Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7425

Search results for: high temperature exposure

7425 Effect of Temperature of Exposure on Properties of Cement Mortar with MSWI Bottom Ash

Authors: Z. Pavlík, M. Keppert, J. Žumár, M. Pavlíková, A. Trník, R. Černý

Abstract:

Effect of high temperature exposure on properties of cement mortar containing municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash as partial natural aggregate replacement is analyzed in the paper. The measurements of mechanical properties, bulk density, matrix density, total open porosity, sorption and desorption isotherms are done on samples exposed to the temperatures of 20°C to 1000°C. TGA analysis is performed as well. Finally, the studied samples are analyzed by IR spectroscopy in order to evaluate TGA data.

Keywords: Cement mortar, high temperature exposure, MSWI bottom ash, natural aggregate replacement, mechanical properties

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1625
7424 Effect of Fire on Structural Behavior of Normal and High Strength Concrete Beams

Authors: Alaa I. Arafa, Hemdan O. A. Said. Marwa A. M. Ali

Abstract:

This paper investigates and evaluates experimentally the structural behavior of high strength concrete (HSC) beams under fire and compares it with that of Normal strength concrete (NSC) beams. The main investigated parameters are: concrete compressive strength (300 or 600 kg/cm2); the concrete cover thickness (3 or 5 cm); the degree of temperature (room temperature or 600 oC); the type of cooling (air or water); and the fire exposure time (3 or 5 hours). Test results showed that the concrete compressive strength decreases significantly as the exposure time to fire increases.

Keywords: Experimental, fire, high strength concrete beams, monotonic loading.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 597
7423 Studying the Intercalation of Low Density Polyethylene/Clay Nanocomposites after Different UV Exposures

Authors: Samir Al-Zobaidi

Abstract:

This study attempts to understand the effect of different UV irradiation methods on the intercalation of LDPE/MMT nanocomposites, and its molecular behavior at certain isothermal crystallization temperature. Three different methods of UV exposure were employed using single composition of LDPE/MMT nanocomposites. All samples were annealed for 5 hours at a crystallization temperature of 100oC. The crystallization temperature was chosen to be at large supercooling temperature to ensure quick and complete crystallization. The raw material of LDPE consisted of two stable monoclinic and orthorhombic phases according to XRD results. The thermal behavior of both phases acted differently when UV exposure method was changed. The monoclinic phase was more dependent on the method used compared to the orthorhombic phase. The intercalation of clay, as well as, the non-isothermal crystallization temperature, has also shown a clear dependency on the type of UV exposure. A third phase that is thermally less stable was also observed. Its respond to UV irradiation was greater since it contains low molecular weight entities which make it more vulnerable to any UV exposure.

Keywords: LDPE/MMt nanocomposites, crystallization, UV irradiation, intercalation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1396
7422 Oil Recovery Study by Low Temperature Carbon Dioxide Injection in High-Pressure High-Temperature Micromodels

Authors: Zakaria Hamdi, Mariyamni Awang

Abstract:

For the past decades, CO2 flooding has been used as a successful method for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). However, high mobility ratio and fingering effect are considered as important drawbacka of this process. Low temperature injection of CO2 into high temperature reservoirs may improve the oil recovery, but simulating multiphase flow in the non-isothermal medium is difficult, and commercial simulators are very unstable in these conditions. Furthermore, to best of authors’ knowledge, no experimental work was done to verify the results of the simulations and to understand the pore-scale process. In this paper, we present results of investigations on injection of low temperature CO2 into a high-pressure high-temperature micromodel with injection temperature range from 34 to 75 °F. Effect of temperature and saturation changes of different fluids are measured in each case. The results prove the proposed method. The injection of CO2 at low temperatures increased the oil recovery in high temperature reservoirs significantly. Also, CO2 rich phases available in the high temperature system can affect the oil recovery through the better sweep of the oil which is initially caused by penetration of LCO2 inside the system. Furthermore, no unfavorable effect was detected using this method. Low temperature CO2 is proposed to be used as early as secondary recovery.

