Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 59

Search results for: fumed SiO2

59 Phenolic-Based Chemical Production from Catalytic Depolymerization of Alkaline Lignin over Fumed Silica Catalyst

Authors: S. Totong, P. Daorattanachai, N. Laosiripojana

Abstract:

Lignin depolymerization into phenolic-based chemicals is an interesting process for utilizing and upgrading a benefit and value of lignin. In this study, the depolymerization reaction was performed to convert alkaline lignin into smaller molecule compounds. Fumed SiO₂ was used as a catalyst to improve catalytic activity in lignin decomposition. The important parameters in depolymerization process (i.e., reaction temperature, reaction time, etc.) were also investigated. In addition, gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), flame-ironized detector (GC-FID), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used to analyze and characterize the lignin products. It was found that fumed SiO₂ catalyst led the good catalytic activity in lignin depolymerization. The main products from catalytic depolymerization were guaiacol, syringol, vanillin, and phenols. Additionally, metal supported on fumed SiO₂ such as Cu/SiO₂ and Ni/SiO₂ increased the catalyst activity in terms of phenolic products yield.

Keywords: Alkaline lignin, catalytic, depolymerization, fumed SiO2, phenolic-based chemicals.

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58 Hydrogen Production from Dehydrogenation of Ethanol over Ag-Based Catalysts

Authors: S. Totong, K. Faungnawakij, N. Laosiripojana

Abstract:

The development of alternative energy is interesting in the present especially, hydrogen production because it is an important energy resource in the future. This paper studied the hydrogen production from catalytic dehydrogenation of ethanol through via low temperature (<500°C) reaction. Copper (Cu) and silver (Ag) supported on fumed silica (SiO2) were selected in the present work; in addition, bimetallic material; Ag-Cu supported on SiO2 was also investigated. The catalysts were prepared by the incipient wetness impregnation method and characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR)and nitrogen adsorption measurements. The catalytic dehydrogenation of ethanol was carried out in a fixed bed continuous flow reactor at atmospheric pressure. The effect of reaction temperature between 300-375°C was studied in order to maximize the hydrogen yield. It was found that Ag-Cu/SiO2 exhibited the highest hydrogen yield compared to Ag/SiO2 and Cu/SiO2 at low reaction temperature (300°C) with full ethanol conversion. The highest hydrogen yield observed was 40% and will be further used as a reactant in fuel cells to generate electricity or feedstock of chemical production. 

Keywords: Catalyst, dehydrogenation, ethanol, hydrogen production.

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57 Propylene Self-Metathesis to Ethylene and Butene over WOx/SiO2, Effect of Nano-Sized Extra Supports (SiO2 and TiO2)

Authors: A.Guntida, K. Suriye, S. Kunjara Na Ayudhya, J. Panpranot, P. Praserthdam

Abstract:

Propylene self-metathesis to ethylene and butene was studied over WOx/SiO2 catalysts at 450oC and atmospheric pressure. The WOx/SiO2 catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation of ammonium metatungstate aqueous solution. It was found that, adding nano-sized extra supports (SiO2 and TiO2) by physical mixing with the WOx/SiO2 enhanced propylene conversion. The UV-Vis and FT-Raman results revealed that WOx could migrate from the original silica support to the extra support, leading to a better dispersion of WOx. The ICP-OES results also indicate that WOx existed on the extra support. Coke formation was investigated on the catalysts after 10 h time-on-stream by TPO. However, adding nano-sized extra supports led to higher coke formation which may be related to acidity as characterized by NH3-TPD.

Keywords: Extra support, nanomaterial, propylene self-metathesis, tungsten oxide.

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56 Preparation and Characterization of Self Assembled Gold Nanoparticles on Amino Functionalized SiO2 Dielectric Core

Authors: M.E.khosroshahi , M.S.Nourbakhsh

Abstract:

Wet chemistry methods are used to prepare the SiO2/Au nanoshells. The purpose of this research was to synthesize gold coated SiO2 nanoshells for biomedical applications. Tunable nanoshells were prepared by using different colloidal concentrations. The nanoshells are characterized by FTIR, XRD, UV-Vis spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The FTIR results confirmed the functionalization of the surfaces of silica nanoparticles with NH2 terminal groups. A tunable absorption was observed between 470-600 nm with a maximum range of 530-560 nm. Based on the XRD results three main peaks of Au (111), (200) and (220) were identified. Also AFM results showed that the silica core diameter was about 100 nm and the thickness of gold shell about 10 nm.

