Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 365

Search results for: lateral torsional buckling

365 Torsional Rigidities of Reinforced Concrete Beams Subjected to Elastic Lateral Torsional Buckling

Authors: Ilker Kalkan, Saruhan Kartal

Abstract:

Reinforced concrete (RC) beams rarely undergo lateral-torsional buckling (LTB), since these beams possess large lateral bending and torsional rigidities owing to their stocky cross-sections, unlike steel beams. However, the problem of LTB is becoming more and more pronounced in the last decades as the span lengths of concrete beams increase and the cross-sections become more slender with the use of pre-stressed concrete. The buckling moment of a beam mainly depends on its lateral bending rigidity and torsional rigidity. The nonhomogeneous and elastic-inelastic nature of RC complicates estimation of the buckling moments of concrete beams. Furthermore, the lateral bending and torsional rigidities of RC beams and the buckling moments are affected from different forms of concrete cracking, including flexural, torsional and restrained shrinkage cracking. The present study pertains to the effects of concrete cracking on the torsional rigidities of RC beams prone to elastic LTB. A series of tests on rather slender RC beams indicated that torsional cracking does not initiate until buckling in elastic LTB, while flexural cracking associated with lateral bending takes place even at the initial stages of loading. Hence, the present study clearly indicated that the un-cracked torsional rigidity needs to be used for estimating the buckling moments of RC beams liable to elastic LTB.

Keywords: Lateral stability, post-cracking torsional rigidity, uncracked torsional rigidity, critical moment.

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364 On the Evaluation of Critical Lateral-Torsional Buckling Loads of Monosymmetric Beam-Columns

Authors: T. Yilmaz, N. Kirac

Abstract:

Beam-column elements are defined as structural members subjected to a combination of axial and bending forces. Lateral torsional buckling is one of the major failure modes in which beam-columns that are bent about its strong axis may buckle out of the plane by deflecting laterally and twisting. This study presents a compact closed-form equation that it can be used for calculating critical lateral torsional-buckling load of beam-columns with monosymmetric sections in the presence of a known axial load. Lateral-torsional buckling behavior of beam-columns subjected to constant axial force and various transverse load cases are investigated by using Ritz method in order to establish proposed equation. Lateral-torsional buckling loads calculated by presented formula are compared to finite element model results. ABAQUS software is utilized to generate finite element models of beam-columns. It is found out that lateral-torsional buckling load of beam-columns with monosymmetric sections can be determined by proposed equation and can be safely used in design.

Keywords: Lateral-torsional buckling, stability, beam-column, monosymmetric section.

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363 An Approximate Lateral-Torsional Buckling Mode Function for Cantilever I-Beams

Authors: H. Ozbasaran

Abstract:

Lateral torsional buckling is a global buckling mode which should be considered in design of slender structural members under flexure about their strong axis. It is possible to compute the load which causes lateral torsional buckling of a beam by finite element analysis, however, closed form equations are needed in engineering practice for calculation ease which can be obtained by using energy method. In lateral torsional buckling applications of energy method, a proper function for the critical lateral torsional buckling mode should be chosen which can be thought as the variation of twisting angle along the buckled beam. Accuracy of the results depends on how close is the chosen function to the exact mode. Since critical lateral torsional buckling mode of the cantilever I-beams varies due to material properties, section properties and loading case, the hardest step is to determine a proper mode function in application of energy method. This paper presents an approximate function for critical lateral torsional buckling mode of doubly symmetric cantilever I-beams. Coefficient matrices are calculated for concentrated load at free end, uniformly distributed load and constant moment along the beam cases. Critical lateral torsional buckling modes obtained by presented function and exact solutions are compared. It is found that the modes obtained by presented function coincide with differential equation solutions for considered loading cases.

Keywords: Buckling mode, cantilever, lateral-torsional buckling, I-beam.

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362 A Parametric Study on Lateral Torsional Buckling of European IPN and IPE Cantilevers

Authors: H. Ozbasaran

Abstract:

IPN and IPE sections, which are commonly used European I shapes, are widely used in steel structures as cantilever beams to support overhangs. A considerable number of studies exist on calculating lateral torsional buckling load of I sections. However, most of them provide series solutions or complex closed-form equations. In this paper, a simple equation is presented to calculate lateral torsional buckling load of IPN and IPE section cantilever beams. First, differential equation of lateral torsional buckling is solved numerically for various loading cases. Then a parametric study is conducted on results to present an equation for lateral torsional buckling load of European IPN and IPE beams. Finally, results obtained by presented equation are compared to differential equation solutions and finite element model results. ABAQUS software is utilized to generate finite element models of beams. It is seen that the results obtained from presented equation coincide with differential equation solutions and ABAQUS software results. It can be suggested that presented formula can be safely used to calculate critical lateral torsional buckling load of European IPN and IPE section cantilevers.