Keywords: Enhanced oil recovery, CO2 flooding, micromodel studies, miscible flooding.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 742
7421 Analysis of the Long-term Effect of Office Lighting Environment on Human Reponses

Authors: D.Y. Su, C.C. Liu, C.M. Chiang, W. Wang

Abstract:

This study aims to discuss the effect of illumination and the color temperature of the lighting source under the office lighting environment on human psychological and physiological responses. In this study, 21 healthy participants were selected, and the Ryodoraku measurement system was utilized to measure their skin resistance change.The findings indicated that the effect of the color temperature of the lighting source on human physiological responses is significant within 90 min after turning the lights on; while after 90 min the effect of illumination on human physiological responses is higher than that of the color temperature. Moreover, the cardiovascular, digestive and endocrine systems are prone to be affected by the indoor lighting environment. During the long-term exposure to high intensity of illumination and high color temperature (2000Lux -6500K), the effect on the psychological responses turned moderate after the human visual system adopted to the lighting environment. However, the effect of the Ryodoraku value on human physiological responses was more significant with the increase of perceptive time. The effect of long time exposure to a lighting environment on the physiological responses is greater than its effect on the psychological responses. This conclusion is different from the traditional public viewpoint that the effect on the psychological responses is greater.

Keywords: Autonomic nervous system, Human responses, Office Lighting Environment, Ryodoraku, Meridian

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1611
7420 The Television Morning News for Thai Undergraduate Students: Information Exposure, Uses and Gratifications

Authors: Nantida Otakum

Abstract:

The purposes of the study are to study and to investigate the relationship among exposure, uses and gratifications of television morning news among undergraduate students in Bangkok. This study also compares differences in information exposure, uses and gratifications of television morning news among these students. The research methodology employed a questionnaire as a quantitative method. The respondents were undergraduate students at public and private universities in Bangkok. Totally, 400 usable questionnaires were received. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in data analysis. The results indicated that information exposure of undergraduate students in Bangkok was at a high level. Students’ uses and gratifications were also at high level. Information exposure was positively correlated with uses and gratifications. Uses of information were positively correlated with satisfaction with information. The results also showed that students with differences in sex and type of university were not significantly different in information exposure, and uses and gratifications.

Keywords: Television Morning News, Information Exposure, Uses and Gratifications.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1591
7419 Optimization of R507A-R23 Cascade Refrigeration System using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: A. D. Parekh, P. R. Tailor, H.R Jivanramajiwala

Abstract:

The present work deals with optimization of cascade refrigeration system using eco friendly refrigerants pair R507A and R23. R507A is azeotropic mixture composed of HFC refrigerants R125/R143a (50%/50% by wt.). R23 is a single component HFC refrigerant used as replacement to CFC refrigerant R13 in low temperature applications. These refrigerants have zero ozone depletion potential and are non-flammable. Optimization of R507AR23 cascade refrigeration system performance parameters such as minimum work required, refrigeration effect, coefficient of performance and exergetic efficiency was carried out in terms of eight operating parameters- combinations using Genetic Algorithm tool. The eight operating parameters include (1) low side evaporator temperature (2) high side condenser temperature (3) temperature difference in the cascade heat exchanger (4) low side condenser temperature (5) low side degree of subcooling (6) high side degree of subcooling (7) low side degree of superheating (8) high side degree of superheating. Results show that for minimum work system should operate at high temperature in low side evaporator, low temperature in high side condenser, low temperature difference in cascade condenser, high temperature in low side condenser and low degree of subcooling and superheating in both side. For maximum refrigeration effect system should operate at high temperature in low side evaporator, high temperature in high side condenser, high temperature difference in cascade condenser, low temperature in low side condenser and higher degree of subcooling in LT and HT side. For maximum coefficient of performance and exergetic efficiency, system should operate at high temperature in low side evaporator, low temperature in high side condenser, low temperature difference in cascade condenser, high temperature in low side condenser and higher degree of subcooling and superheating in low side of the system.