Keywords: Gold nanoshells, Synthesis, UV-vis spectroscopy, XRD, AFM

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55 Bridged Quantum Cellular Automata based on Si/SiO2 Superlattices

Authors: I.V. Matyushkin

Abstract:

The new architecture for quantum cellular automata is offered. A QCA cell includes two layers nc-Si, divided by a dielectric. Among themselves cells are connected by the bridge from a conductive material. The comparison is made between this and QCA, offered earlier by C. Lent's group.

Keywords: quantum cellular automata (QCA), nc-Si, Si/SiO2 superlattices, parallel computing

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54 Optical Limiting Characteristics of Core-Shell Nanoparticles

Authors: G.Vinitha, A.Ramalingam

Abstract:

TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by hydrothermal method at 180°C from TiOSO4 aqueous solution with1m/l concentration. The obtained products were coated with silica by means of a seeded polymerization technique for a coating time of 1440 minutes to obtain well defined [email protected] core-shell structure. The uncoated and coated nanoparticles were characterized by using X-Ray diffraction technique (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) to study their physico-chemical properties. Evidence from XRD and FTIR results show that SiO2 is homogenously coated on the surface of titania particles. FTIR spectra show that there exists an interaction between TiO2 and SiO2 and results in the formation of Ti-O-Si chemical bonds at the interface of TiO2 particles and SiO2 coating layer. The non linear optical limiting properties of TiO2 and [email protected] nanoparticles dispersed in ethylene glycol were studied at 532nm using 5ns Nd:YAG laser pulses. Three-photon absorption is responsible for optical limiting characteristics in these nanoparticles and it is seen that the optical nonlinearity is enhanced in core-shell structures when compared with single counterparts. This effective three-photon type absorption at this wavelength, is of potential application in fabricating optical limiting devices.

Keywords: hydrothermal method, optical limiting devicesseeded polymerization technique, three-photon type absorption

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53 Gasoline and Diesel Production via Fischer- Tropsch Synthesis over Cobalt Based Catalyst

Authors: N. Choosri, N. Swadchaipong, T. Utistham, U. W. Hartley

Abstract:

Performance of a cobalt doped sol-gel derived silica (Co/SiO2) catalyst for Fischer–Tropsch synthesis (FTS) in slurryphase reactor was studied using paraffin wax as initial liquid media. The reactive mixed gas, hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) in a molar ratio of 2:1, was flowed at 50 ml/min. Braunauer-Emmett- Teller (BET) surface area and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were employed to characterize both the specific surface area and crystallinity of the catalyst, respectively. The reduction behavior of Co/SiO2 catalyst was investigated using the Temperature Programmmed Reduction (TPR) method. Operating temperatures were varied from 493 to 533K to find the optimum conditions to maximize liquid fuels production, gasoline and diesel.

Keywords: Fischer Tropsch synthesis, slurry phase, Co/SiO2, operating temperature.

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52 Influence of MgO Physically Mixed with Tungsten Oxide Supported Silica Catalyst on Coke Formation

Authors: T. Thitiapichart, P. Praserthdama

Abstract:

The effect of additional magnesium oxide (MgO) was investigated by using the tungsten oxide supported on silica catalyst (WOx/SiO2) physically mixed with MgO in a weight ratio 1:1. The both fresh and spent catalysts were characterized by FT-Raman spectrometer, UV-Vis spectrometer, X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and temperature programmed oxidation (TPO). The results indicated that the additional MgO could enhance the conversion of trans-2-butene due to isomerization reaction. However, adding MgO would increase the amount of coke deposit on the WOx/SiO2 catalyst. The TPO profile presented two peaks when the WOx/SiO2 catalyst was physically mixed with MgO. The further peak was suggested that came from coke precursor could be produced by isomerization reaction of undesired product. Then, the occurred coke precursor could deposit and form coke on the acid catalyst.

Keywords: Coke formation, metathesis, magnesium oxide, physically mix.

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51 HClO4-SiO2 Nanoparticles as an Efficient Catalyst for Three-Component Synthesis of Triazolo[1,2-a]Indazole- Triones

Authors: Hossein Anaraki-Ardakani, Tayebe Heidari-Rakati

Abstract:

An environmentally benign protocol for the one-pot, three-component synthesis of Triazolo[1,2-a]indazole-1,3,8-trione derivatives by condensation of dimedone, urazole and aromatic aldehydes catalyzed by HClO4/SiO2 NPS as an ecofriendly catalyst with high catalytic activity and reusability at 100ºC under solventfree conditions is reported. The reaction proceeds to completion within 20-30 min in 77-86% yield.

