Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 128

Search results for: functionally graded interphase

128 Development of an Elastic Functionally Graded Interphase Model for the Micromechanics Response of Composites

Authors: Trevor Sabiston, Mohsen Mohammadi, Mohammed Cherkaoui, Kaan Inal

Abstract:

A new micromechanics framework is developed for long fibre reinforced composites using a single fibre surrounded by a functionally graded interphase and matrix as a representative unit cell. The unit cell is formulated to represent any number of aligned fibres by a single fibre. Using this model the elastic response of long fibre composites is predicted in all directions. The model is calibrated to experimental results and shows very good agreement in the elastic regime. The differences between the proposed model and existing models are discussed.

Keywords: Computational mechanics, functionally graded interphase, long fibre composites, micromechanics.

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127 Unsteady Temperature Distribution in a Finite Functionally Graded Cylinder

Authors: A. Amiri Delouei

Abstract:

In the current study, two-dimensional unsteady heat conduction in a functionally graded cylinder is studied analytically. The temperature distribution is in radial and longitudinal directions. Heat conduction coefficients are considered a power function of radius both in radial and longitudinal directions. The proposed solution can exactly satisfy the boundary conditions. Analytical unsteady temperature distribution for different parameters of functionally graded cylinder is investigated. The achieved exact solution is useful for thermal stress analysis of functionally graded cylinders. Regarding the analytical approach, this solution can be used to understand the concepts of heat conduction in functionally graded materials.

Keywords: Functionally graded materials, unsteady heat conduction, cylinder, Temperature distribution.

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126 Effect of Shear Theories on Free Vibration of Functionally Graded Plates

Authors: M. Karami Khorramabadi, M. M. Najafizadeh, J. Alibabaei Shahraki, P. Khazaeinejad

Abstract:

Analytical solution of the first-order and third-order shear deformation theories are developed to study the free vibration behavior of simply supported functionally graded plates. The material properties of plate are assumed to be graded in the thickness direction as a power law distribution of volume fraction of the constituents. The governing equations of functionally graded plates are established by applying the Hamilton's principle and are solved by using the Navier solution method. The influence of side-tothickness ratio and constituent of volume fraction on the natural frequencies are studied. The results are validated with the known data in the literature.

Keywords: Free vibration, Functionally graded plate, Naviersolution method.

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125 Free Vibration Analysis of Functionally Graded Beams

Authors: Gholam Reza Koochaki

Abstract:

This work presents the highly accurate numerical calculation of the natural frequencies for functionally graded beams with simply supported boundary conditions. The Timoshenko first order shear deformation beam theory and the higher order shear deformation beam theory of Reddy have been applied to the functionally graded beams analysis. The material property gradient is assumed to be in the thickness direction. The Hamilton-s principle is utilized to obtain the dynamic equations of functionally graded beams. The influences of the volume fraction index and thickness-to-length ratio on the fundamental frequencies are discussed. Comparison of the numerical results for the homogeneous beam with Euler-Bernoulli beam theory results show that the derived model is satisfactory.

Keywords: Functionally graded beam, Free vibration, Hamilton's principle.

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124 Mechanical Buckling of Functionally Graded Engesser-Timoshenko Beams Located on a Continuous Elastic Foundation

Authors: M. Karami Khorramabadi, A. R. Nezamabadi

Abstract:

This paper studies mechanical buckling of functionally graded beams subjected to axial compressive load that is simply supported at both ends lies on a continuous elastic foundation. The displacement field of beam is assumed based on Engesser-Timoshenko beam theory. Applying the Hamilton's principle, the equilibrium equation is established. The influences of dimensionless geometrical parameter, functionally graded index and foundation coefficient on the critical buckling load of beam are presented. To investigate the accuracy of the present analysis, a compression study is carried out with a known data.