Keywords: Cantilever, IPN, IPE, lateral torsional buckling

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361 Lateral Torsional Buckling of Steel Thin-Walled Beams with Lateral Restraints

Authors: Ivan Balázs, Jindřich Melcher

Abstract:

Metal thin-walled members have been widely used in building industry. Usually they are utilized as purlins, girts or ceiling beams. Due to slenderness of thin-walled cross-sections these structural members are prone to stability problems (e.g. flexural buckling, lateral torsional buckling). If buckling is not constructionally prevented their resistance is limited by buckling strength. In practice planar members of roof or wall cladding can be attached to thin-walled members. These elements reduce displacement of thin-walled members and therefore increase their buckling strength. If this effect is taken into static assessment more economical sections of thin-walled members might be utilized and certain savings of material might be achieved. This paper focuses on problem of determination of critical load of steel thin-walled beams with lateral continuous restraint which is crucial for lateral torsional buckling assessment.

Keywords: Beam, buckling, numerical analysis, stability, steel.

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360 Lateral Torsional Buckling of an Eccentrically Loaded Channel Section Beam

Authors: L. Dahmani, S. Drizi, M. Djemai, A. Boudjemia, M. O. Mechiche

Abstract:

Channel sections are widely used in practice as beams. However, design rules for eccentrically loaded (not through shear center) beams with channel cross- sections are not available in Eurocode 3. This paper compares the ultimate loads based on the adjusted design rules for lateral torsional buckling of eccentrically loaded channel beams in bending to the ultimate loads obtained with Finite Element (FE) simulations on the basis of a parameter study. Based on the proposed design rule, this study has led to a new design rule which conforms to Eurocode 3.

Keywords: ANSYS, Eurocode 3, finite element method, lateral torsional buckling, steel channel beam.

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359 Bending Gradient Coefficient Correction for I-Beams

Authors: H. R. Kazemi Nia, A. Yeganeh Fallah

Abstract:

Without uncertainty by applying external loads on beams, bending is created. The created bending in I-beams, puts one of the flanges in tension and the other one in compression. With increasing of bending, compression flange buckled and beam in out of its plane direction twisted, this twisting well-known as Lateral Torsional Buckling. Providing bending moment varieties along the beam, the critical moment is greater than the case its under pure bending. In other words, the value of bending gradient coefficient is always greater than unite. In this article by the use of " ANSYS 10.0" software near 80 3-D finite element models developed for the propose of analyzing beams` lateral torsional buckling and surveying influence of slenderness on beams' bending gradient coefficient. Results show that, presented Cb coefficient via AISC is not correct for some of beams and value of this coefficient is smaller than what proposed by AISC. Therefore instead of using a constant Cb for each case of loading , a function with two criterion for calculation of Cb coefficient for some cases is proposed.

Keywords: Beams critical moment, Bending Gradient Coefficient, finite element, Lateral Torsional Buckling

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358 Lateral-Torsional Buckling of Steel Girder Systems Braced by Solid Web Crossbeams

Authors: Ruoyang Tang, Jianguo Nie

Abstract:

Lateral-torsional bracing members are critical to the stability of girder systems during the construction phase of steel-concrete composite bridges, and the interaction effect of multiple girders plays an essential role in the determination of buckling load. In this paper, an investigation is conducted on the lateral-torsional buckling behavior of the steel girder system which is composed of three or four I-shaped girders and braced by solid web crossbeams. The buckling load for such girder system is comprehensively analyzed and an analytical solution is developed for uniform pressure loading conditions. Furthermore, post-buckling analysis including initial geometric imperfections is performed and parametric studies in terms of bracing density, stiffness ratio as well as the number and spacing of girders are presented in order to find the optimal bracing plans for an arbitrary girder layout. The theoretical solution of critical load on account of local buckling mode shows good agreement with the numerical results in eigenvalue analysis. In addition, parametric analysis results show that both bracing density and stiffness ratio have a significant impact on the initial stiffness, global stability and failure mode of such girder system. Taking into consideration the effect of initial geometric imperfections, an increase in bracing density between adjacent girders can effectively improve the bearing capacity of the structure, and higher beam-girder stiffness ratio can result in a more ductile failure mode.

