Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2635

Search results for: fluid flow regime

2635 Effects of Rarefaction and Compressibility on Fluid Flow at Slip Flow Regime by Direct Simulation of Roughness

Authors: M. Hakak Khadem, M. Shams, S. Hossainpour

Abstract:

A two dimensional numerical simulation has been performed for incompressible and compressible fluid flow through microchannels in slip flow regime. The Navier-Stokes equations have been solved in conjunction with Maxwell slip conditions for modeling flow field associated with slip flow regime. The wall roughness is simulated with triangular microelements distributed on wall surfaces to study the effects of roughness on fluid flow. Various Mach and Knudsen numbers are used to investigate the effects of rarefaction as well as compressibility. It is found that rarefaction has more significant effect on flow field in microchannels with higher relative roughness. It is also found that compressibility has more significant effects on Poiseuille number when relative roughness increases. In addition, similar to incompressible models the increase in average fRe is more significant at low Knudsen number flows but the increase of Poiseuille number duo to relative roughness is sharper for compressible models. The numerical results have also validated with some available theoretical and experimental relations and good agreements have been seen.

Keywords: Relative roughness, slip flow, Poiseuille number.

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2634 Experiments of a Free Surface Flow in a Hydraulic Channel over an Uneven Bottom

Authors: M. Bouinoun, M. Bouhadef

Abstract:

The present study is concerned with the problem of determining the shape of the free surface flow in a hydraulic channel which has an uneven bottom. For the mathematical formulation of the problem, the fluid of the two-dimensional irrotational steady flow in water is assumed inviscid and incompressible. The solutions of the nonlinear problem are obtained by using the usual conformal mapping theory and Hilbert’s technique. An experimental study, for comparing the obtained results, has been conducted in a hydraulic channel (subcritical regime and supercritical regime). 

Keywords: Free-surface flow, experiments, numerical method, uneven bottom, supercritical regime, subcritical regime.

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2633 On the Free-Surface Generated by the Flow over an Obstacle in a Hydraulic Channel

Authors: M. Bouhadef, K. Bouzelha-Hammoum, T. Guendouzen-Dabouz, A. Younsi, T. Zitoun

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to report the different experimental studies, conducted in the laboratory, dealing with the flow in the presence of an obstacle lying in a rectangular hydraulic channel. Both subcritical and supercritical regimes are considered. Generally, when considering the theoretical problem of the free-surface flow, in a fluid domain of finite depth, due to the presence of an obstacle, we suppose that the water is an inviscid fluid, which means that there is no sheared velocity profile, but constant upstream. In a hydraulic channel, it is impossible to satisfy this condition. Indeed, water is a viscous fluid and its velocity is null at the bottom. The two configurations are presented, i.e. a flow over an obstacle and a towed obstacle in a resting fluid.

Keywords: Experiments, free-surface flow, hydraulic channel, subcritical regime, supercritical flow.

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2632 Flow Analysis of Viscous Nanofluid Due to Rotating Rigid Disk with Navier’s Slip: A Numerical Study

Authors: Khalil Ur Rehman, M. Y. Malik, Usman Ali

Abstract:

In this paper, the problem proposed by Von Karman is treated in the attendance of additional flow field effects when the liquid is spaced above the rotating rigid disk. To be more specific, a purely viscous fluid flow yield by rotating rigid disk with Navier’s condition is considered in both magnetohydrodynamic and hydrodynamic frames. The rotating flow regime is manifested with heat source/sink and chemically reactive species. Moreover, the features of thermophoresis and Brownian motion are reported by considering nanofluid model. The flow field formulation is obtained mathematically in terms of high order differential equations. The reduced system of equations is solved numerically through self-coded computational algorithm. The pertinent outcomes are discussed systematically and provided through graphical and tabular practices. A simultaneous way of study makes this attempt attractive in this sense that the article contains dual framework and validation of results with existing work confirms the execution of self-coded algorithm for fluid flow regime over a rotating rigid disk.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Newtonian fluid model, chemical reaction, heat source/sink.