Keywords: Mechanical Buckling, Functionally graded beam- Engesser-Timoshenko beam theory

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123 Steady State Creep Behavior of Functionally Graded Thick Cylinder

Authors: Tejeet Singh, Harmanjit Singh

Abstract:

Creep behavior of thick-walled functionally graded cylinder consisting of AlSiC and subjected to internal pressure and high temperature has been analyzed. The functional relationship between strain rate with stress can be described by the well known threshold stress based creep law with a stress exponent of five. The effect of imposing non-linear particle gradient on the distribution of creep stresses in the thick-walled functionally graded composite cylinder has been investigated. The study revealed that for the assumed non-linear particle distribution, the radial stress decreases throughout the cylinder, whereas the tangential, axial and effective stresses have averaging effect. The strain rates in the functionally graded composite cylinder could be reduced to significant extent by employing non-linear gradient in the distribution of reinforcement.

Keywords: Functionally Graded Material, Pressure, Steady State Creep, Thick-Cylinder.

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122 Stability of Functionally Graded Beams with Piezoelectric Layers Based on the First Order Shear Deformation Theory

Authors: M. Karami Khorramabadi, A. R. Nezamabadi

Abstract:

Stability of functionally graded beams with piezoelectric layers subjected to axial compressive load that is simply supported at both ends is studied in this paper. The displacement field of beam is assumed based on first order shear deformation beam theory. Applying the Hamilton's principle, the governing equation is established. The influences of applied voltage, dimensionless geometrical parameter, functionally graded index and piezoelectric thickness on the critical buckling load of beam are presented. To investigate the accuracy of the present analysis, a compression study is carried out with a known data.

Keywords: Stability, Functionally graded beam, First order shear deformation theory, Piezoelectric layer.

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121 A High Order Theory for Functionally Graded Shell

Authors: V. V. Zozulya

Abstract:

New theory for functionally graded (FG) shell based on expansion of the equations of elasticity for functionally graded materials (GFMs) into Legendre polynomials series has been developed. Stress and strain tensors, vectors of displacements, traction and body forces have been expanded into Legendre polynomials series in a thickness coordinate. In the same way functions that describe functionally graded relations has been also expanded. Thereby all equations of elasticity including Hook-s law have been transformed to corresponding equations for Fourier coefficients. Then system of differential equations in term of displacements and boundary conditions for Fourier coefficients has been obtained. Cases of the first and second approximations have been considered in more details. For obtained boundary-value problems solution finite element (FE) has been used of Numerical calculations have been done with Comsol Multiphysics and Matlab.

Keywords: Shell, FEM, FGM, legendre polynomial.

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120 Thermal and Mechanical Buckling of Short and Long Functionally Graded Cylindrical Shells Using First Order Shear Deformation Theory

Authors: O. Miraliyari, M.M. Najafizadeh, A.R. Rahmani, A. Momeni Hezaveh

Abstract:

This paper presents the buckling analysis of short and long functionally graded cylindrical shells under thermal and mechanical loads. The shell properties are assumed to vary continuously from the inner surface to the outer surface of the shell. The equilibrium and stability equations are derived using the total potential energy equations, Euler equations and first order shear deformation theory assumptions. The resulting equations are solved for simply supported boundary conditions. The critical temperature and pressure loads are calculated for both short and long cylindrical shells. Comparison studies show the effects of functionally graded index, loading type and shell geometry on critical buckling loads of short and long functionally graded cylindrical shells.

Keywords: Buckling, Functionally graded materials, Short and long cylindrical shell, Thermal and mechanical loads.

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119 Large Vibration Amplitude of Circular Functionally Graded Plates Resting on Pasternak Foundations

Authors: El Kaak Rachid, El Bikri Khalid, Benamar Rhali

Abstract:

In the present study, the problem of geometrically nonlinear free vibrations of functionally graded circular plates (FGCP) resting on Pasternak elastic foundation with immovable ends was studied. The material properties of the functionally graded composites examined were assumed to be graded in the thickness direction and estimated through the rule of mixture. The theoretical model is based on the classical Plate theory and the Von Kármán geometrical nonlinearity assumptions. Hamilton’s principle is applied and a multimode approach is derived to calculate the fundamental nonlinear frequency parameters, which are found to be in a good agreement with the published results dealing with the problem of functionally graded plates. On the other hand, the influence of the foundation parameters on the nonlinear frequency to the linear frequency ratio of the FGCP has been studied. The effect of the linear and shearing foundations is to decrease the frequency ratio, where it increases with the effect of the nonlinear foundation stiffness. 

