Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 117

Search results for: learning algorithm

27 An Improved Conjugate Gradient Based Learning Algorithm for Back Propagation Neural Networks

Authors: N. M. Nawi, M. R. Ransing, R. S. Ransing

Abstract:

The conjugate gradient optimization algorithm is combined with the modified back propagation algorithm to yield a computationally efficient algorithm for training multilayer perceptron (MLP) networks (CGFR/AG). The computational efficiency is enhanced by adaptively modifying initial search direction as described in the following steps: (1) Modification on standard back propagation algorithm by introducing a gain variation term in the activation function, (2) Calculation of the gradient descent of error with respect to the weights and gains values and (3) the determination of a new search direction by using information calculated in step (2). The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated by comparing accuracy and computation time with the conjugate gradient algorithm used in MATLAB neural network toolbox. The results show that the computational efficiency of the proposed method was better than the standard conjugate gradient algorithm.

Keywords: back-propagation, activation function, search direction, Conjugate Gradient, Adaptive gain variation

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26 Modeling of Crude Oil Blending via Discrete-Time Neural Networks

Authors: Xiaoou Li, Wen Yu

Abstract:

Crude oil blending is an important unit operation in petroleum refining industry. A good model for the blending system is beneficial for supervision operation, prediction of the export petroleum quality and realizing model-based optimal control. Since the blending cannot follow the ideal mixing rule in practice, we propose a static neural network to approximate the blending properties. By the dead-zone approach, we propose a new robust learning algorithm and give theoretical analysis. Real data of crude oil blending is applied to illustrate the neuro modeling approach.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Modeling, Stability, crude oil

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25 Meta Random Forests

Authors: Praveen Boinee, Alessandro De Angelis, Gian Luca Foresti

Abstract:

Leo Breimans Random Forests (RF) is a recent development in tree based classifiers and quickly proven to be one of the most important algorithms in the machine learning literature. It has shown robust and improved results of classifications on standard data sets. Ensemble learning algorithms such as AdaBoost and Bagging have been in active research and shown improvements in classification results for several benchmarking data sets with mainly decision trees as their base classifiers. In this paper we experiment to apply these Meta learning techniques to the random forests. We experiment the working of the ensembles of random forests on the standard data sets available in UCI data sets. We compare the original random forest algorithm with their ensemble counterparts and discuss the results.

Keywords: ensembles, Random Forests [RF], UCI

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24 Fuzzy Control of Macroeconomic Models

Authors: Andre A. Keller

Abstract:

The optimal control is one of the possible controllers for a dynamic system, having a linear quadratic regulator and using the Pontryagin-s principle or the dynamic programming method . Stochastic disturbances may affect the coefficients (multiplicative disturbances) or the equations (additive disturbances), provided that the shocks are not too great . Nevertheless, this approach encounters difficulties when uncertainties are very important or when the probability calculus is of no help with very imprecise data. The fuzzy logic contributes to a pragmatic solution of such a problem since it operates on fuzzy numbers. A fuzzy controller acts as an artificial decision maker that operates in a closed-loop system in real time. This contribution seeks to explore the tracking problem and control of dynamic macroeconomic models using a fuzzy learning algorithm. A two inputs - single output (TISO) fuzzy model is applied to the linear fluctuation model of Phillips and to the nonlinear growth model of Goodwin.

Keywords: Fuzzy Control, macroeconomic model, multiplier - accelerator, nonlinear accelerator, stabilization policy

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23 A Preliminary Study on the Suitability of Data Driven Approach for Continuous Water Level Modeling

Authors: Muhammad Aqil, Ichiro Kita, Moses Macalinao

Abstract:

Reliable water level forecasts are particularly important for warning against dangerous flood and inundation. The current study aims at investigating the suitability of the adaptive network based fuzzy inference system for continuous water level modeling. A hybrid learning algorithm, which combines the least square method and the back propagation algorithm, is used to identify the parameters of the network. For this study, water levels data are available for a hydrological year of 2002 with a sampling interval of 1-hour. The number of antecedent water level that should be included in the input variables is determined by two statistical methods, i.e. autocorrelation function and partial autocorrelation function between the variables. Forecasting was done for 1-hour until 12-hour ahead in order to compare the models generalization at higher horizons. The results demonstrate that the adaptive networkbased fuzzy inference system model can be applied successfully and provide high accuracy and reliability for river water level estimation. In general, the adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system provides accurate and reliable water level prediction for 1-hour ahead where the MAPE=1.15% and correlation=0.98 was achieved. Up to 12-hour ahead prediction, the model still shows relatively good performance where the error of prediction resulted was less than 9.65%. The information gathered from the preliminary results provide a useful guidance or reference for flood early warning system design in which the magnitude and the timing of a potential extreme flood are indicated.

Keywords: Forecasting, Neural Network, Fuzzy, river

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22 A Probabilistic Reinforcement-Based Approach to Conceptualization

Authors: Hadi Firouzi, Majid Nili Ahmadabadi, Babak N. Araabi

Abstract:

Conceptualization strengthens intelligent systems in generalization skill, effective knowledge representation, real-time inference, and managing uncertain and indefinite situations in addition to facilitating knowledge communication for learning agents situated in real world. Concept learning introduces a way of abstraction by which the continuous state is formed as entities called concepts which are connected to the action space and thus, they illustrate somehow the complex action space. Of computational concept learning approaches, action-based conceptualization is favored because of its simplicity and mirror neuron foundations in neuroscience. In this paper, a new biologically inspired concept learning approach based on the probabilistic framework is proposed. This approach exploits and extends the mirror neuron-s role in conceptualization for a reinforcement learning agent in nondeterministic environments. In the proposed method, instead of building a huge numerical knowledge, the concepts are learnt gradually from rewards through interaction with the environment. Moreover the probabilistic formation of the concepts is employed to deal with uncertain and dynamic nature of real problems in addition to the ability of generalization. These characteristics as a whole distinguish the proposed learning algorithm from both a pure classification algorithm and typical reinforcement learning. Simulation results show advantages of the proposed framework in terms of convergence speed as well as generalization and asymptotic behavior because of utilizing both success and failures attempts through received rewards. Experimental results, on the other hand, show the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed method in continuous and noisy environments for a real robotic task such as maze as well as the benefits of implementing an incremental learning scenario in artificial agents.

Keywords: Reinforcement Learning, Concept Learning, probabilistic decision making

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21 User Pattern Learning Algorithm based MDSS(Medical Decision Support System) Framework under Ubiquitous

Authors: Insung Jung, Gi-Nam Wang

Abstract:

In this paper, we present user pattern learning algorithm based MDSS (Medical Decision support system) under ubiquitous. Most of researches are focus on hardware system, hospital management and whole concept of ubiquitous environment even though it is hard to implement. Our objective of this paper is to design a MDSS framework. It helps to patient for medical treatment and prevention of the high risk patient (COPD, heart disease, Diabetes). This framework consist database, CAD (Computer Aided diagnosis support system) and CAP (computer aided user vital sign prediction system). It can be applied to develop user pattern learning algorithm based MDSS for homecare and silver town service. Especially this CAD has wise decision making competency. It compares current vital sign with user-s normal condition pattern data. In addition, the CAP computes user vital sign prediction using past data of the patient. The novel approach is using neural network method, wireless vital sign acquisition devices and personal computer DB system. An intelligent agent based MDSS will help elder people and high risk patients to prevent sudden death and disease, the physician to get the online access to patients- data, the plan of medication service priority (e.g. emergency case).

Keywords: Neural Network, DSS, CAP, U-healthcare, MDSS

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20 Ensembling Classifiers – An Application toImage Data Classification from Cherenkov Telescope Experiment

Authors: Praveen Boinee, Alessandro De Angelis, Gian Luca Foresti

Abstract:

Ensemble learning algorithms such as AdaBoost and Bagging have been in active research and shown improvements in classification results for several benchmarking data sets with mainly decision trees as their base classifiers. In this paper we experiment to apply these Meta learning techniques with classifiers such as random forests, neural networks and support vector machines. The data sets are from MAGIC, a Cherenkov telescope experiment. The task is to classify gamma signals from overwhelmingly hadron and muon signals representing a rare class classification problem. We compare the individual classifiers with their ensemble counterparts and discuss the results. WEKA a wonderful tool for machine learning has been used for making the experiments.