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2631 Flow Regime Characterization in a Diseased Artery Model

Authors: Anis S. Shuib, Peter R. Hoskins, William J. Easson

Abstract:

Cardiovascular disease mostly in the form of atherosclerosis is responsible for 30% of all world deaths amounting to 17 million people per year. Atherosclerosis is due to the formation of plaque. The fatty plaque may be at risk of rupture, leading typically to stroke and heart attack. The plaque is usually associated with a high degree of lumen reduction, called a stenosis. The initiation and progression of the disease is strongly linked to the hemodynamic environment near the vessel wall. The aim of this study is to validate the flow of blood mimic through an arterial stenosis model with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package. In experiment, an axisymmetric model constructed consists of contraction and expansion region that follow a mathematical form of cosine function. A 30% diameter reduction was used in this study. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to characterize the flow. The fluid consists of rigid spherical particles suspended in waterglycerol- NaCl mixture. The particles with 20 μm diameter were selected to follow the flow of fluid. The flow at Re=155, 270 and 390 were investigated. The experimental result is compared with FLUENT simulated flow that account for viscous laminar flow model. The results suggest that laminar flow model was sufficient to predict flow velocity at the inlet but the velocity at stenosis throat at Re =390 was overestimated. Hence, a transition to turbulent regime might have been developed at throat region as the flow rate increases.

Keywords: Atherosclerosis, Particle-laden flow, Particle imagevelocimetry, Stenosis artery

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2630 Two Dimensional Simulation of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in the Transition Flow Regime using a Lattice Boltzmann Approach

Authors: Mehdi Shamshiri, Mahmud Ashrafizaadeh

Abstract:

The significant effects of the interactions between the system boundaries and the near wall molecules in miniaturized gaseous devices lead to the formation of the Knudsen layer in which the Navier-Stokes-Fourier (NSF) equations fail to predict the correct associated phenomena. In this paper, the well-known lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is employed to simulate the fluid flow and heat transfer processes in rarefied gaseous micro media. Persuaded by the problematic deficiency of the LBM in capturing the Knudsen layer phenomena, present study tends to concentrate on the effective molecular mean free path concept the main essence of which is to compensate the incapability of this mesoscopic method in dealing with the momentum and energy transport within the above mentioned kinetic boundary layer. The results show qualitative and quantitative accuracy comparable to the solutions of the linearized Boltzmann equation or the DSMC data for the Knudsen numbers of O (1) .

Keywords: Fluid flow and Heat transfer, Knudsen layer, Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), Micro-scale numerical simulation, Transition regime.

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2629 Study of Low Loading Heavier Phase in Horizontal Oil-Water Liquid-Liquid Pipe Flow

Authors: Aminu J. A. Koguna, Aliyu M. Aliyu, Olawale T. Fajemidupe, Yahaya D. Baba

Abstract:

Production fluids are transported from the platform to tankers or process facilities through transfer pipelines. Water being one of the heavier phases tends to settle at the bottom of pipelines especially at low flow velocities and this has adverse consequences for pipeline integrity. On restart after a shutdown, this could result in corrosion and issues for process equipment, thus the need to have the heavier liquid dispersed into the flowing lighter fluid. This study looked at the flow regime of low water cut and low flow velocity oil and water flow using conductive film thickness probes in a large diameter 4-inch pipe to obtain oil and water interface height and the interface structural velocity. A wide range of 0.1–1.0 m/s oil and water mixture velocities was investigated for 0.5–5% water cut. Two fluid model predictions were used to compare with the experimental results.

Keywords: Interface height, liquid-liquid flow, two-fluid model, water cut.

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2628 Heat Transfer, Fluid Flow, and Metallurgical Transformations in Arc Welding: Application to 16MND5 Steel

Authors: F. Roger, A. Traidia, B. Reynier

Abstract:

Arc welding creates a weld pool to realize continuity between pieces of assembly. The thermal history of the weld is dependent on heat transfer and fluid flow in the weld pool. The metallurgical transformation during welding and cooling are modeled in the literature only at solid state neglecting the fluid flow. In the present paper we associate a heat transfer – fluid flow and metallurgical model for the 16MnD5 steel. The metallurgical transformation model is based on Leblond model for the diffusion kinetics and on the Koistinen-Marburger equation for Marteniste transformation. The predicted thermal history and metallurgical transformations are compared to a simulation without fluid phase. This comparison shows the great importance of the fluid flow modeling.