Keywords: Cascade refrigeration system, Genetic Algorithm, R507A, R23,

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1853
7418 3D Modeling of Temperature by Finite Element in Machining with Experimental Authorization

Authors: P. Mottaghizadeh, M. Bagheri

Abstract:

In the present paper, the three-dimensional temperature field of tool is determined during the machining and compared with experimental work on C45 workpiece using carbide cutting tool inserts. During the metal cutting operations, high temperature is generated in the tool cutting edge which influence on the rate of tool wear. Temperature is most important characteristic of machining processes; since many parameters such as cutting speed, surface quality and cutting forces depend on the temperature and high temperatures can cause high mechanical stresses which lead to early tool wear and reduce tool life. Therefore, considerable attention is paid to determine tool temperatures. The experiments are carried out for dry and orthogonal machining condition. The results show that the increase of tool temperature depends on depth of cut and especially cutting speed in high range of cutting conditions.

Keywords: Finite element method, Machining, Temperature measurement, Thermal fields

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1801
7417 Temperature Sensor IC Design for Intracranial Monitoring Device

Authors: Wai Pan Chan, Minkyu Je

Abstract:

A precision CMOS chopping amplifier is adopted in this work to improve a CMOS temperature sensor high sensitive enough for intracranial temperature monitoring. An amplified temperature sensitivity of 18.8 ± 3*0.2 mV/oC is attained over the temperature range from 20 oC to 80 oC from a given 10 samples of the same wafer. The analog frontend design outputs the temperature dependent and the temperature independent signals which can be directly interfaced to a 10 bit ADC to accomplish an accurate temperature instrumentation system.

Keywords: Chopping, analog frontend, CMOS temperature sensor, traumatic brain injury (TBI), intracranial temperature monitoring.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1712
7416 Post Elevated Temperature Effect on the Strength and Microstructure of Thin High Performance Cementitious Composites (THPCC)

Authors: A. Q. Sobia, A. Shyzleen, M. S. Hamidah, I. Azmi, S. F. A. Rafeeqi, S. Ahmad

Abstract:

Reinforced Concrete (RC) structures strengthened with fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) lack in thermal resistance under elevated temperatures in the event of fire. This phenomenon led to the lining of strengthened concrete with thin high performance cementitious composites (THPCC) to protect the substrate against elevated temperature. Elevated temperature effects on THPCC, based on different cementitious materials have been studied in the past but high-alumina cement (HAC)-based THPCC have not been well characterized. This research study will focus on the THPCC based on HAC replaced by 60%, 70%, 80% and 85% of ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS). Samples were evaluated by the measurement of their mechanical strength (28 & 56 days of curing) after exposed to 400°C, 600°C and 28°C of room temperature for comparison and corroborated by their microstructure study. Results showed that among all mixtures, the mix containing only HAC showed the highest compressive strength after exposed to 600°C as compared to other mixtures. However, the tensile strength of THPCC made of HAC and 60% GGBS content was comparable to the THPCC with HAC only after exposed to 600°C. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) images of THPCC accompanying Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis revealed that the microstructure deteriorated considerably after exposure to elevated temperatures which led to the decrease in mechanical strength.

Keywords: Ground granulated blast furnace slag, high aluminacement, microstructure at elevated temperature and residual strength.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2045
7415 Microstructure and High Temperature Deformation Behavior of Cast 310S Alloy

Authors: Jung-Ho Moon, Myung-Gon Yoon, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

High temperature deformation behavior of cast 310S stainless steel has been investigated in this study by performing tensile and compression tests at temperatures from 900 to 1200oC. Rectangular ingots of which the dimensions were 350×350×100 in millimeter were cast using vacuum induction melting. Phase equilibrium was calculated using the FactSage®, thermodynamic software and database. Thermal expansion coefficient was also measured on the ingot in the temperature range from room temperature to 1200oC. Tensile strength of cast 310S stainless steel was 9 MPa at 1200oC, which is a little higher than that of a wrought 310S. With temperature decreased, tensile strength increased rapidly and reached up to 72 MPa at 900oC. Elongation also increased with temperature decreased. Microstructure observation revealed that s phase was precipitated along the grain boundary and within the matrix over 1200oC, which is detrimental to high temperature elongation.