Keywords: Bracing member, construction stage, lateral-torsional buckling, steel girder system.

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357 Lateral Torsional Buckling Investigation on Welded Q460GJ Structural Steel Unrestrained Beams under a Point Load

Authors: Yue Zhang, Bo Yang, Gang Xiong, Mohamed Elchalakanic, Shidong Nie

Abstract:

This study aims to investigate the lateral torsional buckling of I-shaped cross-section beams fabricated from Q460GJ structural steel plates. Both experimental and numerical simulation results are presented in this paper. A total of eight specimens were tested under a three-point bending, and the corresponding numerical models were established to conduct parametric studies. The effects of some key parameters such as the non-dimensional member slenderness and the height-to-width ratio, were investigated based on the verified numerical models. Also, the results obtained from the parametric studies were compared with the predictions calculated by different design codes including the Chinese design code (GB50017-2003, 2003), the new draft version of Chinese design code (GB50017-201X, 2012), Eurocode 3 (EC3, 2005) and the North America design code (ANSI/AISC360-10, 2010). These comparisons indicated that the sectional height-to-width ratio does not play an important role to influence the overall stability load-carrying capacity of Q460GJ structural steel beams with welded I-shaped cross-sections. It was also found that the design methods in GB50017-2003 and ANSI/AISC360-10 overestimate the overall stability and load-carrying capacity of Q460GJ welded I-shaped cross-section beams.

Keywords: Experimental study, finite element analysis, global stability, lateral torsional buckling, Q460GJ structural steel.

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356 Lateral Torsional Buckling Resistance of Trapezoidally Corrugated Web Girders

Authors: Annamária Käferné Rácz, Bence Jáger, Balázs Kövesdi, László Dunai

Abstract:

Due to the numerous advantages of steel corrugated web girders, its application field is growing for bridges as well as for buildings. The global stability behavior of such girders is significantly larger than those of conventional I-girders with flat web, thus the application of the structural steel material can be significantly reduced. Design codes and specifications do not provide clear and complete rules or recommendations for the determination of the lateral torsional buckling (LTB) resistance of corrugated web girders. Therefore, the authors made a thorough investigation regarding the LTB resistance of the corrugated web girders. Finite element (FE) simulations have been performed to develop new design formulas for the determination of the LTB resistance of trapezoidally corrugated web girders. FE model is developed considering geometrical and material nonlinear analysis using equivalent geometric imperfections (GMNI analysis). The equivalent geometric imperfections involve the initial geometric imperfections and residual stresses coming from rolling, welding and flame cutting. Imperfection sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the necessary magnitudes regarding only the first eigenmodes shape imperfections. By the help of the validated FE model, an extended parametric study is carried out to investigate the LTB resistance for different trapezoidal corrugation profiles. First, the critical moment of a specific girder was calculated by FE model. The critical moments from the FE calculations are compared to the previous analytical calculation proposals. Then, nonlinear analysis was carried out to determine the ultimate resistance. Due to the numerical investigations, new proposals are developed for the determination of the LTB resistance of trapezoidally corrugated web girders through a modification factor on the design method related to the conventional flat web girders.

Keywords: Critical moment, FE modeling, lateral torsional buckling, trapezoidally corrugated web girders.

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355 Lateral and Longitudinal Vibration of a Rotating Flexible Beam Coupled with Torsional Vibration of a Flexible Shaft

Authors: Khaled Alnefaie

Abstract:

In this study, rotating flexible shaft-disk system having flexible beams is considered as a dynamic system. After neglecting nonlinear terms, torsional vibration of the shaft-disk system and lateral and longitudinal vibration of the flexible beam are still coupled through the motor speed. The system has three natural frequencies; the flexible shaft-disk system torsional natural frequency, the flexible beam lateral and longitudinal natural frequencies. Eigenvalue calculations show that while the shaft speed changes, torsional natural frequency of the shaft-disk system and the beam longitudinal natural frequency are not changing but the beam lateral natural frequency changes. Beam lateral natural frequency stays the same as the nonrotating beam lateral natural frequency ωb until the motor speed ωm is equal to ωb. After then ωb increases and remains equal to the motor speed ωm until the motor speed is equal to the shaft-disk system natural frequency ωT. Then the beam lateral natural frequency ωb becomes equal to the natural frequency ωT and stays same while the motor speed ωm is increased. Modal amplitudes and phase angles of the vibrations are also plotted against the motor speed ωm.

