Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 141

# Search results for: finite difference

##### 81 A Simple Heat and Mass Transfer Model for Salt Gradient Solar Ponds

Abstract:

A salinity gradient solar pond is a free energy source system for collecting, convertingand storing solar energy as heat. In thispaper, the principles of solar pond are explained. A mathematical model is developed to describe and simulate heat and mass transferbehaviour of salinity gradient solar pond. MATLAB codes are programmed to solve the one dimensional finite difference method for heat and mass transfer equations. Temperature profiles and concentration distributions are calculated. The numerical results are validated with experimental data and the results arefound to be in good agreement.

##### 80 Construction Procedures Evaluation of Three Adjacent Tunnels and Excavation Step Effects

Abstract:

Since, both the relative position of tunnels and the construction procedure affect the soil movement and internal forces in the lining, it is of major concern to study the influence of these factors on the tunnel design. Construction procedures of tunnels have considerable effects on the magnitude of surface movements and lining stresses. This paper describes numerical analysis of construction procedure of a three adjacent shallow tunnels at high groundwater levels using the commercial finite difference software (FLAC-3D). The aim of this study is to determinate the most suitable construction procedure for the three tunnels and the optimum excavation step in Tehran Metro tunnels in order to optimize the surface settlements and lining stresses.

##### 79 New High Order Group Iterative Schemes in the Solution of Poisson Equation

Abstract:

We investigate the formulation and implementation of new explicit group iterative methods in solving the two-dimensional Poisson equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions. The methods are derived from a fourth order compact nine point finite difference discretization. The methods are compared with the existing second order standard five point formula to show the dramatic improvement in computed accuracy. Numerical experiments are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

##### 78 Study on the Heat Transfer Performance of the Annular Fin under Condensing Conditions

Abstract:

A numerical investigation of the fin efficiency and temperature distribution of an annular fin under dehumidification has been presented in this paper. The non-homogeneous second order differential equation that describes the temperature distribution from the fin base to the fin tip has been solved using the central finite difference method. The effects of variations in parameters including relative humidity, air temperature, air face velocity on temperature distribution and fin efficiency are investigated and compared with those under fully dry fin conditions. Also, the effect of fin pitch on the dimensionless temperature has been studied.

##### 77 Axisymmetric Nonlinear Analysis of Point Supported Shallow Spherical Shells

Authors: M. Altekin, R. F. Yükseler

Abstract:

Geometrically nonlinear axisymmetric bending of a shallow spherical shell with a point support at the apex under linearly varying axisymmetric load was investigated numerically. The edge of the shell was assumed to be simply supported or clamped. The solution was obtained by the finite difference and the Newton-Raphson methods. The thickness of the shell was considered to be uniform and the material was assumed to be homogeneous and isotropic. Sensitivity analysis was made for two geometrical parameters. The accuracy of the algorithm was checked by comparing the deflection with the solution of point supported circular plates and good agreement was obtained.

Keywords: Bending, nonlinear, plate, point support, shell.

##### 76 A Hybrid Differential Transform Approach for Laser Heating of a Double-Layered Thin Film

Authors: Cheng-Ying Lo

Abstract:

This paper adopted the hybrid differential transform approach for studying heat transfer problems in a gold/chromium thin film with an ultra-short-pulsed laser beam projecting on the gold side. The physical system, formulated based on the hyperbolic two-step heat transfer model, covers three characteristics: (i) coupling effects between the electron/lattice systems, (ii) thermal wave propagation in metals, and (iii) radiation effects along the interface. The differential transform method is used to transfer the governing equations in the time domain into the spectrum equations, which is further discretized in the space domain by the finite difference method. The results, obtained through a recursive process, show that the electron temperature in the gold film can rise up to several thousand degrees before its electron/lattice systems reach equilibrium at only several hundred degrees. The electron and lattice temperatures in the chromium film are much lower than those in the gold film.

##### 75 A Hybrid Mesh Free Local RBF- Cartesian FD Scheme for Incompressible Flow around Solid Bodies

Authors: A. Javed, K. Djidjeli, J. T. Xing, S. J. Cox

Abstract:

A method for simulating flow around the solid bodies has been presented using hybrid meshfree and mesh-based schemes. The presented scheme optimizes the computational efficiency by combining the advantages of both meshfree and mesh-based methods. In this approach, a cloud of meshfree nodes has been used in the domain around the solid body. These meshfree nodes have the ability to efficiently adapt to complex geometrical shapes. In the rest of the domain, conventional Cartesian grid has been used beyond the meshfree cloud. Complex geometrical shapes can therefore be dealt efficiently by using meshfree nodal cloud and computational efficiency is maintained through the use of conventional mesh-based scheme on Cartesian grid in the larger part of the domain. Spatial discretization of meshfree nodes has been achieved through local radial basis functions in finite difference mode (RBF-FD). Conventional finite difference scheme has been used in the Cartesian ‘meshed’ domain. Accuracy tests of the hybrid scheme have been conducted to establish the order of accuracy. Numerical tests have been performed by simulating two dimensional steady and unsteady incompressible flows around cylindrical object. Steady flow cases have been run at Reynolds numbers of 10, 20 and 40 and unsteady flow problems have been studied at Reynolds numbers of 100 and 200. Flow Parameters including lift, drag, vortex shedding, and vorticity contours are calculated. Numerical results have been found to be in good agreement with computational and experimental results available in the literature.