Keywords: Stainless steel, STS 310S, high temperature deformation, microstructure, mechanical properties.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2965
7414 High Temperature Hydrogen Sensors Based On Pd/Ta2O5/SiC MOS Capacitor

Authors: J. H. Choi, S. J. Kim, M. S. Jung, S. J. Kim, S. J. Joo, S. C. Kim

Abstract:

There are a many of needs for the development of SiC-based hydrogen sensor for harsh environment applications. We fabricated and investigated Pd/Ta2O5/SiC-based hydrogen sensors with MOS capacitor structure for high temperature process monitoring and leak detection applications in such automotive, chemical and petroleum industries as well as direct monitoring of combustion processes. In this work, we used silicon carbide (SiC) as a substrate to replace silicon which operating temperatures are limited to below 200°C. Tantalum oxide was investigated as dielectric layer which has high permeability for hydrogen gas and high dielectric permittivity, compared with silicon dioxide or silicon nitride. Then, electrical response properties, such as I-V curve and dependence of capacitance on hydrogen concentrations were analyzed in the temperature ranges of room temperature to 500°C for performance evaluation of the sensor.

Keywords: High temperature, hydrogen sensor, SiC, Ta2O5 dielectric layer.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1777
7413 Recurring as a Means of Partial Strength Recovery of Concrete Subjected to Elevated Temperatures

Authors: Shree Laxmi Prashant, Subhash C. Yaragal, K. S. Babu Narayan

Abstract:

Concrete is found to undergo degradation when subjected to elevated temperatures and loose substantial amount of its strength. The loss of strength in concrete is mainly attributed to decomposition of C-S-H and release of physically and chemically bound water, which begins when the exposure temperature exceeds 100°C. When such a concrete comes in contact with moisture, the cement paste is found rehydrate and considerable amount of strength lost is found to recover. This paper presents results of an experimental program carried out to investigate the effect of recuring on strength gain of OPC concrete specimens subjected to elevated temperatures from 200°C to 800°C, which were subjected to retention time of two hours and four hours at the designated temperature. Strength recoveries for concrete subjected to 7 designated elevated temperatures are compared. It is found that the efficacy of recuring as a measure of strength recovery reduces with increase in exposure temperature.

Keywords: Elevated Temperature, Recuring, Strength Recovery, Compressive strength.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2092
7412 Thermal Cracking Respone of Reinforced Concrete Beam to Gradient Temperature

Authors: L. Dahmani, M.Kouane

Abstract:

In this paper are illustrated the principal aspects connected with the numerical evaluation of thermal stress induced by high gradient temperature in the concrete beam. The reinforced concrete beam has many advantages over steel beam, such as high resistance to high temperature, high resistance to thermal shock, Better resistance to fatigue and buckling, strong resistance against, fire, explosion, etc. The main drawback of the reinforced concrete beam is its poor resistance to tensile stresses. In order to investigate the thermal induced tensile stresses, a numerical model of a transient thermal analysis is presented for the evaluation of thermo-mechanical response of concrete beam to the high temperature, taking into account the temperature dependence of the thermo physical properties of the concrete like thermal conductivity and specific heat.