Keywords: Weka, ensembles, Random Forests [RF], Neural networks [NN], SupportVector Machines [SVM]

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19 Forecasting Fraudulent Financial Statements using Data Mining

Authors: S. Kotsiantis, E. Koumanakos, D. Tzelepis, V. Tampakas

Abstract:

This paper explores the effectiveness of machine learning techniques in detecting firms that issue fraudulent financial statements (FFS) and deals with the identification of factors associated to FFS. To this end, a number of experiments have been conducted using representative learning algorithms, which were trained using a data set of 164 fraud and non-fraud Greek firms in the recent period 2001-2002. The decision of which particular method to choose is a complicated problem. A good alternative to choosing only one method is to create a hybrid forecasting system incorporating a number of possible solution methods as components (an ensemble of classifiers). For this purpose, we have implemented a hybrid decision support system that combines the representative algorithms using a stacking variant methodology and achieves better performance than any examined simple and ensemble method. To sum up, this study indicates that the investigation of financial information can be used in the identification of FFS and underline the importance of financial ratios.

Keywords: Machine Learning, classifier, stacking

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18 Multi-Context Recurrent Neural Network for Time Series Applications

Authors: B. Q. Huang, Tarik Rashid, M-T. Kechadi

Abstract:

this paper presents a multi-context recurrent network for time series analysis. While simple recurrent network (SRN) are very popular among recurrent neural networks, they still have some shortcomings in terms of learning speed and accuracy that need to be addressed. To solve these problems, we proposed a multi-context recurrent network (MCRN) with three different learning algorithms. The performance of this network is evaluated on some real-world application such as handwriting recognition and energy load forecasting. We study the performance of this network and we compared it to a very well established SRN. The experimental results showed that MCRN is very efficient and very well suited to time series analysis and its applications.

Keywords: Time series, learning algorithms, recurrent neural network, Gradient descent method

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17 A Neurofuzzy Learning and its Application to Control System

Authors: Vijay Kumar, Seema Chopra, R. Mitra

Abstract:

A neurofuzzy approach for a given set of input-output training data is proposed in two phases. Firstly, the data set is partitioned automatically into a set of clusters. Then a fuzzy if-then rule is extracted from each cluster to form a fuzzy rule base. Secondly, a fuzzy neural network is constructed accordingly and parameters are tuned to increase the precision of the fuzzy rule base. This network is able to learn and optimize the rule base of a Sugeno like Fuzzy inference system using Hybrid learning algorithm, which combines gradient descent, and least mean square algorithm. This proposed neurofuzzy system has the advantage of determining the number of rules automatically and also reduce the number of rules, decrease computational time, learns faster and consumes less memory. The authors also investigate that how neurofuzzy techniques can be applied in the area of control theory to design a fuzzy controller for linear and nonlinear dynamic systems modelling from a set of input/output data. The simulation analysis on a wide range of processes, to identify nonlinear components on-linely in a control system and a benchmark problem involving the prediction of a chaotic time series is carried out. Furthermore, the well-known examples of linear and nonlinear systems are also simulated under the Matlab/Simulink environment. The above combination is also illustrated in modeling the relationship between automobile trips and demographic factors.

Keywords: Fuzzy Control, neuro-fuzzy techniques, fuzzy subtractive clustering, extraction of rules, and optimization of membership functions

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16 Dynamic Fuzzy-Neural Network Controller for Induction Motor Drive

Authors: M. Zerikat, M. Bendjebbar, N. Benouzza

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel approach for robust trajectory tracking of induction motor drive is presented. By combining variable structure systems theory with fuzzy logic concept and neural network techniques, a new algorithm is developed. Fuzzy logic was used for the adaptation of the learning algorithm to improve the robustness of learning and operating of the neural network. The developed control algorithm is robust to parameter variations and external influences. It also assures precise trajectory tracking with the prescribed dynamics. The algorithm was verified by simulation and the results obtained demonstrate the effectiveness of the designed controller of induction motor drives which considered as highly non linear dynamic complex systems and variable characteristics over the operating conditions.