Keywords: Arc welding, Weld pool, Fluid flow, Metallurgical transformations.

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2627 CFD Simulation of Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow in Arterial Stenoses with Surface Irregularities

Authors: R. Manimaran

Abstract:

CFD simulations are carried out in arterial stenoses with 48 % areal occlusion. Non-newtonian fluid model is selected for the blood flow as the same problem has been solved before with Newtonian fluid model. Studies on flow resistance with the presence of surface irregularities are carried out. Investigations are also performed on the pressure drop at various Reynolds numbers. The present study revealed that the pressure drop across a stenosed artery is practically unaffected by surface irregularities at low Reynolds numbers, while flow features are observed and discussed at higher Reynolds numbers.

Keywords: Blood flow, Roughness, Computational fluid dynamics, Bio fluid mechanics.

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2626 On the Flow of a Third Grade Viscoelastic Fluid in an Orthogonal Rheometer

Authors: Carmen D. Pricinâ, E. Corina Cipu, Victor Ţigoiu

Abstract:

The flow of a third grade fluid in an orthogonal rheometer is studied. We employ the admissible velocity field proposed in [5]. We solve the problem and obtain the velocity field as well as the components for the Cauchy tensor. We compare the results with those from [9]. Some diagrams concerning the velocity and Cauchy stress components profiles are presented for different values of material constants and compared with the corresponding values for a linear viscous fluid.

Keywords: Non newtonian fluid flow, orthogonal rheometer, third grade fluid.

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2625 Effect of Two Radial Fins on Heat Transfer and Flow Structure in a Horizontal Annulus

Authors: Anas El Amraoui, Abdelkhalek Cheddadi, Mohammed Touhami Ouazzani

Abstract:

Laminar natural convection in a cylindrical annular cavity filled with air and provided with two fins is studied numerically using the discretization of the governing equations with the Centered Finite Difference method based on the Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) scheme. The fins are attached to the inner cylinder of radius ri (hot wall of temperature Ti). The outer cylinder of radius ro is maintained at a temperature To (To < Ti). Two values of the dimensionless thickness of the fins are considered: 0.015 and 0.203. We consider a low fin height equal to 0.078 and medium fin heights equal to 0.093 and 0.203. The position of the fin is 0.82π and the radius ratio is equal to 2. The effect of Rayleigh number, Ra, on the flow structure and heat transfer is analyzed for a range of Ra from 103 to 104. The results for established flow structures and heat transfer at low height indicate that the flow regime that occurs is unicellular for all Ra and fin thickness; in addition, the heat transfer rate increases with increasing Rayleigh number and is the same for both thicknesses. At median fin heights 0.093 and 0.203, the increase of Rayleigh number leads to transitions of flow structure which correspond to significant variations of the heat transfer. The critical Rayleigh numbers, Rac.app and Rac.disp corresponding to the appearance of the bicellular flow regime and its disappearance, are determined and their influence on the change of heat transfer rate is analyzed.

Keywords: Natural convection, fins, critical Rayleigh number, heat transfer, fluid flow regime, horizontal annulus.

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2624 Analytical and Experimental Methods of Design for Supersonic Two-Stage Ejectors

Authors: S. Daneshmand, C. Aghanajafi, A. Bahrami

Abstract:

In this paper the supersonic ejectors are experimentally and analytically studied. Ejector is a device that uses the energy of a fluid to move another fluid. This device works like a vacuum pump without usage of piston, rotor or any other moving component. An ejector contains an active nozzle, a passive nozzle, a mixing chamber and a diffuser. Since the fluid viscosity is large, and the flow is turbulent and three dimensional in the mixing chamber, the numerical methods consume long time and high cost to analyze the flow in ejectors. Therefore this paper presents a simple analytical method that is based on the precise governing equations in fluid mechanics. According to achieved analytical relations, a computer code has been prepared to analyze the flow in different components of the ejector. An experiment has been performed in supersonic regime 1.5Keywords: Ejector, Wind Tunnel, Supersonic, Diffuser, Machnumber, Mixing Chamber