Keywords: Cracking, Gradient Temperature, Reinforced Concrete beam, Thermo-mechanical analysis.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3414
7411 Comparison of Welding Fumes Exposure during Standing and Sitting Welder’s Position

Authors: Azian Hariri, M. Z. M Yusof, A. M. Leman

Abstract:

Experimental study was conducted to assess personal welding fumes exposure toward welders during an aluminum metal inert gas (MIG) process. The welding process was carried out by a welding machine attached to a Computer Numerical Control (CNC) workbench. A dummy welder was used to replicate welder during welding works and was attached with sampling pumps and filter cassettes for welding fumes sampling. Direct reading instruments to measure air velocity, humidity, temperature and particulate matter with diameter size 10µm or less (PM10) were located behind the dummy welder and parallel to the neck collar level to make sure the measured welding fumes exposure were not being influenced by other factors. Welding fumes exposure during standing and sitting position with and without the usage of local exhaust ventilation (LEV) was investigated. Welding fume samples were then digested and analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) according to ASTM D7439-08 method. The results of the study showed the welding fume exposure during sitting was lower compared to standing position. LEV helped reduce aluminum and lead exposure to acceptable levels during standing position. However during sitting position reduction of exposure was smaller. It can be concluded that welder position and the correct positioning of LEV should be implemented for effective exposure reduction. 

Keywords: ICP-MS, MIG process, personal sampling, welding fumes exposure.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2378
7410 A High Precision Temperature Insensitive Current and Voltage Reference Generator

Authors: Kimberly Jane S. Uy, Patricia Angela Reyes-Abu, Wen Yaw Chung

Abstract:

A high precision temperature insensitive current and voltage reference generator is presented. It is specifically developed for temperature compensated oscillator. The circuit, designed using MXIC 0.5um CMOS technology, has an operating voltage that ranges from 2.6V to 5V and generates a voltage of 1.21V and a current of 6.38 ӴA. It exhibits a variation of ±0.3nA for the current reference and a stable output for voltage reference as the temperature is varied from 0°C to 70°C. The power supply rejection ratio obtained without any filtering capacitor at 100Hz and 10MHz is -30dB and -12dB respectively.

Keywords: Current reference, voltage reference, threshold voltage, temperature compensation, mobility.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2040
7409 High-Temperature Corrosion of Weldment of Fe-2%Mn-0.5%Si Steel in N2/H2O/H2S-Mixed Gas

Authors: Sang Hwan Bak, Min Jung Kim, Dong Bok Lee

Abstract:

Fe-2%Mn-0.5%Si-0.2C steel was welded and corroded at 600, 700 and 800oC for 20 h in 1 atm of N2/H2S/H2O-mixed gas in order to characterize the high-temperature corrosion behavior of the welded joint. Corrosion proceeded fast and almost linearly. It increased with an increase in the corrosion temperature. H2S formed FeS owing to sulfur released from H2S. The scales were fragile and nonadherent.

Keywords: Fe-Mn-Si Steel, Corrosion, Welding, Sulfidation, H2S Gas.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1598
7408 Comparison of Ageing Deterioration of Silicone Rubber Housing Material for Outdoor Polymer Insulators

Authors: S.Thong-Om, W. Payakcho, J. Grasasom, A. Oonsivilaiand B. Marungsri

Abstract:

This paper presents the comparison ageing deterioration of silicone rubber housing material for outdoor polymer insulators by using salt fog ageing test based on IEC 61109 and outdoor exposure test.Four types of high temperature silicone vulcanized silicone rubber sheet with different amount of ATH were used as testing specimen. For salt fog ageing test, the specimens were tested continuously 1000 hours with energized in test chamber. For outdoor exposure test, the specimens were hung continuously 18 months without energized. Physical and chemical analyses were conducted to evaluate degree of ageing deterioration of tested specimens. Slightly surface erosion was observed on specimen surface after salt fog ageing test and no erosion was observed on surface of outdoor exposure specimen. However, comparable degree of ageing deterioration can be seen from surface analysis results.