Keywords: Neural Network Control, Induction Motor, fuzzy-logic control, indirect field oriented control

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15 Optimizing Mobile Agents Migration Based on Decision Tree Learning

Authors: Yasser k. Ali, Hesham N. Elmahdy, Sanaa El Olla Hanfy Ahmed

Abstract:

Mobile agents are a powerful approach to develop distributed systems since they migrate to hosts on which they have the resources to execute individual tasks. In a dynamic environment like a peer-to-peer network, Agents have to be generated frequently and dispatched to the network. Thus they will certainly consume a certain amount of bandwidth of each link in the network if there are too many agents migration through one or several links at the same time, they will introduce too much transferring overhead to the links eventually, these links will be busy and indirectly block the network traffic, therefore, there is a need of developing routing algorithms that consider about traffic load. In this paper we seek to create cooperation between a probabilistic manner according to the quality measure of the network traffic situation and the agent's migration decision making to the next hop based on decision tree learning algorithms.

Keywords: Decision Tree Learning, naive Bayes classifier, Agent Migration, ID3 algorithm

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14 Complex-Valued Neural Networks for Blind Equalization of Time-Varying Channels

Authors: Rajoo Pandey

Abstract:

Most of the commonly used blind equalization algorithms are based on the minimization of a nonconvex and nonlinear cost function and a neural network gives smaller residual error as compared to a linear structure. The efficacy of complex valued feedforward neural networks for blind equalization of linear and nonlinear communication channels has been confirmed by many studies. In this paper we present two neural network models for blind equalization of time-varying channels, for M-ary QAM and PSK signals. The complex valued activation functions, suitable for these signal constellations in time-varying environment, are introduced and the learning algorithms based on the CMA cost function are derived. The improved performance of the proposed models is confirmed through computer simulations.

Keywords: Neural Networks, blind equalization, Constant Modulus Algorithm, Time-varying channels

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13 The Influence of Preprocessing Parameters on Text Categorization

Authors: Jan Pomikalek, Radim Rehurek

Abstract:

Text categorization (the assignment of texts in natural language into predefined categories) is an important and extensively studied problem in Machine Learning. Currently, popular techniques developed to deal with this task include many preprocessing and learning algorithms, many of which in turn require tuning nontrivial internal parameters. Although partial studies are available, many authors fail to report values of the parameters they use in their experiments, or reasons why these values were used instead of others. The goal of this work then is to create a more thorough comparison of preprocessing parameters and their mutual influence, and report interesting observations and results.

Keywords: Machine Learning, classification, Text categorization, electronic documents

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12 Combining Bagging and Boosting

Authors: S. B. Kotsiantis, P. E. Pintelas

Abstract:

Bagging and boosting are among the most popular resampling ensemble methods that generate and combine a diversity of classifiers using the same learning algorithm for the base-classifiers. Boosting algorithms are considered stronger than bagging on noisefree data. However, there are strong empirical indications that bagging is much more robust than boosting in noisy settings. For this reason, in this work we built an ensemble using a voting methodology of bagging and boosting ensembles with 10 subclassifiers in each one. We performed a comparison with simple bagging and boosting ensembles with 25 sub-classifiers, as well as other well known combining methods, on standard benchmark datasets and the proposed technique was the most accurate.

Keywords: Pattern Recognition, Data Mining, Machine Learning

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11 An Extension of Multi-Layer Perceptron Based on Layer-Topology

Authors: Jānis Zuters

Abstract:

There are a lot of extensions made to the classic model of multi-layer perceptron (MLP). A notable amount of them has been designed to hasten the learning process without considering the quality of generalization. The paper proposes a new MLP extension based on exploiting topology of the input layer of the network. Experimental results show the extended model to improve upon generalization capability in certain cases. The new model requires additional computational resources to compare to the classic model, nevertheless the loss in efficiency isn-t regarded to be significant.