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2623 Pulsating Flow of an Incompressible Couple Stress Fluid Between Permeable Beds

Authors: T. K. V. Iyengar, Punnamchandar Bitla

Abstract:

The paper deals with the pulsating flow of an incompressible couple stress fluid between permeable beds. The couple stress fluid is injected into the channel from the lower permeable bed with a certain velocity and is sucked into the upper permeable bed with the same velocity. The flow between the permeable beds is assumed to be governed by couple stress fluid flow equations of V. K. Stokes and that in the permeable regions by Darcy-s law. The equations are solved analytically and the expressions for velocity and volume flux are obtained. The effects of the material parameters are studied numerically and the results are presented through graphs.

Keywords: Pulsating flow, couple stress fluid, permeable beds, mass flux, shear stress.

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2622 Analysis of Foaming Flow Instabilities for Dynamic Liquid Saturation in Trickle Bed Reactor

Authors: Vijay Sodhi, Ajay Bansal

Abstract:

The effects of different parameters on the hydrodynamics of trickle bed reactors were discussed for Newtonian and non-Newtonian foaming systems. The varying parameters are varying liquid velocities, gas flow velocities and surface tension. The range for gas velocity is particularly large, thanks to the use of dense gas to simulate very high pressure conditions. This data bank has been used to compare the prediction accuracy of the different trendlines and transition points from the literature. More than 240 experimental points for the trickle flow (GCF) and foaming pulsing flow (PF/FPF) regime were obtained for present study. Hydrodynamic characteristics involving dynamic liquid saturation significantly influenced by gas and liquid flow rates. For 15 and 30 ppm air-aqueous surfactant solutions, dynamic liquid saturation decreases with higher liquid and gas flow rates considerably in high interaction regime. With decrease in surface tension i.e. for 45 and 60 ppm air-aqueous surfactant systems, effect was more pronounced with decreases dynamic liquid saturation very sharply during regime transition significantly at both low liquid and gas flow rates.

Keywords: Trickle Bed Reactor, Dynamic Liquid Saturation, Foaming, Flow Regime Transition

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2621 Effects of Slip Condition and Peripheral Layer on Couple Stress Fluid Flow through a Channel with Mild Stenosis

Authors: Gurju Awgichew, G. Radhakrishnamacharya

Abstract:

Steady incompressible couple stress fluid flow through two dimensional symmetric channel with stenosis is investigated. The flow consisting of a core region to be a couple stress fluid and a peripheral layer of plasma (Newtonian fluid). Assuming the stenosis to be mild, the equations governing the flow of the proposed model are solved using the slip boundary condition and closed form expressions for the flow characteristics (the dimensionless resistance to flow and wall shear stress at the maximum height of stenosis) are derived. The effects of various parameters on these flow variables have been studied. It is observed that the resistance to flow as well as the wall shear stress increase with the height of stenosis, viscosity ratio and Darcy number. However, the trend is reversed as the slip and the couple stress parameter increase.

Keywords: Stenosis, Couple stress fluid, Slip condition, Peripheral layer.

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2620 Mathematical Modelling of Partially Filled Fluid Coupling Behaviour

Authors: A. M. Maqableh

Abstract:

Modelling techniques for a fluid coupling taken from published literature have been extended to include the effects of the filling and emptying of the coupling with oil and the variation in losses when the coupling is partially full. In the model, the fluid flow inside the coupling is considered to have two principal velocity components; one circumferentially about the coupling axis (centrifugal head) and the other representing the secondary vortex within the coupling itself (vortex head). The calculation of liquid mass flow rate circulating between the two halves of the coupling is based on: the assumption of a linear velocity variation in the circulating vortex flow; the head differential in the fluid due to the speed difference between the two shafts; and the losses in the circulating vortex flow as a result of the impingement of the flow with the blades in the coupling and friction within the passages between the blades.

Keywords: Fluid Coupling, Mathematical Modelling, partially filled.