Keywords: Rotor dynamics, beam-shaft coupling, beam vibration, flexible shaft.

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354 Study of Coupled Lateral-Torsional Free Vibrations of Laminated Composite Beam: Analytical Approach

Authors: S.H. Mirtalaie, M.A. Hajabasi

Abstract:

In this paper, an analytical approach is used to study the coupled lateral-torsional vibrations of laminated composite beam. It is known that in such structures due to the fibers orientation in various layers, any lateral displacement will produce a twisting moment. This phenomenon is modeled by the bending-twisting material coupling rigidity and its main feature is the coupling of lateral and torsional vibrations. In addition to the material coupling, the effects of shear deformation and rotary inertia are taken into account in the definition of the potential and kinetic energies. Then, the governing differential equations are derived using the Hamilton-s principle and the mathematical model matches the Timoshenko beam model when neglecting the effect of bending-twisting rigidity. The equations of motion which form a system of three coupled PDEs are solved analytically to study the free vibrations of the beam in lateral and rotational modes due to the bending, as well as the torsional mode caused by twisting. The analytic solution is carried out in three steps: 1) assuming synchronous motion for the kinematic variables which are the lateral, rotational and torsional displacements, 2) solving the ensuing eigenvalue problem which contains three coupled second order ODEs and 3) imposing different boundary conditions related to combinations of simply, clamped and free end conditions. The resulting natural frequencies and mode shapes are compared with similar results in the literature and good agreement is achieved.

Keywords: Free vibration, laminated composite beam, material coupling, state space.

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353 Coupled Lateral-Torsional Free Vibrations Analysis of Laminated Composite Beam using Differential Quadrature Method

Authors: S.H. Mirtalaie, M. Mohammadi, M.A. Hajabasi, F.Hejripour

Abstract:

In this paper the Differential Quadrature Method (DQM) is employed to study the coupled lateral-torsional free vibration behavior of the laminated composite beams. In such structures due to the fiber orientations in various layers, the lateral displacement leads to a twisting moment. The coupling of lateral and torsional vibrations is modeled by the bending-twisting material coupling rigidity. In the present study, in addition to the material coupling, the effects of shear deformation and rotary inertia are taken into account in the definition of the potential and kinetic energies of the beam. The governing differential equations of motion which form a system of three coupled PDEs are solved numerically using DQ procedure under different boundary conditions consist of the combinations of simply, clamped, free and other end conditions. The resulting natural frequencies and mode shapes for cantilever beam are compared with similar results in the literature and good agreement is achieved.

Keywords: Differential Quadrature Method, Free vibration, Laminated composite beam, Material coupling.

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352 Inelastic Strength of Laterally Unsupported Top- Loaded Built-Up Slender Beams

Authors: M. Massoud El Sa'adawy, F. F. F. El Dib

Abstract:

Lateral-torsional buckling (LTB) is one of the phenomenae controlling the ultimate bending strength of steel Ibeams carrying distributed loads on top flange. Built-up I-sections are used as main beams and distributors. This study investigates the ultimate bending strength of such beams with sections of different classes including slender elements. The nominal strengths of the selected beams are calculated for different unsupported lengths according to the Provisions of the American Institute of Steel Constructions (AISC-LRFD). These calculations are compared with results of a nonlinear inelastic study using accurate FE model for this type of loading. The goal is to investigate the performance of the provisions for the selected sections. Continuous distributed load at the top flange of the beams was applied at the FE model. Imperfections of different values are implemented to the FE model to examine their effect on the LTB of beams at failure, and hence, their effect on the ultimate strength of beams. The study also introduces a procedure for evaluating the performance of the provisions compared with the accurate FEA results of the selected sections. A simplified design procedure is given and recommendations for future code updates are made.

Keywords: Lateral buckling, Top Loading, Ultimate load, Slender Sections.