Keywords: Topology, multi-layer perceptron, learning algorithm

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10 Effective Features for Disambiguation of Turkish Verbs

Authors: Zeynep Orhan, Zeynep Altan

Abstract:

This paper summarizes the results of some experiments for finding the effective features for disambiguation of Turkish verbs. Word sense disambiguation is a current area of investigation in which verbs have the dominant role. Generally verbs have more senses than the other types of words in the average and detecting these features for verbs may lead to some improvements for other word types. In this paper we have considered only the syntactical features that can be obtained from the corpus and tested by using some famous machine learning algorithms.

Keywords: word sense disambiguation, Feature selection

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9 A Learning Agent for Knowledge Extraction from an Active Semantic Network

Authors: Simon Thiel, Stavros Dalakakis, Dieter Roller

Abstract:

This paper outlines the development of a learning retrieval agent. Task of this agent is to extract knowledge of the Active Semantic Network in respect to user-requests. Based on a reinforcement learning approach, the agent learns to interpret the user-s intention. Especially, the learning algorithm focuses on the retrieval of complex long distant relations. Increasing its learnt knowledge with every request-result-evaluation sequence, the agent enhances his capability in finding the intended information.

Keywords: Reinforcement Learning, learning retrieval agent, search in semantic networks

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8 Recurrent Neural Network Based Fuzzy Inference System for Identification and Control of Dynamic Plants

Authors: Rahib Hidayat Abiyev

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of recurrent neural network based fuzzy inference system for identification and control of dynamic nonlinear plant. The structure and algorithms of fuzzy system based on recurrent neural network are described. To train unknown parameters of the system the supervised learning algorithm is used. As a result of learning, the rules of neuro-fuzzy system are formed. The neuro-fuzzy system is used for the identification and control of nonlinear dynamic plant. The simulation results of identification and control systems based on recurrent neuro-fuzzy network are compared with the simulation results of other neural systems. It is found that the recurrent neuro-fuzzy based system has better performance than the others.

Keywords: Neural Network, Control System, Fuzzy Logic, neuro-fuzzy system

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7 Learning to Order Terms: Supervised Interestingness Measures in Terminology Extraction

Authors: Jérôme Azé, Mathieu Roche, Yves Kodratoff, Michèle Sebag

Abstract:

Term Extraction, a key data preparation step in Text Mining, extracts the terms, i.e. relevant collocation of words, attached to specific concepts (e.g. genetic-algorithms and decisiontrees are terms associated to the concept “Machine Learning" ). In this paper, the task of extracting interesting collocations is achieved through a supervised learning algorithm, exploiting a few collocations manually labelled as interesting/not interesting. From these examples, the ROGER algorithm learns a numerical function, inducing some ranking on the collocations. This ranking is optimized using genetic algorithms, maximizing the trade-off between the false positive and true positive rates (Area Under the ROC curve). This approach uses a particular representation for the word collocations, namely the vector of values corresponding to the standard statistical interestingness measures attached to this collocation. As this representation is general (over corpora and natural languages), generality tests were performed by experimenting the ranking function learned from an English corpus in Biology, onto a French corpus of Curriculum Vitae, and vice versa, showing a good robustness of the approaches compared to the state-of-the-art Support Vector Machine (SVM).

Keywords: ROC curve, text-mining, Terminology Extraction, Evolutionary algorithm

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6 Stochastic Learning Algorithms for Modeling Human Category Learning

Authors: Toshihiko Matsuka, James E. Corter

Abstract:

Most neural network (NN) models of human category learning use a gradient-based learning method, which assumes that locally-optimal changes are made to model parameters on each learning trial. This method tends to under predict variability in individual-level cognitive processes. In addition many recent models of human category learning have been criticized for not being able to replicate rapid changes in categorization accuracy and attention processes observed in empirical studies. In this paper we introduce stochastic learning algorithms for NN models of human category learning and show that use of the algorithms can result in (a) rapid changes in accuracy and attention allocation, and (b) different learning trajectories and more realistic variability at the individual-level.