Keywords: One-pot reaction, Dimedone, Triazoloindazole, Urazole.

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50 The Effect of Parameters on Productions of NiO/Al2O3/B2O3/SiO2 Composite Nanofibers by Using Sol-Gel Processing and Electrospinning Technique

Authors: Fatih Sevim, Emel Sevimli, Fatih Demir, Turan Çalban

Abstract:

Nanofibers of PVA /nickel nitrate/silica/alumina izopropoxide/boric acid composite were prepared by using sol-gel processing and electrospinning technique. By high temperature calcinations of the above precursor fibers, nanofibers of NiO/Al2O3/B2O3/SiO2 composite with diameters about 500 nm could be successfully obtained. The fibers were characterized by XRD and SEM analyses.

Keywords: Nanofibers, ceramics composite, sol-gel processing, electrospinning.

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49 High Aspect Ratio SiO2 Capillary Based On Silicon Etching and Thermal Oxidation Process for Optical Modulator

Authors: N. V. Toan, S. Sangu, T. Saitoh, N. Inomata, T. Ono

Abstract:

This paper presents the design and fabrication of an optical window for an optical modulator toward image sensing applications. An optical window consists of micrometer-order SiO2 capillaries (porous solid) that can modulate transmission light intensity by moving the liquid in and out of porous solid. A high optical transmittance of the optical window can be achieved due to refractive index matching when the liquid is penetrated into the porous solid. Otherwise, its light transmittance is lower because of light reflection and scattering by air holes and capillary walls. Silicon capillaries fabricated by deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) process are completely oxidized to form the SiO2 capillaries. Therefore, high aspect ratio SiO2 capillaries can be achieved based on silicon capillaries formed by DRIE technique. Large compressive stress of the oxide causes bending of the capillary structure, which is reduced by optimizing the design of device structure. The large stress of the optical window can be released via thin supporting beams. A 7.2 mm x 9.6 mm optical window area toward a fully integrated with the image sensor format is successfully fabricated and its optical transmittance is evaluated with and without inserting liquids (ethanol and matching oil). The achieved modulation range is approximately 20% to 35% with and without liquid penetration in visible region (wavelength range from 450 nm to 650 nm).

Keywords: Thermal oxidation process, SiO2 capillaries, optical window, light transmittance, image sensor, liquid penetration.

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48 Fabrication and Electrical Characterization of Al/BaxSr1-xTiO3/Pt/SiO2/Si Configuration for FeFET Applications

Authors: Ala'eddin A. Saif , Z. A. Z. Jamal, Z. Sauli, P. Poopalan

Abstract:

The ferroelectric behavior of barium strontium titanate (BST) in thin film form has been investigated in order to study the possibility of using BST for ferroelectric gate-field effect transistor (FeFET) for memory devices application. BST thin films have been fabricated as Al/BST/Pt/SiO2/Si-gate configuration. The variation of the dielectric constant (ε) and tan δ with frequency have been studied to ensure the dielectric quality of the material. The results show that at low frequencies, ε increases as the Ba content increases, whereas at high frequencies, it shows the opposite variation, which is attributed to the dipole dynamics. tan δ shows low values with a peak at the mid-frequency range. The ferroelectric behavior of the Al/BST/Pt/SiO2/Si has been investigated using C-V characteristics. The results show that the strength of the ferroelectric hysteresis loop increases as the Ba content increases; this is attributed to the grain size and dipole dynamics effect.

Keywords: BST thin film, Electrical properties, Ferroelectrichysteresis, Ferroelectric FET.