##### 74 The Finite Difference Scheme for the Suspended String Equation with the Nonlinear External Forces

Authors: Jaipong Kasemsuwan

Abstract:

This paper presents the finite difference scheme and the numerical simulation of suspended string. The vibration solutions when the various external forces are taken into account are obtained and compared with the solutions without external force. In addition, we also investigate how the external forces and their powers and coefficients affect the amplitude of vibration.

##### 73 Adaptive Shape Parameter (ASP) Technique for Local Radial Basis Functions (RBFs) and Their Application for Solution of Navier Strokes Equations

Authors: A. Javed, K. Djidjeli, J. T. Xing

Abstract:

The concept of adaptive shape parameters (ASP) has been presented for solution of incompressible Navier Strokes equations using mesh-free local Radial Basis Functions (RBF). The aim is to avoid ill-conditioning of coefficient matrices of RBF weights and inaccuracies in RBF interpolation resulting from non-optimized shape of basis functions for the cases where data points (or nodes) are not distributed uniformly throughout the domain. Unlike conventional approaches which assume globally similar values of RBF shape parameters, the presented ASP technique suggests that shape parameter be calculated exclusively for each data point (or node) based on the distribution of data points within its own influence domain. This will ensure interpolation accuracy while still maintaining well conditioned system of equations for RBF weights. Performance and accuracy of ASP technique has been tested by evaluating derivatives and laplacian of a known function using RBF in Finite difference mode (RBFFD), with and without the use of adaptivity in shape parameters. Application of adaptive shape parameters (ASP) for solution of incompressible Navier Strokes equations has been presented by solving lid driven cavity flow problem on mesh-free domain using RBF-FD. The results have been compared for fixed and adaptive shape parameters. Improved accuracy has been achieved with the use of ASP in RBF-FD especially at regions where larger gradients of field variables exist.

##### 72 Combining Molecular Statics with Heat Transfer Finite Difference Method for Analysis of Nanoscale Orthogonal Cutting of Single-Crystal Silicon Temperature Field

Authors: Zone-Ching Lin, Meng-Hua Lin, Ying-Chih Hsu

Abstract:

This paper uses quasi-steady molecular statics model and diamond tool to carry out simulation temperature rise of nanoscale orthogonal cutting single-crystal silicon. It further qualitatively analyzes temperature field of silicon workpiece without considering heat transfer and considering heat transfer. This paper supposes that the temperature rise of workpiece is mainly caused by two heat sources: plastic deformation heat and friction heat. Then, this paper develops a theoretical model about production of the plastic deformation heat and friction heat during nanoscale orthogonal cutting. After the increased temperature produced by these two heat sources are added up, the acquired total temperature rise at each atom of the workpiece is substituted in heat transfer finite difference equation to carry out heat transfer and calculates the temperature field in each step and makes related analysis.

##### 71 Sub-Impact Phenomenon of Elasto-Plastic Free-Free Beam during a Strike

Authors: H. Rong, X. C. Yin, J. Yang, Y. N. Shen

Abstract:

Based on Rayleigh beam theory, the sub-impacts of a free-free beam struck horizontally by a round-nosed rigid mass is simulated by the finite difference method and the impact-separation conditions. In order to obtain the sub-impact force, a uniaxial compression elastic-plastic contact model is employed to analyze the local deformation field on contact zone. It is found that the horizontal impact is a complicated process including the elastic plastic sub-impacts in sequence. There are two sub-zones of sub-impact. In addition, it found that the elastic energy of the free-free beam is more suitable for the Poisson collision hypothesis to explain compression and recovery processes. Downloads 1403
##### 70 Analysis of Thermal Deformation of a Rough Slider and Its Asperities and Its Impact on Load Generation in Parallel Sliders

Abstract:

Heating is inevitable in any bearing operation. This leads to not only the thinning of the lubricant but also could lead to a thermal deformation of the bearing. The present work is an attempt to analyze the influence of thermal deformation on the thermohydrodynamic lubrication of infinitely long tilted pad slider rough bearings. As a consequence of heating the slider is deformed and is assumed to take a parabolic shape. Also the asperities expand leading to smaller effective film thickness. Two different types of surface roughness are considered: longitudinal roughness and transverse roughness. Christensen-s stochastic approach is used to derive the Reynolds-type equations. Density and viscosity are considered to be temperature dependent. The modified Reynolds equation, momentum equation, continuity equation and energy equation are decoupled and solved using finite difference method to yield various bearing characteristics. From the numerical simulations it is observed that the performance of the bearing is significantly affected by the thermal distortion of the slider and asperities and even the parallel sliders seem to carry some load. Downloads 1533
##### 69 Effects of the Wavy Surface on Free Convection-Radiation along an Inclined Plate