Keywords: Cognitive Modeling, stochastic optimization, Category Learning, radial basis function

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5 Probability Density Estimation Using Advanced Support Vector Machines and the Expectation Maximization Algorithm

Authors: Refaat M Mohamed, Ayman El-Baz, Aly A. Farag

Abstract:

This paper presents a new approach for the prob-ability density function estimation using the Support Vector Ma-chines (SVM) and the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithms.In the proposed approach, an advanced algorithm for the SVM den-sity estimation which incorporates the Mean Field theory in the learning process is used. Instead of using ad-hoc values for the para-meters of the kernel function which is used by the SVM algorithm,the proposed approach uses the EM algorithm for an automatic optimization of the kernel. Experimental evaluation using simulated data set shows encouraging results.

Keywords: learning algorithms, SVM, parameters estimation, density estimation

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4 Moving Data Mining Tools toward a Business Intelligence System

Authors: Nittaya Kerdprasop, Kittisak Kerdprasop

Abstract:

Data mining (DM) is the process of finding and extracting frequent patterns that can describe the data, or predict unknown or future values. These goals are achieved by using various learning algorithms. Each algorithm may produce a mining result completely different from the others. Some algorithms may find millions of patterns. It is thus the difficult job for data analysts to select appropriate models and interpret the discovered knowledge. In this paper, we describe a framework of an intelligent and complete data mining system called SUT-Miner. Our system is comprised of a full complement of major DM algorithms, pre-DM and post-DM functionalities. It is the post-DM packages that ease the DM deployment for business intelligence applications.

Keywords: Data Mining, Business Intelligence, Intelligent System, functionalprogramming

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3 Combining Bagging and Additive Regression

Authors: Sotiris B. Kotsiantis

Abstract:

Bagging and boosting are among the most popular re-sampling ensemble methods that generate and combine a diversity of regression models using the same learning algorithm as base-learner. Boosting algorithms are considered stronger than bagging on noise-free data. However, there are strong empirical indications that bagging is much more robust than boosting in noisy settings. For this reason, in this work we built an ensemble using an averaging methodology of bagging and boosting ensembles with 10 sub-learners in each one. We performed a comparison with simple bagging and boosting ensembles with 25 sub-learners on standard benchmark datasets and the proposed ensemble gave better accuracy.

Keywords: Statistical Learning, Regressors

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2 Improving the Convergence of the Backpropagation Algorithm Using Local Adaptive Techniques

Authors: Z. Zainuddin, N. Mahat, Y. Abu Hassan

Abstract:

Since the presentation of the backpropagation algorithm, a vast variety of improvements of the technique for training a feed forward neural networks have been proposed. This article focuses on two classes of acceleration techniques, one is known as Local Adaptive Techniques that are based on weightspecific only, such as the temporal behavior of the partial derivative of the current weight. The other, known as Dynamic Adaptation Methods, which dynamically adapts the momentum factors, α, and learning rate, η, with respect to the iteration number or gradient. Some of most popular learning algorithms are described. These techniques have been implemented and tested on several problems and measured in terms of gradient and error function evaluation, and percentage of success. Numerical evidence shows that these techniques improve the convergence of the Backpropagation algorithm.

Keywords: Neural Networks, Backpropagation, Dynamic Adaptation Methods, Local Adaptive Techniques

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1 Combining ILP with Semi-supervised Learning for Web Page Categorization

Authors: Nuanwan Soonthornphisaj, Boonserm Kijsirikul

Abstract:

This paper presents a semi-supervised learning algorithm called Iterative-Cross Training (ICT) to solve the Web pages classification problems. We apply Inductive logic programming (ILP) as a strong learner in ICT. The objective of this research is to evaluate the potential of the strong learner in order to boost the performance of the weak learner of ICT. We compare the result with the supervised Naive Bayes, which is the well-known algorithm for the text classification problem. The performance of our learning algorithm is also compare with other semi-supervised learning algorithms which are Co-Training and EM. The experimental results show that ICT algorithm outperforms those algorithms and the performance of the weak learner can be enhanced by ILP system.

Keywords: Inductive Logic Programming, Semi-supervisedLearning, Web Page Categorization

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