Keywords: Accelerated ageing test, outdoor exposure test, HTV silicone rubber, housing material, salt fog test, surface erosion, polymer insulator

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3631
7407 One Dimensional Reactor Modeling for Methanol Steam Reforming to Hydrogen

Authors: Hongfang Ma, Mingchuan Zhou, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

One dimensional pseudo-homogenous modeling has been performed for methanol steam reforming reactor. The results show that the models can well predict the industrial data. The reactor had minimum temperature along axial because of endothermic reaction. Hydrogen productions and temperature profiles along axial were investigated regarding operation conditions such as inlet mass flow rate and mass fraction of methanol, inlet temperature of external thermal oil. Low inlet mass flow rate of methanol, low inlet temperature, and high mass fraction of methanol decreased minimum temperature along axial. Low inlet mass flow rate of methanol, high mass fraction of methanol, and high inlet temperature of thermal oil made cold point forward. Low mass fraction, high mass flow rate, and high inlet temperature of thermal oil increased hydrogen production. One dimensional models can be a guide for industrial operation.

Keywords: Reactor, modeling, methanol, steam reforming.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 429
7406 Effect of Preheating Temperature and Chamber Pressure on the Properties of Porous NiTi Alloy Prepared by SHS Technique

Authors: Wisutmethangoon S., Denmud N., Sikong L.

Abstract:

The fabrication of porous NiTi shape memory alloys (SMAs) from elemental powder compacts was conducted by selfpropagating high temperature synthesis (SHS). Effects of the preheating temperature and the chamber pressure on the combustion characteristics as well as the final morphology and the composition of products were studied. The samples with porosity between 56.4 and 59.0% under preheating temperature in the range of 200-300°C and Ar-gas chamber pressure of 138 and 201 kPa were obtained. The pore structures were found to be dissimilar only in the samples processed with different preheating temperature. The major phase in the porous product is NiTi with small amounts of secondary phases, NiTi2 and Ni4Ti3. The preheating temperature and the chamber pressure have very little effect on the phase constituent. While the combustion temperature of the sample was notably increased by increasing the preheating temperature, they were slightly changed by varying the chamber pressure.

Keywords: Combustion synthesis, porous materials, self propagating high temperature synthesis, shape memory alloy.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1444
7405 Physical and Thermo-Physical Properties of High Strength Concrete Containing Raw Rice Husk after High Temperature Effect

Authors: B. Akturk, N. Yuzer, N. Kabay

Abstract:

High temperature is one of the most detrimental effects that cause important changes in concrete’s mechanical, physical, and thermo-physical properties. As a result of these changes, especially high strength concrete (HSC), may exhibit damages such as cracks and spallings. To overcome this problem, incorporating polymer fibers such as polypropylene (PP) in concrete is a very well-known method. In this study, using RRH, as a sustainable material, instead of PP fiber in HSC to prevent spallings and improve physical and thermo-physical properties were investigated. Therefore, seven HSC mixtures with 0.25 water to binder ratio were prepared incorporating silica fume and blast furnace slag. PP and RRH were used at 0.2-0.5% and 0.5-3% by weight of cement, respectively. All specimens were subjected to high temperatures (20 (control), 300, 600 and 900˚C) with a heating rate of 2.5˚C/min and after cooling, residual physical and thermo-physical properties were determined.

Keywords: High temperature, high strength concrete, polypropylene fiber, raw rice husk, thermo-physical properties.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1931
7404 Mechanical Properties and Released Gas Analysis of High Strength Concrete with Polypropylene and Raw Rice Husk under High Temperature Effect

Authors: B. Akturk, N. Yuzer, N. Kabay

Abstract:

When concrete is exposed to high temperatures, some changes may occur in its physical and mechanical properties. Especially, high strength concrete (HSC), may exhibit damages such as cracks and spallings. To overcome this problem, incorporating polymer fibers such as polypropylene (PP) in concrete is a well-known method. In high temperatures, PP decomposes and releases harmful gases such as CO and CO2. This study researches the use of raw rice husk (RRH) as a sustainable material, instead of PP fibers considering its several favorable properties, and its usability in HSC. RRH and PP fibers were incorporated in concrete at 0.5-3% and 0.2-0.5% by weight of cement, respectively. Concrete specimens were exposed to 20 (control), 300, 600 and 900°C. Under these temperatures, residual compressive and splitting tensile strength was determined. During the high temperature effect, the amount of released harmful gases was measured by a gas detector.