Keywords: Non-linear vibrations, Circular plates, Pasternak foundation, functionally graded materials.

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118 A Homogenisation Procedure for the Free Vibration Analysis of Functionally Graded Beams at Large Vibration Amplitudes

Authors: A. Zerkane, K. El Bikri, R. Benamar

Abstract:

The purpose of the present paper is to show that the problem of geometrically nonlinear free vibrations of functionally graded beams (FGB) with immovable ends can be reduced to that of isotropic homogeneous beams with effective bending stiffness and axial stiffness parameters by using an homogenization procedure. The material properties of the functionally graded composites examined are assumed to be graded in the thickness direction and estimated through the rule of mixture. The theoretical model is based on the Euler-Bernouilli beam theory and the Von Kármán geometrical nonlinearity assumptions. Hamilton’s principle is applied and a multimode approach is derived to calculate the fundamental nonlinear frequency parameters, which are found to be in a good agreement with the published results. The non-dimensional curvatures associated to the nonlinear fundamental mode are also given for various vibration amplitudes in the case of clamped-clamped FGB.

Keywords: Nonlinear vibrations, functionally graded materials, homogenization procedure.

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117 Comprehensive Studies on Mechanical Stress Analysis of Functionally Graded Plates

Authors: Kyung-Su Na, Ji-Hwan Kim

Abstract:

Stress analysis of functionally graded composite plates composed of ceramic, functionally graded material and metal layers is investigated using 3-D finite element method. In FGM layer, material properties are assumed to be varied continuously in the thickness direction according to a simple power law distribution in terms of the volume fraction of a ceramic and metal. The 3-D finite element model is adopted by using an 18-node solid element to analyze more accurately the variation of material properties in the thickness direction. Numerical results are compared for three types of materials. In the analysis, the tensile and the compressive stresses are summarized for various FGM thickness ratios, volume fraction distributions, geometric parameters and mechanical loads.

Keywords: Functionally graded materials, Stress analysis, 3-D finite element method

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116 Geometrically Non-Linear Free Vibration Analysis of Functionally Graded Rectangular Plates

Authors: Boukhzer Abdenbi, El Bikri Khalid, Benamar Rhali

Abstract:

In the present study, the problem of geometrically non-linear free vibrations of functionally graded rectangular plates (FGRP) is studied. The theoretical model, previously developed and based on Hamilton’s principle, is adapted here to determine the fundamental non-linear mode shape of these plates. Frequency parameters, displacements and stress are given for various power-law distributions of the volume fractions of the constituents and various aspect ratios. Good agreement with previous published results is obtained in the case of linear and non-linear analyses.

Keywords: Non-linear vibration, functionally graded materials, rectangular plates.

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115 Large Vibration Amplitudes of Circular Functionally Graded Thin Plates Resting on Winkler Elastic Foundations

Authors: El Kaak, Rachid, El Bikri, Khalid, Benamar, Rhali

Abstract:

This paper describes a study of geometrically nonlinear free vibration of thin circular functionally graded (CFGP) plates resting on Winkler elastic foundations. The material properties of the functionally graded composites examined here are assumed to be graded smoothly and continuously through the direction of the plate thickness according to a power law and are estimated using the rule of mixture. The theoretical model is based on the classical Plate theory and the Von-Kármán geometrical nonlinearity assumptions. An homogenization procedure (HP) is developed to reduce the problem considered here to that of isotropic homogeneous circular plates resting on Winkler foundation. Hamilton-s principle is applied and a multimode approach is derived to calculate the fundamental nonlinear frequency parameters which are found to be in a good agreement with the published results. On the other hand, the influence of the foundation parameters on the nonlinear fundamental frequency has also been analysed.

Keywords: Functionally graded materials, nonlinear vibrations, Winkler foundation.

