data for argon. Liquid and vapor densities were found to depend on the cutoff radius which induces the use of P3M (particle-particle particle-mesh) method which was implemented for evaluation of force and surface tension.

Keywords: Lennard-Jones Potential, Molecular DynamicsSimulation, Periodic Boundary Conditions (PBC), Non-EquilibriumMolecular Dynamics (NEMD).

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1784
8610 The Dependence of the Liquid Application on the Coverage of the Sprayed Objects in Terms of the Characteristics of the Sprayed Object during Spraying

Authors: Beata Cieniawska, Deta Łuczycka, Katarzyna Dereń

Abstract:

When assessing the quality of the spraying procedure, three indicators are used: uneven distribution of precipitation of liquid sprayed, degree of coverage of sprayed surfaces, and deposition of liquid spraying However, there is a lack of information on the relationship between the quality parameters of the procedure. Therefore, the research was carried out at the Institute of Agricultural Engineering of Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the degree of coverage of sprayed surfaces and the deposition of liquid in the aspect of the parametric characteristics of the protected plant using selected single and double stream nozzles. Experiments were conducted under laboratory conditions. The carrier of nozzles acted as an independent self-propelled sprayer used for spraying, whereas the parametric characteristics of plants were determined using artificial plants as the ratio of the vertical projection surface and the horizontal projection surface. The results and their analysis showed a strong and very strong correlation between the analyzed parameters in terms of the characteristics of the sprayed object.

Keywords: Degree of coverage, deposition of liquid, nozzle, spraying.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 515
8609 Waste Management in a Hot Laboratory of Japan Atomic Energy Agency – 2: Condensation and Solidification Experiments on Liquid Waste

Authors: Sou Watanabe, Hiromichi Ogi, Atsuhiro Shibata, Kazunori Nomura

Abstract:

As a part of STRAD project conducted by JAEA, condensation of radioactive liquid waste containing various chemical compounds using reverse osmosis (RO) membrane filter was examined for efficient and safety treatment of the liquid wastes accumulated inside hot laboratories. NH4+ ion in the feed solution was successfully concentrated, and NH4+ ion involved in the effluents became lower than target value; 100 ppm. Solidification of simulated aqueous and organic liquid wastes was also tested. Those liquids were successfully solidified by adding cement or coagulants. Nevertheless, optimization in materials for confinement of chemicals is required for long time storage of the final solidified wastes.

Keywords: Radioactive liquid waste, condensation, solidification, STRAD project.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 502
8608 Morphology and Magnetic Properties of Fe3O4 and [email protected] Nanoparticles Synthesized by Pulsed Plasma in Liquid

Authors: Zhazgul Kelgenbaeva, Emil Omurzak, Saadat Sulaimankulova, Tsutomu Mashimo

Abstract:

Spherical shaped magnetite (Fe3O4) and [email protected] nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from Fe electrodes immersed in water with CTAB surfactant and HAuCl4 solution using simple method-pulsed plasma in liquid, without the use of dopants or special conditions for stabilization. Vibrating sample magnetometer indicated ferromagnetic behavior of particles at room temperature with coercivity and saturation magnetization of (Hc=105 Oe, Ms=6.83 emu/g) for Fe3O4 and (Hc=175, Ms=3.56emu/g) for [email protected] nanoparticles. Structure and morphology of nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray Diffraction analysis and HR-TEM measurements. The cytotoxicity of nanoparticles was indicated using a XTT assay to be very low (cell viability: 98-89% with Fe3O4 and 99-91% for [email protected] NPs).

Keywords: Magnetite, Gold coated magnetite, Nanoparticles, Pulsed Plasma in Liquid, Cytotoxicity.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2150
8607 Temperature Effect on Sound Propagation in an Elastic Pipe with Viscoelastic Liquid

Authors: S. Levitsky, R. Bergman

Abstract:

Fluid rheology may have essential impact on sound propagation in a liquid-filled pipe, especially, in a low frequency range. Rheological parameters of liquid are temperature-sensitive, which ultimately results in a temperature dependence of the wave speed and attenuation in the waveguide. The study is devoted to modeling of this effect at sound propagation in an elastic pipe with polymeric liquid, described by generalized Maxwell model with non-zero high-frequency viscosity. It is assumed that relaxation spectrum is distributed according to the Spriggs law; temperature impact on the liquid rheology is described on the basis of the temperature-superposition principle and activation theory. The dispersion equation for the waveguide, considered as a thin-walled tube with polymeric solution, is obtained within a quasi-one-dimensional formulation. Results of the study illustrate the influence of temperature on sound propagation in the system.

Keywords: Elastic tube, sound propagation, temperature effect, viscoelastic liquid.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1759