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47 Investigation of Shear Thickening Liquid Protection Fibrous Material

Authors: Po-Yun Chen, Jui-Liang Yen, Chang-Ping Chang, Wen-Hua Hu, Yu-Liang Chen, Yih-Ming Liu, Chin-Yi Chou, Ming-Der Ger

Abstract:

The stab resistance performance of newly developed fabric composites composed of hexagonal paper honeycombs, filled with shear thickening fluid (STF), and woven Kevlar® fabric or UHMPE was investigated in this study. The STF was prepared by dispersing submicron SiO2 particles into polyethylene glycol (PEG). Our results indicate that the STF-Kevlar composite possessed lower penetration depth than that of neat Kevlar. In other words, the STF-Kevlar composite can attain the same energy level in stab-resistance test with fewer layers of Kevlar fabrics than that of the neat Kevlar fabrics. It also indicates that STF can be used for the fabrication of flexible body armors and can provide improved protection against stab threats. We found that the stab resistance of the STF-Kevlar composite increases with the increase of SiO2 concentration in STF. Moreover, the silica particles functionalized with silane coupling agent can further improve the stab resistance.

Keywords: shear thickening fluid, SiO2, Kevlar, stab

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46 Non-Isothermal Kinetics of Crystallization and Phase Transformation of SiO2-Al2O3-P2O5-CaO-CaF Glass

Authors: Bogdan Il. Bogdanov, Plamen S. Pashev, Yancho H. Hristov, Dimitar P.Georgiev, Irena G. Markovska

Abstract:

The crystallization kinetics and phase transformation of SiO2.Al2O3.0,56P2O5.1,8CaO.0,56CaF2 glass have been investigated using differential thermal analysis (DTA), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Glass samples were obtained by melting the glass mixture at 14500С/120 min. in platinum crucibles. The mixture were prepared from chemically pure reagents: SiO2, Al(OH)3, H3PO4, CaCO3 and CaF2. The non-isothermal kinetics of crystallization was studied by applying the DTA measurements carried out at various heating rates. The activation energies of crystallization and viscous flow were measured as 348,4 kJ.mol–1 and 479,7 kJ.mol–1 respectively. Value of Avrami parameter n ≈ 3 correspond to a three dimensional of crystal growth mechanism. The major crystalline phase determined by XRD analysis was fluorapatite (Ca(PO4)3F) and as the minor phases – fluormargarite (CaAl2(Al2SiO2)10F2) and vitlokite (Ca9P6O24). The resulting glass-ceramic has a homogeneous microstructure, composed of prismatic crystals, evenly distributed in glass phase.

Keywords: glass-ceramic, crystallization, non-isothermalkinetics, Avrami parameter

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45 Progressive Loading Effect of Co over SiO2/Al2O3 Catalyst for Cox Free Hydrogen and Carbon Nanotubes Production via Catalytic Decomposition of Methane

Authors: Sushil Kumar Saraswat, K. K. Pant

Abstract:

Co metal supported on SiO2 and Al2O3 catalysts with a metal loading varied from 30 of 70 wt.% were evaluated for decomposition of methane to COx free hydrogen and carbon nanomaterials. The catalytic runs were carried out from 550-800oC under atmospheric pressure using fixed bed vertical flow reactor. The fresh and spent catalysts were characterized by BET surface area analyzer, XRD, SEM, TEM and TG analysis. The data showed that 50% Co/Al2O3 catalyst exhibited remarkable higher activity at 800oC with respect to H2 production compared to rest of the catalysts. However, the catalytic activity and durability was greatly declined at higher temperature. The main reason for the catalytic inhibition of Co containing SiO2 catalysts is the higher reduction temperature of Co2SiO4. TEM images illustrate that the carbon materials with various morphologies, carbon nanofibers (CNFs), helical-shaped CNFs and branched CNFs depending on the catalyst composition and reaction temperature were obtained.

Keywords: Carbon nanotubes, Cobalt, Hydrogen Production, Methane decomposition.

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44 Stabilization of Transition Metal Chromite Nanoparticles in Silica Matrix

Authors: Jiri Plocek, Petr Holec, Simona Kubickova, Barbara Pacakova, Irena Matulkova, Alice Mantlikova, Ivan Nemec, Daniel Niznansky, Jana Vejpravova

Abstract:

This article presents summary on preparation and characterization of zinc, copper, cadmium and cobalt chromite nanocrystals, embedded in an amorphous silica matrix. The ZnCr2O4/SiO2, CuCr2O4/SiO2, CdCr2O4/SiO2 and CoCr2O4/SiO2 nanocomposites were prepared by a conventional sol-gel method under acid catalysis. Final heat treatment of the samples was carried out at temperatures in the range of 900−1200 ◦C to adjust the phase composition and the crystallite size, respectively. The resulting samples were characterized by Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM), Raman/FTIR spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. Formation of the spinel phase was confirmed in all samples. The average size of the nanocrystals was determined from the PXRD data and by direct particle size observation on HRTEM; both results were correlated. The mean particle size (reviewed by HRTEM) was in the range from ∼4 to 46 nm. The results showed that the sol-gel method can be effectively used for preparation of the spinel chromite nanoparticles embedded in the silica matrix and the particle size is driven by the type of the cation A2+ in the spinel structure and the temperature of the final heat treatment. Magnetic properties of the nanocrystals were found to be just moderately modified in comparison to the bulk phases.