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2619 Simulation of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in the Inclined Enclosure

Authors: A. Karimipour, M. Afrand, M. Akbari, M.R. Safaei

Abstract:

Mixed convection in two-dimensional shallow rectangular enclosure is considered. The top hot wall moves with constant velocity while the cold bottom wall has no motion. Simulations are performed for Richardson number ranging from Ri = 0.001 to 100 and for Reynolds number keeping fixed at Re = 408.21. Under these conditions cavity encompasses three regimes: dominating forced, mixed and free convection flow. The Prandtl number is set to 6 and the effects of cavity inclination on the flow and heat transfer are studied for different Richardson number. With increasing the inclination angle, interesting behavior of the flow and thermal fields are observed. The streamlines and isotherm plots and the variation of the Nusselt numbers on the hot wall are presented. The average Nusselt number is found to increase with cavity inclination for Ri ³ 1 . Also it is shown that the average Nusselt number changes mildly with the cavity inclination in the dominant forced convection regime but it increases considerably in the regime with dominant natural convection.

Keywords: Mixed convection, inclined driven cavity, Richardson number.

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2618 Modification by the River Vaslui of the Hydrological Regime and Its Economic Implications (Romania)

Authors: Gheorghe Romanescu, IonuŃ V. Jora, Cristian Constantin Stoleriu

Abstract:

The influence of human activities produced by dams along the river beds is minor, but the location of accumulation of water directly influences the hydrological regime. The most important effect of the influence of damming on the way water flows decreases the frequency of floods. The water rate controls the water flow of the dams. These natural reservoirs become dysfunctional and, as a result, a new distribution of flow in the downstream sector, where maximum flow is, brings about, in this case, higher values. In addition to fishing, middle and lower courses of rivers located by accumulation also have a role in mitigating flood waves, thus providing flood protection. The Vaslui also ensures a good part of the needs of the town water supply. The most important lake is Solesti, close to the Vaslui River, opened in 1974. A hydrological regime of accumulation is related to an anthropogenic and natural drainage system. The design conditions and their manoeuvres drain or fill the water courses.

Keywords: Hydraulic works, hydrological regime, average flow, repeat flow.

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2617 Numerical Investigation of Non-Newtonians Fluids Flows between Two Rotating Cylinders Using Lattice Boltzmann Method

Authors: S. Khali, R. Nebbali, K. Bouhadef

Abstract:

A numerical investigation is performed for non Newtonian fluids flow between two concentric cylinders. The D2Q9 lattice Boltzmann model developed from the Bhatangar-Gross-Krook (LBGK) approximation is used to obtain the flow field for fluids obeying to the power-law model. The inner and outer cylinders rotate in the same and the opposite direction while the end walls are maintained at rest. The combined effects of the Reynolds number (Re) of the inner and outer cylinders, the radius ratio (η) as well as the power-law index (n) on the flow characteristics are analyzed for an annular space of a finite aspect ratio (Γ). Two flow modes are obtained: a primary mode (laminar stable regime) and a secondary mode (laminar unstable regime). The so obtained flow structures are different from one mode to another. The transition critical Reynolds number Rec from the primary to the secondary mode is analyzed for the co-courant and counter-courant flows. This critical value increases as n increases. The prediction of the swirling flow of non Newtonians fluids in axisymmetric geometries is shown in the present work.

Keywords: Taylor-Couette flows, non Newtonian fluid, Lattice Boltzmann method.

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2616 Heat Transfer Dependent Vortex Shedding of Thermo-Viscous Shear-Thinning Fluids

Authors: Markus Rütten, Olaf Wünsch

Abstract:

Non-Newtonian fluid properties can change the flow behaviour significantly, its prediction is more difficult when thermal effects come into play. Hence, the focal point of this work is the wake flow behind a heated circular cylinder in the laminar vortex shedding regime for thermo-viscous shear thinning fluids. In the case of isothermal flows of Newtonian fluids the vortex shedding regime is characterised by a distinct Reynolds number and an associated Strouhal number. In the case of thermo-viscous shear thinning fluids the flow regime can significantly change in dependence of the temperature of the viscous wall of the cylinder. The Reynolds number alters locally and, consequentially, the Strouhal number globally. In the present CFD study the temperature dependence of the Reynolds and Strouhal number is investigated for the flow of a Carreau fluid around a heated cylinder. The temperature dependence of the fluid viscosity has been modelled by applying the standard Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) equation. In the present simulation campaign thermal boundary conditions have been varied over a wide range in order to derive a relation between dimensionless heat transfer, Reynolds and Strouhal number. Together with the shear thinning due to the high shear rates close to the cylinder wall this leads to a significant decrease of viscosity of three orders of magnitude in the nearfield of the cylinder and a reduction of two orders of magnitude in the wake field. Yet the shear thinning effect is able to change the flow topology: a complex K´arm´an vortex street occurs, also revealing distinct characteristic frequencies associated with the dominant and sub-dominant vortices. Heating up the cylinder wall leads to a delayed flow separation and narrower wake flow, giving lesser space for the sequence of counter-rotating vortices. This spatial limitation does not only reduce the amplitude of the oscillating wake flow it also shifts the dominant frequency to higher frequencies, furthermore it damps higher harmonics. Eventually the locally heated wake flow smears out. Eventually, the CFD simulation results of the systematically varied thermal flow parameter study have been used to describe a relation for the main characteristic order parameters.

Keywords: Heat transfer, thermo-viscous fluids, shear thinning, vortex shedding.

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2615 Numerical Heat Transfer Performance of Water-Based Graphene Nanoplatelets

Authors: Ahmad Amiri, Hamed K. Arzani, S. N. Kazi, B. T. Chew

Abstract:

Since graphene nanoplatelet (GNP) is a promising material due to desirable thermal properties, this paper is related to the thermophysical and heat transfer performance of covalently functionalized GNP-based water/ethylene glycol nanofluid through an annular channel. After experimentally measuring thermophysical properties of prepared samples, a computational fluid dynamics study has been carried out to examine the heat transfer and pressure drop of well-dispersed and stabilized nanofluids. The effect of concentration of GNP and Reynolds number at constant wall temperature boundary condition under turbulent flow regime on convective heat transfer coefficient has been investigated. Based on the results, for different Reynolds numbers, the convective heat transfer coefficient of the prepared nanofluid is higher than that of the base fluid. Also, the enhancement of convective heat transfer coefficient and thermal conductivity increase with the increase of GNP concentration in base-fluid. Based on the results of this investigation, there is a significant enhancement on the heat transfer rate associated with loading well-dispersed GNP in base-fluid.

Keywords: Nanofluid, turbulent flow, forced convection flow, graphene, annular, annulus.

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2614 Numerical Comparison of Rushton Turbine and CD-6 Impeller in Non-Newtonian Fluid Stirred Tank

Authors: Akhilesh Khapre, Basudeb Munshi

Abstract:

A computational fluid dynamics simulation is done for non-Newtonian fluid in a baffled stirred tank. The CMC solution is taken as non-Newtonian shear thinning fluid for simulation. The Reynolds Average Navier Stocks equation with steady state multi reference frame approach is used to simulate flow in the stirred tank. The turbulent flow field is modelled using realizable k-ε turbulence model. The simulated velocity profiles of Rushton turbine is validated with literature data. Then, the simulated flow field of CD-6 impeller is compared with the Rushton turbine. The flow field generated by CD-6 impeller is less in magnitude than the Rushton turbine. The impeller global parameter, power number and flow number, and entropy generation due to viscous dissipation rate is also reported.

Keywords: Computational fluid dynamics, non-Newtonian, Rushton turbine, CD-6 impeller, power number, flow number, viscous dissipation rate.