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351 Seismic Behavior of Steel Structure with Buckling- Restrained Braces

Authors: M. Reza Bagerzadeh Karimi, M. Ali Lotfollahi Yaghin, R. Mehdi Nezhad, V. Sadeghi, M. Aghabalaie

Abstract:

One of the main purposes of designing bucklingrestrained braces is the fact that the entire lateral load is wasted by the braces, the entire gravitational load is moved to the foundation through the beams, and the columns can be moved to the foundation. In other words, braces are designed for bearing lateral load. In the implementation of the structure, it should be noted that the implementation of various parts of the structure must be conducted in such a way that the buckling-restrained braces would not bear the gravitational load. Moreover, this type of brace has been investigated under impact loading, and the design goals of designing method (direct motion) are controlled under impact loading. The results of dynamic analysis are shown as the relocation charts of the floors and switch between the floors. Finally, the results are compared with each other.

Keywords: Buckling-Restrained Braced Frame (BRBF), energydissipating, ABAQUS, SAP2000, impact load.

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350 Stability of Concrete Moment Resisting Frames in View of Current Codes Requirements

Authors: Mahmoud A. Mahmoud, Ashraf Osman

Abstract:

In this study, the different approaches currently followed by design codes to assess the stability of buildings utilizing concrete moment resisting frames structural system are evaluated. For such purpose, a parametric study was performed. It involved analyzing group of concrete moment resisting frames having different slenderness ratios (height/width ratios), designed for different lateral loads to vertical loads ratios and constructed using ordinary reinforced concrete and high strength concrete for stability check and overall buckling using code approaches and computer buckling analysis. The objectives were to examine the influence of such parameters that directly linked to frames’ lateral stiffness on the buildings’ stability and evaluates the code approach in view of buckling analysis results. Based on this study, it was concluded that, the most susceptible buildings to instability and magnification of second order effects are buildings having high aspect ratios (height/width ratio), having low lateral to vertical loads ratio and utilizing construction materials of high strength. In addition, the study showed that the instability limits imposed by codes are mainly mathematical to ensure reliable analysis not a physical ones and that they are in general conservative. Also, it has been shown that the upper limit set by one of the codes that second order moment for structural elements should be limited to 1.4 the first order moment is not justified, instead, the overall story check is more reliable.

Keywords: Buckling, lateral stability, p-delta, second order.

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349 Study on Buckling and Yielding Behaviors of Low Yield Point Steel Plates

Authors: David Boyajian, Tadeh Zirakian

Abstract:

Stability and performance of steel plates are characterized by geometrical buckling and material yielding. In this paper, the geometrical buckling and material yielding behaviors of low yield point (LYP) steel plates are studied from the point of view of their application in steel plate shear wall (SPSW) systems. Use of LYP steel facilitates the design and application of web plates with improved buckling and energy absorption capacities in SPSW systems. LYP steel infill plates may yield first and then undergo inelastic buckling. Hence, accurate determination of the limiting plate thickness corresponding to simultaneous buckling and yielding can be effective in seismic design of such lateral force-resisting and energy dissipating systems. The limiting thicknesses of plates with different loading and support conditions are determined theoretically and verified through detailed numerical simulations. Effects of use of LYP steel and plate aspect ratio parameter on the limiting plate thickness are investigated as well. In addition, detailed studies are performed on determination of the limiting web-plate thickness in code-designed SPSWs. Some practical recommendations are accordingly provided for efficient seismic design of SPSW systems with LYP steel infill plates.

Keywords: Plates, buckling, yielding, low yield point steel, steel plate shear walls.

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348 Finite Element Analysis of Thin Steel Plate Shear Walls

Authors: M. Lashgari

Abstract:

Steel plate shear walls (SPSWs) in buildings are known to be an effective means for resisting lateral forces. By using un-stiffened walls and allowing them to buckle, their energy absorption capacity will increase significantly due to the postbuckling capacity. The post-buckling tension field action of SPSWs can provide substantial strength, stiffness and ductility. This paper presents the Finite Element Analysis of low yield point (LYP) steel shear walls. In this shear wall system, the LYP steel plate is used for the steel panel and conventional structural steel is used for boundary frames. A series of nonlinear cyclic analyses were carried out to obtain the stiffness, strength, deformation capacity, and energy dissipation capacity of the LYP steel shear wall. The effect of widthto- thickness ratio of steel plate on buckling behavior, and energy dissipation capacities were studied. Good energy dissipation and deformation capacities were obtained for all models.

Keywords: low yield point steel, steel plate shear wall, thin plates, elastic buckling, inelastic buckling, post-buckling.