Keywords: Chromite, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, agnetic properties, nanocomposites, Raman spectroscopy, Rietveld refinement, sol-gel method, spinel.

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43 Characterization of Silica Nanoparticles in Interaction with Escherichia coli Bacteria

Authors: Ibtissem Gammoudi, Ndeye Rokhaya Faye, Fabien Moroté, Daniel Moynet, Christine Grauby-Heywang, Touria Cohen-Bouhacina

Abstract:

The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the morphology of Escherchia coli bacteria in interaction with SiO2 nanoparticles. This study was made by atomic force microscopy and quartz crystal microbalance using SiO2 nanoparticles with 10nm, 50nm and 100nm diameter and bacteria immobilized on polyelectrolyte multilayer films obtained by spin coating or by “layer by layer” (LbL) method.

Keywords: Atomic Force Microscopy, Escherichia coli, Quartz Crystal Microbalance, polyelectrolyte, silica nanoparticle.

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42 Effect of Nano-SiO2 Solution on the Strength Characteristics of Kaolinite

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayed, Hamidreza Rahmani

Abstract:

Today, with developments in science and technology, there is an excessive potential for the use of nanomaterials in various fields of geotechnical project such as soil stabilization. This study investigates the effect of Nano-SiO2 solution on the unconfined compression strength and Young's elastic modulus of Kaolinite. For this purpose, nano-SiO2 was mixed with kaolinite in five different contents: 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% by weight of the dry soil and a series of the unconfined compression test with curing time of one-day was selected as laboratory test. Analyses of the tests results show that stabilization of kaolinite with Nano-SiO2 solution can improve effectively the unconfined compression strength of modified soil up to 1.43 times compared to  the pure soil.

Keywords: Kaolinite, nano-SiO2, stabilization, unconfined compression test, Young's modulus.

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41 Pre-beneficiation of Low Grade Diasporic Bauxite Ore by Reduction Roasting

Authors: K. Yılmaz, B. Birol, M. N. Sarıdede, E. Yiğit

Abstract:

A bauxite ore can be utilized in Bayer Process, if the mass ratio of Al2O3 to SiO2 is greater than 10. Otherwise, its FexOy and SiO2 content should be removed. On the other hand, removal of TiO2 from the bauxite ore would be beneficial because of both lowering the red mud residue and obtaining a valuable raw material containing TiO2 mineral. In this study, the low grade diasporic bauxite ore of Yalvaç, Isparta, Turkey was roasted under reducing atmosphere and subjected to magnetic separation. According to the experimental results, 800°C for reduction temperature and 20000 Gauss of magnetic intensity were found to be the optimum parameters for removal of iron oxide and rutile from the nonmagnetic ore. On the other hand, 600°C and 5000 Gauss were determined to be the optimum parameters for removal of silica from the non-magnetic ore.

Keywords: Low grade diasporic bauxite, magnetic separation, reduction roasting, separation index.

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40 Using 3-Glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane Functionalized SiO2 Nanoparticles to Improve Flexural Properties of Glass Fibers/Epoxy Grid-Stiffened Composite Panels

Authors: Reza Eslami-Farsani, Hamed Khosravi, Saba Fayazzadeh

Abstract:

Lightweight and efficient structures have the aim to enhance the efficiency of the components in various industries. Toward this end, composites are one of the most widely used materials because of durability, high strength and modulus, and low weight. One type of the advanced composites is grid-stiffened composite (GSC) structures, which have been extensively considered in aerospace, automotive, and aircraft industries. They are one of the top candidates for replacing some of the traditional components, which are used here. Although there are a good number of published surveys on the design aspects and fabrication of GSC structures, little systematic work has been reported on their material modification to improve their properties, to our knowledge. Matrix modification using nanoparticles is an effective method to enhance the flexural properties of the fibrous composites. In the present study, a silanecoupling agent (3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane/3-GPTS) was introduced onto the silica (SiO2) nanoparticle surface and its effects on the three-point flexural response of isogrid E-glass/epoxy composites were assessed. Based on the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) spectra, it was inferred that the 3-GPTS coupling agent was successfully grafted onto the surface of SiO2 nanoparticles after modification. Flexural test revealed an improvement of 16%, 14%, and 36% in stiffness, maximum load and energy absorption of the isogrid specimen filled with 3 wt.% 3- GPTS/SiO2 compared to the neat one. It would be worth mentioning that in these structures, considerable energy absorption was observed after the primary failure related to the load peak. In addition, 3- GPTMS functionalization had a positive effect on the flexural behavior of the multiscale isogrid composites. In conclusion, this study suggests that the addition of modified silica nanoparticles is a promising method to improve the flexural properties of the gridstiffened fibrous composite structures.

Keywords: Isogrid-stiffened composite panels, silica nanoparticles, surface modification, flexural properties.

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39 Improved p-Xylene Selectivity of n-Pentane Aromatization over Silylated Ga-exchanged HZSM- 5 Catalysts

Authors: Tunchanok Nitipan, Siriporn Jongpatiwut, Thirasak Rirksomboon, Boonyarach Kitiyanan, Tivaporn Apphakvan

Abstract:

In this study, the conversion of n-pentane to aromatics is investigated on HZSM-5 zeolites modified by Ga ion-exchange and silylation using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) via chemical liquid deposition (CLD). The effect of SiO2/Al2O3 ratios of HZSM-5 was also studied. Parameters in preparing catalysts i.e. TEOS loading and cycles of deposition were varied to obtain the optimal condition for enhancing p-xylene selectivity. The highest p-xylene selectivity 99.7% was achieved when the amount of TEOS was 20 vol.%.The catalysts were characterized by TPD, TPO, XRF, and BET. Results show that the conversion of n-pentane was influenced remarkably by the SiO2/Al2O3 ratios of HZSM-5. The highest p-xylene selectivity 99.7% was achieved when the amount of TEOS was 20 vol.%. And cycles of deposition greatly improves HZSM-5 shape-selectivity.

Keywords: Aromatization, Chemical Liquid Deposition (CLD), p-Xylene, ZSM-5 Zeolite

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38 The Different Roles between Sodium and Potassium Ions in Ion Exchange of WO3/SiO2 Catalysts

Authors: K. Pipitthapan, S. Maksasithorn, P. Praserthdam, J. Panpranot, K. Suriye, S. Kunjara Na Ayudhya

Abstract:

WO3/SiO2 catalysts were modified by an ion exchange method with sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide solution. The performance of the modified catalysts was tested in the metathesis of ethylene and trans-2-butene to propylene. During ion exchange, sodium and potassium ions played different roles. Sodium modified catalysts revealed constant trans-2-butene conversion and propylene selectivity when the concentrations of sodium in the solution were varied. In contrast, potassium modified catalysts showed reduction of the conversion and increase of the selectivity. From these results, potassium hydroxide may affect the transformation of tungsten oxide active species, resulting in the decrease in conversion whereas sodium hydroxide did not. Moreover, the modification of catalysts by this method improved the catalyst stability by lowering the amount of coke deposited on the catalyst surface.

Keywords: Acid sites, alkali metals, isomerization, metathesis.

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37 Turbulent Forced Convection Flow in a Channel over Periodic Grooves Using Nanofluids

Authors: Farshid Fathinia, Mohammad Parsazadeh, Amirhossein Heshmati

Abstract:

Turbulent forced convection flow in a 2-dimensional channel over periodic grooves is numerically investigated. Finite volume method is used to study the effect of turbulence model. The range of Reynolds number varied from 10000 to 30000 for the ribheight to channel-height ratio (B/H) of 2. The downstream wall is heated by a uniform heat flux while the upstream wall is insulated. The investigation is analyzed with different types of nanoparticles such as SiO2, Al2O3, and ZnO, with water as a base fluid are used. The volume fraction is varied from 1% to 4% and the nanoparticle diameter is utilized between 20nm to 50nm. The results revealed 114% heat transfer enhancement compared to the water in a grooved channel by using SiO2 nanoparticle with volume fraction and nanoparticle diameter of 4% and 20nm respectively.

Keywords: Forced convection, Periodic grooves, Nanofluids, Turbulent model, Heat transfer.