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114 Transient Thermal Stresses of Functionally Graded Thick Hollow Cylinder under the Green-Lindsay Model

Authors: Tariq T. Darabseh

Abstract:

The transient thermoelastic response of thick hollow cylinder made of functionally graded material under thermal loading is studied. The generalized coupled thermoelasticity based on the Green-Lindsay model is used. The thermal and mechanical properties of the functionally graded material are assumed to be varied in the radial direction according to a power law variation as a function of the volume fractions of the constituents. The thermal and elastic governing equations are solved by using Galerkin finite element method. All the finite element calculations were done by using commercial finite element program FlexPDE. The transient temperature, radial displacement, and thermal stresses distribution through the radial direction of the cylinder are plotted.

Keywords: Finite element method, thermal stresses, Green-Lindsay theory, functionally graded material.

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113 Investigation of Stability of Functionally Graded Material when Encountering Periodic Loading

Authors: M. Amiri

Abstract:

In this work, functionally graded materials (FGMs), subjected to loading, which varies with time has been studied. The material properties of FGM are changing through the thickness of material as power law distribution. The conical shells have been chosen for this study so in the first step capability equations for FGM have been obtained. With Galerkin method, these equations have been replaced with time dependant differential equations with variable coefficient. These equations have solved for different initial conditions with variation methods. Important parameters in loading conditions are semi-vertex angle, external pressure and material properties. Results validation has been done by comparison between with those in previous studies of other researchers.

Keywords: Impulsive semi-vertex angle, loading, functionally graded materials, composite material.

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112 Functionally Graded MEMS Piezoelectric Energy Harvester with Magnetic Tip Mass

Authors: M. Derayatifar, M. Packirisamy, R.B. Bhat

Abstract:

Role of piezoelectric energy harvesters has gained interest in supplying power for micro devices such as health monitoring sensors. In this study, in order to enhance the piezoelectric energy harvesting in capturing energy from broader range of excitation and to improve the mechanical and electrical responses, bimorph piezoelectric energy harvester beam with magnetic mass attached at the end is presented. In view of overcoming the brittleness of piezo-ceramics, functionally graded piezoelectric layers comprising of both piezo-ceramic and piezo-polymer is employed. The nonlinear equations of motions are derived using energy method and then solved analytically using perturbation scheme. The frequency responses of the forced vibration case are obtained for the near resonance case. The nonlinear dynamic responses of the MEMS scaled functionally graded piezoelectric energy harvester in this paper may be utilized in different design scenarios to increase the efficiency of the harvester.

Keywords: Energy harvesting, functionally graded piezoelectric material, magnetic force, MEMS piezoelectric, perturbation method.

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111 Three Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Functionally Graded Radiation Shielding Nanoengineered Sandwich Composites

Authors: Nasim Abuali Galehdari, Thomas J. Ryan, Ajit D. Kelkar

Abstract:

In recent years, nanotechnology has played an important role in the design of an efficient radiation shielding polymeric composites. It is well known that, high loading of nanomaterials with radiation absorption properties can enhance the radiation attenuation efficiency of shielding structures. However, due to difficulties in dispersion of nanomaterials into polymer matrices, there has been a limitation in higher loading percentages of nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. Therefore, the objective of the present work is to provide a methodology to fabricate and then to characterize the functionally graded radiation shielding structures, which can provide an efficient radiation absorption property along with good structural integrity. Sandwich structures composed of Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) fabric as face sheets and functionally graded epoxy nanocomposite as core material were fabricated. A method to fabricate a functionally graded core panel with controllable gradient dispersion of nanoparticles is discussed. In order to optimize the design of functionally graded sandwich composites and to analyze the stress distribution throughout the sandwich composite thickness, a finite element method was used. The sandwich panels were discretized using 3-Dimensional 8 nodded brick elements. Classical laminate analysis in conjunction with simplified micromechanics equations were used to obtain the properties of the face sheets. The presented finite element model would provide insight into deformation and damage mechanics of the functionally graded sandwich composites from the structural point of view.

Keywords: Nanotechnology, functionally graded material, radiation shielding, sandwich composites, finite element method.