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347 An Investigation on Hybrid Composite Drive Shaft for Automotive Industry

Authors: Gizem Arslan Özgen, Kutay Yücetürk, Metin Tanoğlu, Engin Aktaş

Abstract:

Power transmitted from the engine to the final drive where useful work is applied through a system consisting of a gearbox, clutch, drive shaft and a differential in the rear-wheel-drive automobiles. It is well-known that the steel drive shaft is usually manufactured in two pieces to increase the fundamental bending natural frequency to ensure safe operation conditions. In this work, hybrid one-piece propeller shafts composed of carbon/epoxy and glass/epoxy composites have been designed for a rear wheel drive automobile satisfying three design specifications, such as static torque transmission capability, torsional buckling and the fundamental natural bending frequency. Hybridization of carbon and glass fibers is being studied to optimize the cost/performance requirements. Composites shaft materials with various fiber orientation angles and stacking sequences are being fabricated and analyzed using finite element analysis (FEA).

Keywords: Composite propeller shaft, hybridization, epoxy matrix, static torque transmission capability, torsional buckling strength, fundamental natural bending frequency.

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346 Establishing a New Simple Formula for Buckling Length Factor (K) of Rigid Frames Columns

Authors: Ehab Hasan Ahmed Hasan Ali

Abstract:

The calculation of buckling length factor (K) for steel frames columns is a major and governing processes to determine the dimensions steel frame columns cross sections during design. The buckling length of steel frames columns has a direct effect on the cost (weight) of using cross section. A new formula is required to determine buckling length factor (K) by simplified way. In this research a new formula for buckling length factor (K) was established to determine by accurate method for a limited interval of columns ends rigidity (GA, GB). The new formula can be used ease to evaluate the buckling length factor without needing to complicated equations or difficult charts.

Keywords: Buckling length, New formula, Curve fitting, Simplification, Steel column design.

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345 Influence of Inhomogeneous Wind Fields on the Aerostatic Stability of a Cable-Stayed Pedestrian Bridge without Backstays: Experiments and Numerical Simulations

Authors: Yanru Wu, Qing Sun

Abstract:

Sightseeing glass bridges located in steep valley area are being built on a large scale owing to the development of tourism. Consequently, their aerostatic stability is seriously affected by the wind field characteristics created by strong wind and special terrain, such as wind speed and wind attack angle. For instance, a cable-stayed pedestrian bridge without backstays comprised of a 60-m cantilever girder and the glass bridge deck is located in an abrupt valley, acting as a viewing platform. The bridge’s nonlinear aerostatic stability was analyzed by the segmental model test and numerical simulation in this paper. Based on aerostatic coefficients of the main girder measured in wind tunnel tests, nonlinear influences caused by the structure and aerostatic load, inhomogeneous distribution of torsion angle along the bridge axis, and the influence of initial attack angle were analyzed by using the incremental double iteration method. The results show that the aerostatic response varying with speed shows an obvious nonlinearity, and the aerostatic instability mode is of the characteristic of space deformation of bending-twisting coupling mode. The vertical and torsional deformation of the main girder is larger than its lateral deformation, with the wind speed approaching the critical wind speed. The flow of negative attack angle will reduce the bridges’ critical stability wind speed, but the influence of the negative attack angle on the aerostatic stability is more significant than that of the positive attack angle. The critical wind speeds of torsional divergence and lateral buckling are both larger than 200 m/s; namely, the bridge will not occur aerostatic instability under the action of various wind attack angles.

Keywords: Aerostatic nonlinearity, cable-stayed pedestrian bridge, numerical simulation, nonlinear aerostatic stability.

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344 Effect of the Rise/Span Ratio of a Spherical Cap Shell on the Buckling Load

Authors: Peter N. Khakina, Mohammed I. Ali, Enchun Zhu, Huazhang Zhou, Baydaa H. Moula

Abstract:

Rise/span ratio has been mentioned as one of the reasons which contribute to the lower buckling load as compared to the Classical theory buckling load but this ratio has not been quantified in the equation. The purpose of this study was to determine a more realistic buckling load by quantifying the effect of the rise/span ratio because experiments have shown that the Classical theory overestimates the load. The buckling load equation was derived based on the theorem of work done and strain energy. Thereafter, finite element modeling and simulation using ABAQUS was done to determine the variables that determine the constant in the derived equation. The rise/span was found to be the determining factor of the constant in the buckling load equation. The derived buckling load correlates closely to the load obtained from experiments.