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2613 Experimental Investigation of Convective Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop of Al2O3/Water Nanofluid in Laminar Flow Regime inside a Circular Tube

Authors: H. Almohammadi, Sh. Nasiri Vatan, E. Esmaeilzadeh, A. Motezaker, A. Nokhosteen

Abstract:

In the present study, Convective heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of Al2O3/water nanofluid in laminar flow regime under constant heat flux conditions inside a circular tube were experimentally investigated. Al2O3/water nanofluid with 0.5% and 1% volume concentrations with 15 nm diameter nanoparticles were used as working fluid. The effect of different volume concentrations on convective heat transfer coefficient and friction factor was studied. The results emphasize that increasing of particle volume concentration leads to enhance convective heat transfer coefficient. Measurements show the average heat transfer coefficient enhanced about 11-20% with 0.5% volume concentration and increased about 16-27% with 1% volume concentration compared to distilled water. In addition, the convective heat transfer coefficient of nanofluid enhances with increase in heat flux. From the results, the average ratio of (fnf/fbf) was about 1.10 for 0.5% volume concentration. Therefore, there is no significant increase in friction factor for nanofluids.

Keywords: Convective heat transfer, Laminar flow regime, Nanofluids, Pressure drop

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2612 Optimization of Hydraulic Fluid Parameters in Automotive Torque Converters

Authors: S. Venkateswaran, C. Mallika Parveen

Abstract:

The fluid flow and the properties of the hydraulic fluid inside a torque converter are the main topics of interest in this research. The primary goal is to investigate the applicability of various viscous fluids inside the torque converter. The Taguchi optimization method is adopted to analyse the fluid flow in a torque converter from a design perspective. Calculations are conducted in maximizing the pressure since greater the pressure, greater the torque developed. Using the values of the S/N ratios obtained, graphs are plotted. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis is also conducted.

Keywords: Hydraulic fluid, Taguchi's method, optimization, pressure, torque.

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2611 CFD Simulations to Validate Two and Three Phase Up-flow in Bubble Columns

Authors: Shyam Kumar, Nannuri Srinivasulu, Ashok Khanna

Abstract:

Bubble columns have a variety of applications in absorption, bio-reactions, catalytic slurry reactions, and coal liquefaction; because they are simple to operate, provide good heat and mass transfer, having less operational cost. The use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for bubble column becomes important, since it can describe the fluid hydrodynamics on both local and global scale. Euler- Euler two-phase fluid model has been used to simulate two-phase (air and water) transient up-flow in bubble column (15cm diameter) using FLUENT6.3. These simulations and experiments were operated over a range of superficial gas velocities in the bubbly flow and churn turbulent regime (1 to16 cm/s) at ambient conditions. Liquid velocity was varied from 0 to 16cm/s. The turbulence in the liquid phase is described using the standard k-ε model. The interactions between the two phases are described through drag coefficient formulations (Schiller Neumann). The objectives are to validate CFD simulations with experimental data, and to obtain grid-independent numerical solutions. Quantitatively good agreements are obtained between experimental data for hold-up and simulation values. Axial liquid velocity profiles and gas holdup profiles were also obtained for the simulation.

Keywords: Bubble column, Computational fluid dynamics, Gas holdup profile, k-ε model.

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2610 A Finite Volume Procedure on Unstructured Meshes for Fluid-Structure Interaction Problems

Authors: P I Jagad, B P Puranik, A W Date

Abstract:

Flow through micro and mini channels requires relatively high driving pressure due to the large fluid pressure drop through these channels. Consequently the forces acting on the walls of the channel due to the fluid pressure are also large. Due to these forces there are displacement fields set up in the solid substrate containing the channels. If the movement of the substrate is constrained at some points, then stress fields are established in the substrate. On the other hand, if the deformation of the channel shape is sufficiently large then its effect on the fluid flow is important to be calculated. Such coupled fluid-solid systems form a class of problems known as fluidstructure interactions. In the present work a co-located finite volume discretization procedure on unstructured meshes is described for solving fluid-structure interaction type of problems. A linear elastic solid is assumed for which the effect of the channel deformation on the flow is neglected. Thus the governing equations for the fluid and the solid are decoupled and are solved separately. The procedure is validated by solving two benchmark problems, one from fluid mechanics and another from solid mechanics. A fluid-structure interaction problem of flow through a U-shaped channel embedded in a plate is solved.

Keywords: Finite volume method, flow induced stresses, fluidstructureinteraction, unstructured meshes.