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36 The Effect of Porous Alkali Activated Material Composition on Buffer Capacity in Bioreactors

Authors: G. Bumanis, D. Bajare

Abstract:

With demand for primary energy continuously growing, search for renewable and efficient energy sources has been high on agenda of our society. One of the most promising energy sources is biogas technology. Residues coming from dairy industry and milk processing could be used in biogas production; however, low efficiency and high cost impede wide application of such technology. One of the main problems is management and conversion of organic residues through the anaerobic digestion process which is characterized by acidic environment due to the low whey pH (<6) whereas additional pH control system is required. Low buffering capacity of whey is responsible for the rapid acidification in biological treatments; therefore alkali activated material is a promising solution of this problem. Alkali activated material is formed using SiO2 and Al2O3 rich materials under highly alkaline solution. After material structure forming process is completed, free alkalis remain in the structure of materials which are available for leaching and could provide buffer capacity potential. In this research porous alkali activated material was investigated. Highly porous material structure ensures gradual leaching of alkalis during time which is important in biogas digestion process. Research of mixture composition and SiO2/Na2O and SiO2/Al2O ratio was studied to test the buffer capacity potential of alkali activated material. This research has proved that by changing molar ratio of components it is possible to obtain a material with different buffer capacity, and this novel material was seen to have considerable potential for using it in processes where buffer capacity and pH control is vitally important.

Keywords: Alkaline material, buffer capacity, biogas production.

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35 Phase Behavior and Structure Properties of Supported Lipid Monolayers and Bilayers in Interaction with Silica Nanoparticles

Authors: Ndeye Rokhaya Faye, Ibtissem Gammoudi, Fabien Moroté, Christine Grauby-Heywang, TouriaCohen-Bouhacina

Abstract:

In this study we investigate silica nanoparticle (SiO2- NP) effects on the structure and phase properties of supported lipid monolayers and bilayers, coupling surface pressure measurements, fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy. SiO2-NPs typically in size range of 10nm to 100 nm in diameter are tested. Our results suggest first that lipid molecules organization depends to their nature. Secondly, lipid molecules in the vinicity of big aggregates nanoparticles organize in liquid condensed phase whereas small aggregates are localized in both fluid liquid-expanded (LE) and liquid-condenced (LC). We demonstrated also by atomic force microscopy that by measuring friction forces it is possible to get information as if nanoparticle aggregates are recovered or not by lipid monolayers and bilayers.

Keywords: Atomic force microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, Langmuir films, silica nanoparticles, supported membrane models.

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34 Luminescent Si Nanocrystals Synthesized by Si Ion Implantation and Reactive Pulsed Laser Deposition: The Effects of RTA, Excimer-UV and E-Beam Irradiation

Authors: T. S. Iwayama, T. Hama

Abstract:

Si ion implantation was widely used to synthesize specimens of SiO2 containing supersaturated Si and subsequent high temperature annealing induces the formation of embedded luminescent Si nanocrystals. In this work, the potentialities of excimer UV-light (172 nm, 7.2 eV) irradiation and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) to enhance the photoluminescence and to achieve low temperature formation of Si nanocrystals have been investigated. The Si ions were introduced at acceleration energy of 180 keV to fluence of 7.5 x 1016 ions/cm2. The implanted samples were subsequently irradiated with an excimer-UV lamp. After the process, the samples were rapidly thermal annealed before furnace annealing (FA). Photoluminescence spectra were measured at various stages at the process. We found that the luminescence intensity is strongly enhanced with excimer-UV irradiation and RTA. Moreover, effective visible photoluminescence is found to be observed even after FA at 900 oC, only for specimens treated with excimer-UV lamp and RTA. We also prepared specimens of Si nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 by reactive pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in an oxygen atmosphere. We will make clear the similarities and differences with the way of preparation.

Keywords: Ion implantation, photoluminescence, pulsed laser deposition, rapid thermal anneal, Si nanocrystals.