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110 Vibration Analysis of Functionally Graded Engesser- Timoshenko Beams Subjected to Axial Load Located on a Continuous Elastic Foundation

Authors: M. Karami Khorramabadi, A. R. Nezamabadi

Abstract:

This paper studies free vibration of functionally graded beams Subjected to Axial Load that is simply supported at both ends lies on a continuous elastic foundation. The displacement field of beam is assumed based on Engesser-Timoshenko beam theory. The Young's modulus of beam is assumed to be graded continuously across the beam thickness. Applying the Hamilton's principle, the governing equation is established. Resulting equation is solved using the Euler's Equation. The effects of the constituent volume fractions and foundation coefficient on the vibration frequency are presented. To investigate the accuracy of the present analysis, a compression study is carried out with a known data.

Keywords: Functionally Graded Beam, Free Vibration, Elastic Foundation, Engesser-Timoshenko Beam Theory.

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109 The Effects of Various Boundary Conditions on Thermal Buckling of Functionally Graded Beamwith Piezoelectric Layers Based on Third order Shear Deformation Theory

Authors: O. Miraliyari

Abstract:

This article attempts to analyze functionally graded beam thermal buckling along with piezoelectric layers applying based on the third order shearing deformation theory considering various boundary conditions. The beam properties are assumed to vary continuously from the lower surface to the upper surface of the beam. The equilibrium equations are derived using the total potential energy equations, Euler equations, piezoelectric material constitutive equations and third order shear deformation theory assumptions. In order to fulfill such an aim, at first functionally graded beam with piezoelectric layers applying the third order shearing deformation theory along with clamped -clamped boundary conditions are thoroughly analyzed, and then following making sure of the correctness of all the equations, the very same beam is analyzed with piezoelectric layers through simply-simply and simply-clamped boundary conditions. In this article buckling critical temperature for functionally graded beam is derived in two different ways, without piezoelectric layer and with piezoelectric layer and the results are compared together. Finally, all the conclusions obtained will be compared and contrasted with the same samples in the same and distinguished conditions through tables and charts. It would be noteworthy that in this article, the software MAPLE has been applied in order to do the numeral calculations.

Keywords: Thermal buckling, functionally graded beam, piezoelectric layer, various boundary conditions.

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108 Work Function Engineering of Functionally Graded ZnO+Ga2O3 Thin Film for Solar Cell and Organic Light Emitting Diodes Applications

Authors: Yong-Taeg Oh, Won Song, Seok-Eui Choi, Bo-Ra Koo, Dong-Chan Shin

Abstract:

ZnO+Ga2O3 functionally graded thin films (FGTFs) were examined for their potential use as Solar cell and organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). FGTF transparent conducting oxides (TCO) were fabricated by combinatorial RF magnetron sputtering. The composition gradient was controlled up to 10% by changing the plasma power of the two sputter guns. A Ga2O3+ZnO graded region was placed on the top layer of ZnO. The FGTFs showed up to 80% transmittance. Their surface resistances were reduced to < 10% by increasing the Ga2O3: pure ZnO ratio in the TCO. The FGTFs- work functions could be controlled within a range of 0.18 eV. The controlled work function is a very promising technology because it reduces the contact resistance between the anode and Hall transport layers of OLED and solar cell devices.

Keywords: Work Function, TCO, Functionally Graded Thin Films, Resistance, Transmittance.

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107 Natural Frequency Analysis of a Porous Functionally Graded Shaft System

Authors: Natural Frequency Analysis of a Porous Functionally Graded Shaft System

Abstract:

The vibration characteristics of a functionally graded (FG) rotor model having porosities and micro-voids is investigated using three-dimensional finite element analysis. The FG shaft is mounted with a steel disc located at the midspan. The shaft ends are supported on isotropic bearings. The FG material is composed of a metallic (stainless-steel) and ceramic phase (zirconium oxide) as its constituent phases. The layer wise material property variation is governed by power law. Material property equations are developed for the porosity modelling. Python code is developed to assign the material properties to each layer including the effect of porosities. ANSYS commercial software is used to extract the natural frequencies and whirl frequencies for the FG shaft system. The obtained results show the influence of porosity volume fraction and power-law index, on the vibration characteristics of the ceramic-based FG shaft system.