Keywords: Buckling, Finite element, Rise/span ratio, Sphericalcap

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343 Approximate Tension Buckling Capacity of Thin Edge-Cracked Web Plate Subjected to Pure Bending

Authors: Sebastian B. Mendes

Abstract:

The presence of a vertical edge-crack within a web plate subjected to pure bending induces local compressive stresses about the crack which may cause tension buckling. Approximate theoretical expressions were derived for the critical far-field tensile stress and bending moment capacity of an edge-cracked web plate associated with tension buckling. These expressions were validated with finite element analyses and used to investigate the possibility of tension buckling in web-cracked trial girders. It was found that tension buckling is an unlikely occurrence unless the web is relatively thin or the crack is very long.

Keywords: Fatigue crack, tension buckling, Rayleigh-Ritz, structural stability.

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342 Collapse Load Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Pile Group in Liquefying Soils under Lateral Loading

Authors: Pavan K. Emani, Shashank Kothari, V. S. Phanikanth

Abstract:

The ultimate load analysis of RC pile groups has assumed a lot of significance under liquefying soil conditions, especially due to post-earthquake studies of 1964 Niigata, 1995 Kobe and 2001 Bhuj earthquakes. The present study reports the results of numerical simulations on pile groups subjected to monotonically increasing lateral loads under design amounts of pile axial loading. The soil liquefaction has been considered through the non-linear p-y relationship of the soil springs, which can vary along the depth/length of the pile. This variation again is related to the liquefaction potential of the site and the magnitude of the seismic shaking. As the piles in the group can reach their extreme deflections and rotations during increased amounts of lateral loading, a precise modeling of the inelastic behavior of the pile cross-section is done, considering the complete stress-strain behavior of concrete, with and without confinement, and reinforcing steel, including the strain-hardening portion. The possibility of the inelastic buckling of the individual piles is considered in the overall collapse modes. The model is analysed using Riks analysis in finite element software to check the post buckling behavior and plastic collapse of piles. The results confirm the kinds of failure modes predicted by centrifuge test results reported by researchers on pile group, although the pile material used is significantly different from that of the simulation model. The extension of the present work promises an important contribution to the design codes for pile groups in liquefying soils.

Keywords: Collapse load analysis, inelastic buckling, liquefaction, pile group.

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341 Buckling Analysis of Rectangular Plates under the Combined Action of Shear and Uniaxial Stresses

Authors: V. Piscopo

Abstract:

In the classical buckling analysis of rectangular plates subjected to the concurrent action of shear and uniaxial forces, the Euler shear buckling stress is generally evaluated separately, so that no influence on the shear buckling coefficient, due to the in-plane tensile or compressive forces, is taken into account. In this paper the buckling problem of simply supported rectangular plates, under the combined action of shear and uniaxial forces, is discussed from the beginning, in order to obtain new project formulas for the shear buckling coefficient that take into account the presence of uniaxial forces. Furthermore, as the classical expression of the shear buckling coefficient for simply supported rectangular plates is considered only a “rough" approximation, as the exact one is defined by a system of intersecting curves, the convergence and the goodness of the classical solution are analyzed, too. Finally, as the problem of the Euler shear buckling stress evaluation is a very important topic for a variety of structures, (e.g. ship ones), two numerical applications are carried out, in order to highlight the role of the uniaxial stresses on the plating scantling procedures and the goodness of the proposed formulas.

Keywords: Buckling analysis, Shear, Uniaxial Stresses.

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340 The Effects of Plate-Support Condition on Buckling Strength of Rectangular Perforated Plates under Linearly Varying In-Plane Normal Load

Authors: M. Tajdari, A. R. Nezamabadi, M. Naeemi, P. Pirali

Abstract:

Mechanical buckling analysis of rectangular plates with central circular cutout is performed in this paper. The finiteelement method is used to study the effects of plate-support conditions, aspect ratio, and hole size on the mechanical buckling strength of the perforated plates subjected to linearly varying loading. Results show that increasing the hole size does not necessarily reduce the mechanical buckling strength of the perforated plates. It is also concluded that the clamped boundary condition increases the mechanical buckling strength of the perforated plates more than the simply-supported boundary condition and the free boundary conditions enhance the mechanical buckling strength of the perforated plates more effectively than the fixed boundary conditions. Furthermore, for the bending cases, the critical buckling load of perforated plates with free edges is less than perforated plates with fixed edges.