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2609 Numerical Study of Liquefied Petroleum Gas Laminar Flow in Cylindrical Elliptic Pipes

Authors: Olumuyiwa A. Lasode, Tajudeen O. Popoola, B. V. S. S. S. Prasad

Abstract:

Fluid flow in cylinders of elliptic cross-section was investigated. Fluid used is Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). LPG found in Nigeria contains majorly butane with percentages of propane. Commercial available code FLUENT which uses finite volume method was used to solve fluid flow governing equations. There has been little attention paid to fluid flow in cylindrical elliptic pipes. The present work aims to predict the LPG gas flow in cylindrical pipes of elliptic cross-section. Results of flow parameters of velocity and pressure distributions are presented. Results show that the pressure drop in elliptic pipes is higher than circular pipe of the same cross-sectional area. This is an important result as the pressure drop is related to the pump power needed to drive the flow. Results show that the velocity increases towards centre of the pipe as the flow moves downstream, and also increases towards the outlet of the pipe.

Keywords: Elliptic Pipes, Liquefied Petroleum Gas, Numerical Study, Pressure Drop.

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2608 Contribution to Experiments of a Free Surface Supercritical Flow over an Uneven Bottom

Authors: M. Bougamouza, M. Bouhadef, T. Zitoun

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to examine, through experimentation in the laboratory, the supercritical flow in the presence of an obstacle in a rectangular channel. The supercritical regime in the whole hydraulic channel is achieved by adding a convergent. We will observe the influence of the obstacle shape and dimension on the characteristics of the supercritical flow, mainly the free-surface elevation and the velocity profile. The velocity measurements have been conducted with the one dimension laser anemometry technique.

Keywords: Experiments, free-surface flow, hydraulic channel, uneven bottom, laser anemometry, supercritical regime.

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2607 Analysis of One-Way and Two-Way FSI Approaches to Characterise the Flow Regime and the Mechanical Behaviour during Closing Manoeuvring Operation of a Butterfly Valve

Authors: M. Ezkurra, J. A. Esnaola, M. Martinez-Agirre, U. Etxeberria, U. Lertxundi, L. Colomo, M. Begiristain, I. Zurutuza

Abstract:

Butterfly valves are widely used industrial piping components as on-off and flow controlling devices. The main challenge in the design process of this type of valves is the correct dimensioning to ensure proper mechanical performance as well as to minimise flow losses that affect the efficiency of the system. Butterfly valves are typically dimensioned in a closed position based on mechanical approaches considering uniform hydrostatic pressure, whereas the flow losses are analysed by means of CFD simulations. The main limitation of these approaches is that they do not consider either the influence of the dynamics of the manoeuvring stage or coupled phenomena. Recent works have included the influence of the flow on the mechanical behaviour for different opening angles by means of one-way FSI approach. However, these works consider steady-state flow for the selected angles, not capturing the effect of the transient flow evolution during the manoeuvring stage. Two-way FSI modelling approach could allow overcoming such limitations providing more accurate results. Nevertheless, the use of this technique is limited due to the increase in the computational cost. In the present work, the applicability of FSI one-way and two-way approaches is evaluated for the analysis of butterfly valves, showing that not considering fluid-structure coupling involves not capturing the most critical situation for the valve disc.

Keywords: Butterfly valves, fluid-structure interaction, one-way approach, two-way approach.

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2606 CFD Modeling of a Radiator Axial Fan for Air Flow Distribution

Authors: S. Jain, Y. Deshpande

Abstract:

The fluid mechanics principle is used extensively in designing axial flow fans and their associated equipment. This paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of air flow distribution from a radiator axial flow fan used in an acid pump truck Tier4 (APT T4) Repower. This axial flow fan augments the transfer of heat from the engine mounted on the APT T4. CFD analysis was performed for an area weighted average static pressure difference at the inlet and outlet of the fan. Pressure contours, velocity vectors, and path lines were plotted for detailing the flow characteristics for different orientations of the fan blade. The results were then compared and verified against known theoretical observations and actual experimental data. This study shows that a CFD simulation can be very useful for predicting and understanding the flow distribution from a radiator fan for further research work.

Keywords: Computational fluid dynamics (CFD), acid pump truck (APT) Tier4 Repower, axial flow fan, area weighted average static pressure difference, and contour plots.

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