Keywords: Gas analysis, high temperature, high strength concrete, polypropylene fibers, raw rice husk.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1907
7403 Resistive RAM Based on Hfox and its Temperature Instability Study

Authors: Z. Fang, H.Y. Yu, W.J. Liu, N. Singh, G.Q. Lo

Abstract:

High performance Resistive Random Access Memory (RRAM) based on HfOx has been prepared and its temperature instability has been investigated in this work. With increasing temperature, it is found that: leakage current at high resistance state increases, which can be explained by the higher density of traps inside dielectrics (related to trap-assistant tunneling), leading to a smaller On/Off ratio; set and reset voltages decrease, which may be attributed to the higher oxygen ion mobility, in addition to the reduced potential barrier to create / recover oxygen ions (or oxygen vacancies); temperature impact on the RRAM retention degradation is more serious than electrical bias.

Keywords: RRAM, resistive switching, temperature instability.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2194
7402 Simulation of Climate Variability for Assessing Impacts on Yield and Genetic Change of Thai Soybean

Authors: Kanita Thanacharoenchanaphas, Orose Rugchati

Abstract:

This study assessed the effects of climate change on Thai soybeans under simulation situations. Our study is focused on temperature variability and effects on growth, yield, and genetic changes in 2 generations of Chiang Mai 60 cultivars. In the experiment, soybeans were exposed to 3 levels of air temperature for 8 h day-1 in an open top chamber for 2 cropping periods. Air temperature levels in each treatment were controlled at 30-33°C (± 2.3) for LT-treatment, 33-36°C ( ± 2.4) for AT-treatment, and 36-40 °C ( ± 3.2) for HT-treatment, respectively. Positive effects of high temperature became obvious at the maturing stage when yield significantly increased in both cropping periods. Results in growth indicated that shoot length at the pre-maturing stage (V3-R3) was more positively affected by high temperature than at the maturing stage. However, the positive effect on growth under high temperature was not found in the 2nd cropping period. Finally, genetic changes were examined in phenotype characteristics by the AFLPs technique. The results showed that the high temperature factor clearly caused genetic change in the soybeans and showed more alteration in the 2nd cropping period.

Keywords: simulation, air temperature, variability, Thai soybean, yield , genetic change

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1464
7401 Temperature-Dependence of Hardness and Wear Resistance of Stellite Alloys

Authors: S. Kapoor, R. Liu, X. J. Wu, M. X. Yao

Abstract:

A group of Stellite alloys are studied in consideration of temperature effects on their hardness and wear resistance. The hardness test is conducted on a micro-hardness tester with a hot stage equipped that allows heating the specimen up to 650°C. The wear resistance of each alloy is evaluated using a pin-on-disc tribometer with a heating furnace built-in that provides the temperature capacity up to 450°C. The experimental results demonstrate that the hardness and wear resistance of Stellite alloys behave differently at room temperature and at high temperatures. The wear resistance of Stellite alloys at room temperature mainly depends on their carbon content and also influenced by the tungsten content in the alloys. However, at high temperatures the wear mechanisms of Stellite alloys become more complex, involving multiple factors. The relationships between chemical composition, microstructure, hardness and wear resistance of these alloys are studied, with focus on temperature effect on these relations.

Keywords: Stellite alloy, temperature, hardness, wear resistance

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 6073
7400 Interspecific Variation in Heat Stress Tolerance and Oxidative Damage among 15 C3 Species

Authors: Wagdi S. Soliman, Shu-ichi Sugiyama

Abstract:

The C3 plants are frequently suffering from exposure to high temperature stress which limits the growth and yield of these plants. This study seeks to clarify the physiological mechanisms of heat tolerance in relation to oxidative stress in C3 species. Fifteen C3 species were exposed to prolonged moderately high temperature stress 36/30°C for 40 days in a growth chamber. Chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) showed great difference among species at 40 days of the stress. The species showed decreases in Fv/Fm and increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) content under stress condition as well as negative correlation between Fv/Fm and MDA (r = -0.61*) at 40 days of the stress. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content before and after stress in addition to its response under stress showed great differences among species. The results suggest that the difference in heat tolerance among C3 species is closely associated with the ability to suppress oxidative damage but not with the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which is regulated by complex network.