Keywords: Finite element method, functionally graded material, porosity volume fraction, power law.

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106 Free Vibration Analysis of Smart FGM Plates

Authors: F.Ebrahimi, A.Rastgo

Abstract:

Analytical investigation of the free vibration behavior of circular functionally graded (FG) plates integrated with two uniformly distributed actuator layers made of piezoelectric (PZT4) material on the top and bottom surfaces of the circular FG plate based on the classical plate theory (CPT) is presented in this paper. The material properties of the functionally graded substrate plate are assumed to be graded in the thickness direction according to the power-law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents and the distribution of electric potential field along the thickness direction of piezoelectric layers is simulated by a quadratic function. The differential equations of motion are solved analytically for clamped edge boundary condition of the plate. The detailed mathematical derivations are presented and Numerical investigations are performed for FG plates with two surface-bonded piezoelectric layers. Emphasis is placed on investigating the effect of varying the gradient index of FG plate on the free vibration characteristics of the structure. The results are verified by those obtained from threedimensional finite element analyses.

Keywords: Circular plate, CPT, Functionally graded, Piezoelectric.

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105 Mechanical and Thermal Stresses in Functionally Graded Cylinders

Authors: A. Kurşun, E. Kara, E. Çetin, Ş. Aksoy, A. Kesimli

Abstract:

In this study, thermal elastic stress distribution occurred on long hollow cylinders made of functionally graded material (FGM) was analytically defined under thermal, mechanical and thermo mechanical loads. In closed form solutions for elastic stresses and displacements are obtained analytically by using the infinitesimal deformation theory of elasticity. It was assumed that elasticity modulus, thermal expansion coefficient and density of cylinder materials could change in terms of an exponential function as for that Poisson’s ratio was constant. A gradient parameter n is chosen between - 1 and 1. When n equals to zero, the disc becomes isotropic. Circumferential, radial and longitudinal stresses in the FGMs cylinders are depicted in the figures. As a result, the gradient parameters have great effects on the stress systems of FGMs cylinders.

Keywords: Functionally graded materials, hollow cylinder, thermoelasticity, thermomechanical load.

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104 On Graded Semiprime Submodules

Authors: Farkhonde Farzalipour, Peyman Ghiasvand

Abstract:

Let G be an arbitrary group with identity e and let R be a G-graded ring. In this paper we define graded semiprime submodules of a graded R-moduleM and we give a number of results concerning such submodules. Also, we extend some results of graded semiprime submoduls to graded weakly semiprime submodules.

Keywords: graded semiprime, graded weakly semiprime, graded secondary

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103 Free Vibration of Axially Functionally Graded Simply Supported Beams Using Differential Transformation Method

Authors: A. Selmi

Abstract:

Free vibration analysis of homogenous and axially functionally graded simply supported beams within the context of Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is presented in this paper. The material properties of the beams are assumed to obey the linear law distribution. The effective elastic modulus of the composite was predicted by using the rule of mixture. Here, the complexities which appear in solving differential equation of transverse vibration of composite beams which limit the analytical solution to some special cases are overcome using a relatively new approach called the Differential Transformation Method. This technique is applied for solving differential equation of transverse vibration of axially functionally graded beams. Natural frequencies and corresponding normalized mode shapes are calculated for different Young’s modulus ratios. MATLAB code is designed to solve the transformed differential equation of the beam. Comparison of the present results with the exact solutions proves the effectiveness, the accuracy, the simplicity, and computational stability of the differential transformation method. The effect of the Young’s modulus ratio on the normalized natural frequencies and mode shapes is found to be very important.

Keywords: Differential transformation method, functionally graded material, mode shape, natural frequency.

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102 Effects of Thread Dimensions of Functionally Graded Dental Implants on Stress Distribution

Authors: Kaman M. O., Celik N.