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33 Preparation and Fabrication of Lithium Disilicate Glass Ceramic as Dental Crowns via Hot Pressing Method

Authors: A. Srion, W. Thepsuwan, N. Monmaturapoj

Abstract:

Two Lithium Disilicate (LD) glass ceramics based on SiO2-Li2O-K2O-Al2O3 system were prepared through a glass melting method. The glass rods were then fabricated into dental crowns via a hot pressing at 900˚C and 850˚C in order to study the effect of the pressing temperatures on the phase formation and microstructure of the glasses. Different samples of as cast glass and heat treated samples (600˚C and 700˚C) were used to press for investigating the effect of an initial microstructure on the hot pressing technique. Xray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were performed to determine the phase formation and microstructure of the samples, respectively. XRD results show that the main crystalline structure was Li2Si2O5 by having Li3PO4, Li0.6Al0.6Si2O6, Li2SiO3, Ca5 (PO4)3F and SiO2 as minor phases. Glass compositions with different heat treatment temperatures exhibited a difference phase formations but have less effect during pressing. SEM micrographs showed the microstructure of Li2Si2O5 as lath-like shape in all glasses. With increasing the initial heat treatment temperature, the longer the lath-like crystals of lithium disilicate were increased especially when using glass heat treatment at 700˚C followed by pressing at 900˚C. This could be suggested that LD1 heat treatment at 700˚C which pressing at 900˚C presented the best formation by the hot pressing and compiled microstructure.

Keywords: Lithium disilicate, Hot pressing, Dental crown, Microstructure.

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32 Investigation on Toxicity of Manufactured Nanoparticles to Bioluminescence Bacteria Vibrio fischeri

Authors: E. Binaeian, SH. Soroushnia

Abstract:

Acute toxicity of nano SiO2, ZnO, MCM-41 (Meso pore silica), Cu, Multi Wall Carbon Nano Tube (MWCNT), Single Wall Carbon Nano Tube (SWCNT) , Fe (Coated) to bacteria Vibrio fischeri using a homemade luminometer , was evaluated. The values of the nominal effective concentrations (EC), causing 20% and 50% inhibition of biouminescence, using two mathematical models at two times of 5 and 30 minutes were calculated. Luminometer was designed with Photomultiplier (PMT) detector. Luminol chemiluminescence reaction was carried out for the calibration graph. In the linear calibration range, the correlation coefficients and coefficient of Variation (CV) were 0.988 and 3.21% respectively which demonstrate the accuracy and reproducibility of the instrument that are suitable. The important part of this research depends on how to optimize the best condition for maximum bioluminescence. The culture of Vibrio fischeri with optimal conditions in liquid media, were stirring at 120 rpm at a temperature of 150C to 180C and were incubated for 24 to 72 hours while solid medium was held at 180C and for 48 hours. Suspension of nanoparticles ZnO, after 30 min contact time to bacteria Vibrio fischeri, showed the highest toxicity while SiO2 nanoparticles showed the lowest toxicity. After 5 min exposure time, the toxicity of ZnO was the strongest and MCM-41 was the weakest toxicant component.

Keywords: Bioluminescence, effective concentration, nanomaterials, toxicity, Vibrio fischeri.

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31 New SUZ-4 Zeolite Membrane from Sol-Gel Technique

Authors: P. Worathanakul, P. Kongkachuichay

Abstract:

A new SUZ-4 zeolite membrane with tetraethlyammonium hydroxide as the template was fabricated on mullite tube via hydrothermal sol-gel synthesis in a rotating autoclave reactor. The suitable synthesis condition was SiO2:Al2O3 ratio of 21.2 for 4 days at 155 °C crystallization under autogenous pressure. The obtained SUZ-4 possessed a high BET surface area of 396.4 m2/g, total pore volume at 2.611 cm3/g, and narrow pore size distribution with 97 nm mean diameter and 760 nm long of needle crystal shape. The SUZ-4 layer obtained from seeding crystallization was thicker than that of without seeds or in situ crystallization.

Keywords: Membrane, seeding, sol-gel, SUZ-4 Zeolite.

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30 Chemical Analysis of Available Portland Cement in Libyan Market Using X-Ray Fluorescence

Authors: M. A. Elbagermia, A. I. Alajtala, M. Alkerzab

Abstract:

This study compares the quality of different brands of Portland Cement (PC) available in Libyan market. The amounts of chemical constituents like SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, SO3 and Lime Saturation Factor (LSF) were determined in accordance with Libyan (L.S.S) and Amrican (A.S.S) Standard Specifications. All the cement studies were found to be good for concrete work especially where no special property is required. The chemical and mineralogical analyses for studied clinker samples show that the dominant phases composition are C3S and C2S while the C3A and C4AF are less abundant.

Keywords: Portland cement, Chemical Composition, Libyan market, X-ray fluorescence.

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