Keywords: C3 species, Fv/Fm, heat stress, oxidative stress.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1512
7399 The Conditioning Effect on Celebrity Multiple Endorsements

Authors: Chia-Ching Tsai

Abstract:

This research adapts experimental design to investigate the effect of conditioning or not and pre-exposure or not on brand attitude, so it is a 2×2=4 factorial design. The results show that the brand attitude of conditioning group is significantly higher than that of unconditioning group. The brand attitude with pre-exposure is significantly higher than that without pre-exposure. Conditioning or not and pre-exposure or not have significant interaction. No matter the celebrity is pre-exposure or not, the brand attitude is higher under conditioning process.

Keywords: Celebrity, Multiple endorsements, Pre-exposure, Classical condition, Second-order conditioning

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2565
7398 Temperature Effect on the Organic Solar Cells Parameters

Authors: F.Belhocine-Nemmar; MS.Belkaid D. Hatem, O Boughias

Abstract:

In this work, the influence of temperature on the different parameters of solar cells based on organic semiconductors are studied. The short circuit current Isc increases so monotonous with temperature and then saturates to a maximum value before decreasing at high temperatures. The open circuit voltage Vco decreases linearly with temperature. The fill factor FF and efficiency, which are directly related with Isc and Vco follow the variations of the letters. The phenomena are explained by the behaviour of the mobility which is a temperature activated process.

Keywords: cells parameters, organic materials, solar cells, temperature effect

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2323
7397 Residual Modulus of Elasticity of Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporated Unprocessed Waste Fly Ash after Expose to the Elevated Temperature

Authors: Mohammed Abed, Rita Nemes, Salem Nehme

Abstract:

The present study experimentally investigated the impact of incorporating unprocessed waste fly ash (UWFA) on the residual mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) after exposure to elevated temperature. Three mixtures of SCC have been produced by replacing the cement mass by 0%, 15% and 30% of UWFA. Generally, the fire resistance of SCC has been enhanced by replacing the cement up to 15% of UWFA, especially in case of residual modulus of elasticity which considers more sensitive than other mechanical properties at elevated temperature. However, a strong linear relationship has been observed between the residual flexural strength and modulus of elasticity, where both of them affected significantly by the cracks appearance and propagation as a result of elevated temperature. Sustainable products could be produced by incorporating unprocessed waste powder materials in the production of concrete, where the waste materials, CO2 emissions, and the energy needed for processing are reduced.

Keywords: Self-compacting high-performance concrete, unprocessed waste fly ash, fire resistance, residual modulus of elasticity.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 391
7396 Possible Exposure of Persons with Cardiac Pacemakers to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Electric and Magnetic Fields

Authors: Leena Korpinen, Rauno Pääkkönen, Fabriziomaria Gobba, Vesa Virtanen

Abstract:

The number of persons with implanted cardiac pacemakers (PM) has increased in Western countries. The aim of this paper is to investigate the possible situations where persons with a PM may be exposed to extremely low frequency (ELF) electric (EF) and magnetic fields (MF) that may disturb their PM. Based on our earlier studies, it is possible to find such high public exposure to EFs only in some places near 400 kV power lines, where an EF may disturb a PM in unipolar mode. Such EFs cannot be found near 110 kV power lines. Disturbing MFs can be found near welding machines. However, we do not have measurement data from welding. Based on literature and earlier studies at Tampere University of Technology, it is difficult to find public EF or MF exposure that is high enough to interfere with PMs.

Keywords: Cardiac Pacemaker, Electric Field, Magnetic Field.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2299