Keywords: Buckling, Perforated plates, Boundary condition, Rectangular plates

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339 The Development of Chulalongkorn University's SAE Student Formula's Space Frame

Authors: Chartree Sithananun, Teekayu Limchamroon, Tanawat Limwathanagura, Thanyarat Singhanart

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to present the development of the frame of Chulalongkorn University team in TSAE Auto Challenge Student Formula and Student Formula SAE Competition of Japan. Chulalongkorn University's SAE team, has established since year 2003, joined many competitions since year 2006 and became the leading team in Thailand. Through these 5 years, space frame was the most selected and developed year by year through six frame designs. In this paper, the discussions on the conceptual design of these frames are introduced, focusing on the mass and torsional stiffness improvement. The torsional stiffness test was performed on the real used frames and the results are compared. It can be seen that the 2010-2011 frame is firstly designed based on the analysis and experiment that considered the required mass and torsional stiffness. From the torsional stiffness results, it can be concluded that the frames were developed including the decreasing of mass and the increasing torsional stiffness by applying many techniques.

Keywords: SAE Student Formula, Space Frame, Torsional Stiffness

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338 Critical Buckling Load of Carbon Nanotube with Non-Local Timoshenko Beam Using the Differential Transform Method

Authors: Tayeb Bensattalah, Mohamed Zidour, Mohamed Ait Amar Meziane, Tahar Hassaine Daouadji, Abdelouahed Tounsi

Abstract:

In this paper, the Differential Transform Method (DTM) is employed to predict and to analysis the non-local critical buckling loads of carbon nanotubes with various end conditions and the non-local Timoshenko beam described by single differential equation. The equation differential of buckling of the nanobeams is derived via a non-local theory and the solution for non-local critical buckling loads is finding by the DTM. The DTM is introduced briefly. It can easily be applied to linear or nonlinear problems and it reduces the size of computational work. Influence of boundary conditions, the chirality of carbon nanotube and aspect ratio on non-local critical buckling loads are studied and discussed. Effects of nonlocal parameter, ratios L/d, the chirality of single-walled carbon nanotube, as well as the boundary conditions on buckling of CNT are investigated.

Keywords: Boundary conditions, buckling, non-local, the differential transform method.

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337 The Effects of Bolt Spacing on Composite Shear Wall Behavior

Authors: Amir Ayazi, Hamde Ahmadi, Soheil Shafaei

Abstract:

Composite steel shear wall is a lateral load resisting system which consists of a steel plate with concrete wall attached to one or both sides to prevent it from elastic buckling. The composite behavior is ensured by utilizing high-strength bolts. This paper investigates the effect of distance between bolts, and for this purpose 14 one-story one-bay specimens with various bolts spacing were modeled by finite element code which is developed by the authors. To verify the model, numerical results were compared with a valid experiment which illustrate proper agreement. Results depict increasing the distance between bolts would improve the seismic ever, this increase must be limited, because of large distances will cause widespread buckling of the steel plate in free subpanels between bolts and would result in no improvement. By comparing the results in elastic region, it was observed initial stiffness is not affected by changing the distance.

Keywords: Composite steel shear wall, bolt, buckling, finite element.

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336 Prediction of the Torsional Vibration Characteristics of a Rotor-Shaft System Using Its Scale Model and Scaling Laws

Authors: Jia-Jang Wu

Abstract:

This paper presents the scaling laws that provide the criteria of geometry and dynamic similitude between the full-size rotor-shaft system and its scale model, and can be used to predict the torsional vibration characteristics of the full-size rotor-shaft system by manipulating the corresponding data of its scale model. The scaling factors, which play fundamental roles in predicting the geometry and dynamic relationships between the full-size rotor-shaft system and its scale model, for torsional free vibration problems between scale and full-size rotor-shaft systems are firstly obtained from the equation of motion of torsional free vibration. Then, the scaling factor of external force (i.e., torque) required for the torsional forced vibration problems is determined based on the Newton’s second law. Numerical results show that the torsional free and forced vibration characteristics of a full-size rotor-shaft system can be accurately predicted from those of its scale models by using the foregoing scaling factors. For this reason, it is believed that the presented approach will be significant for investigating the relevant phenomenon in the scale model tests.

Keywords: Torsional vibration, full-size model, scale model, scaling laws.

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