Abstract:

In this study, stress distributions on dental implants made of functionally graded biomaterials (FGBM) are investigated numerically. The implant body is considered to be subjected to axial compression loads. Numerical problem is assumed to be 2D, and ANSYS commercial software is used for the analysis. The cross section of the implant thread varies as varying the height (H) and the width (t) of the thread. According to thread dimensions of implant and material properties of FGBM, equivalent stress distribution on the implant is determined and presented with contour plots along with the maximum equivalent stress values. As a result, with increasing material gradient parameter (n), the equivalent stress decreases, but the minimum stress distribution increases. Maximum stress values decrease with decreasing implant radius (r). Maximum von Mises stresses increases with decreasing H when t is constant. On the other hand, the stress values are not affected by variation of t in the case of H = constant.

Keywords: Functionally graded biomaterials, dental implant finite element method.

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101 Vibration Attenuation Using Functionally Graded Material

Authors: Saeed Asiri, Hassan Hedia, Wael Eissa

Abstract:

The aim of the work was to attenuate the vibration amplitude in CESNA 172 airplane wing by using Functionally Graded Material instead of uniform or composite material. Wing strength was achieved by means of stress analysis study, while wing vibration amplitudes and shapes were achieved by means of Modal and Harmonic analysis. Results were verified by applying the methodology in a simple cantilever plate to the simple model and the results were promising and the same methodology can be applied to the airplane wing model. Aluminum models, Titanium models, and functionally graded materials of Aluminum and titanium results were compared to show a great vibration attenuation after using the FGM. Optimization in FGM gradation satisfied our objective of reducing and attenuating the vibration amplitudes to show the effect of using FGM in vibration behavior. Testing the Aluminum rich models, and comparing it with the titanium rich model was an optimization in this paper. Results have shown a significant attenuation in vibration magnitudes when using FGM instead of Titanium Plate, and Aluminium wing with FGM Spurs instead of Aluminium wings. It was also recommended that in future, changing the graphical scale to 1:10 or even 1:1 when the computers- capabilities allow.

Keywords: Vibration, Attenuation, FGM, ANSYS2011, FEM.

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100 Geometrically Non-Linear Axisymmetric Free Vibration Analysis of Functionally Graded Annular Plates

Authors: Boutahar Lhoucine, El Bikri Khalid, Benamar Rhali

Abstract:

In this paper, the non-linear free axisymmetric vibration of a thin annular plate made of functionally graded material (FGM) has been studied by using the energy method and a multimode approach. FGM properties vary continuously as well as non-homogeneity through the thickness direction of the plate. The theoretical model is based on the classical plate theory and the Von Kármán geometrical non-linearity assumptions. An approximation has been adopted in the present work consisting of neglecting the in-plane deformation in the formulation. Hamilton’s principle is used to derive the governing equation of motion. The problem is solved by a numerical iterative procedure in order to obtain more accurate results for vibration amplitudes up to 1.5 times the plate thickness. The numerical results are given for the first axisymmetric non-linear mode shape for a wide range of vibration amplitudes and they are presented either in tabular form or in graphical form to show the effect that the vibration amplitude and the variation in material properties have significant effects on the frequencies and the bending stresses in large amplitude vibration of the functionally graded annular plate.

Keywords: Non-linear vibrations, Annular plates, Large amplitudes, FGM.

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99 Investigation of Thermal and Mechanical Loading on Functional Graded Material Plates

Authors: Mine Uslu Uysal

Abstract:

This paper interested in the mechanical deformation behavior of shear deformable functionally graded ceramic-metal (FGM) plates. Theoretical formulations are based on power law theory when build up functional graded material. The mechanical properties of the plate are graded in the thickness direction according to a power-law Displacement and stress is obtained using finite element method (FEM). The load is supposed to be a uniform distribution over the plate surface (XY plane) and varied in the thickness direction only. An FGM’s gradation in material properties allows the designer to tailor material response to meet design criteria. An FGM made of ceramic and metal can provide the thermal protection and load carrying capability in one material thus eliminating the problem of thermo-mechanical deformation behavior. This thesis will explore analysis of FGM flat plates and shell panels, and their applications to r structural problems. FGMs are first characterized as flat plates under pressure in order to understand the effect variation of material properties has on structural response. In addition, results are compared to published results in order to show the accuracy of modeling FGMs using ABAQUS software.

Keywords: Functionally graded material, finite element method, thermal and structural loading.

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