Authors: M. Si Abdallah, B. Zeghmati

Abstract:

A numerical analysis used to simulate the effects of wavy surfaces and thermal radiation on natural convection heat transfer boundary layer flow over an inclined wavy plate has been investigated. A simple coordinate transformation is employed to transform the complex wavy surface into a flat plate. The boundary layer equations and the boundary conditions are discretized by the finite difference scheme and solved numerically using the Gauss-Seidel algorithm with relaxation coefficient. Effects of the wavy geometry, the inclination angle of the wavy plate and the thermal radiation on the velocity profiles, temperature profiles and the local Nusselt number are presented and discussed in detail.

##### 68 Double-Diffusive Natural Convection with Marangoni and Cooling Effects

Authors: Norazam Arbin, Ishak Hashim

Abstract:

Double-diffusive natural convection in an open top square cavity and heated from the side is studied numerically. Constant temperatures and concentration are imposed along the right and left walls while the heat balance at the surface is assumed to obey Newton-s law of cooling. The finite difference method is used to solve the dimensionless governing equations. The numerical results are reported for the effect of Marangoni number, Biot number and Prandtl number on the contours of streamlines, temperature and concentration. The predicted results for the average Nusselt number and Sherwood number are presented for various parametric conditions. The parameters involved are as follows; the thermal Marangoni number, 0 ≤ MaT ≤1000 , the solutal Marangoni number, 0 1000 c ≤ Ma ≤ , the Biot number, 0 ≤ Bi ≤ 6 , Grashof number, 5 Gr = 10 and aspect ratio 1. The study focused on both flows; thermal dominated, N = 0.8 , and compositional dominated, N = 1.3 . Downloads 1523
##### 67 Laminar Free Convection of Nanofluid Flow in Horizontal Porous Annulus

Authors: Manal H. Saleh

Abstract:

A numerical study has been carried out to investigate the heat transfer by natural convection of nanofluid taking Cu as nanoparticles and the water as based fluid in a three dimensional annulus enclosure filled with porous media (silica sand) between two horizontal concentric cylinders with 12 annular fins of 2.4mm thickness attached to the inner cylinder under steady state conditions. The governing equations which used are continuity, momentum and energy equations under an assumptions used Darcy law and Boussinesq-s approximation which are transformed to dimensionless equations. The finite difference approach is used to obtain all the computational results using the MATLAB-7. The parameters affected on the system are modified Rayleigh number (10 ≤Ra*≤ 1000), fin length Hf (3, 7 and 11mm), radius ratio Rr (0.293, 0.365 and 0.435) and the volume fraction(0 ≤ ¤ò ≤ 0 .35). It was found that the average Nusselt number depends on (Ra*, Hf, Rr and φ). The results show that, increasing of fin length decreases the heat transfer rate and for low values of Ra*, decreasing Rr cause to decrease Nu while for Ra* greater than 100, decreasing Rr cause to increase Nu and adding Cu nanoparticles with 0.35 volume fraction cause 27.9% enhancement in heat transfer. A correlation for Nu in terms of Ra*, Hf and φ, has been developed for inner hot cylinder. Downloads 2121
##### 66 Improved Plasmonic Demultiplexer Based on Tapered and Rectangular Slot MIM Waveguide

Abstract:

In this paper, we have proposed two novel plasmonic demultiplexing structures based on metal-insulator-metal surfaces which, beside their compact size, have a very good transmission spectrum. The impact of the key internal parameters on the transmission spectrum is numerically analyzed by using the twodimensional (2D) finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The proposed structures could be used to develop ultra-compact photonic wavelength demultiplexing devices for large-scale photonic integration.

##### 65 Cubic B-spline Collocation Method for Numerical Solution of the Benjamin-Bona-Mahony-Burgers Equation

Authors: M. Zarebnia, R. Parvaz

Abstract:

In this paper, numerical solutions of the nonlinear Benjamin-Bona-Mahony-Burgers (BBMB) equation are obtained by a method based on collocation of cubic B-splines. Applying the Von-Neumann stability analysis, the proposed method is shown to be unconditionally stable. The method is applied on some test examples, and the numerical results have been compared with the exact solutions. The L∞ and L2 in the solutions show the efficiency of the method computationally.

##### 64 Septic B-Spline Collocation Method for Numerical Solution of the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky Equation

Authors: M. Zarebnia, R. Parvaz

Abstract:

In this paper the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation is solved numerically by collocation method. The solution is approximated as a linear combination of septic B-spline functions. Applying the Von-Neumann stability analysis technique, we show that the method is unconditionally stable. The method is applied on some test examples, and the numerical results have been compared with the exact solutions. The global relative error and L∞ in the solutions show the efficiency of the method computationally.

##### 63 Numerical Method Based On Initial Value-Finite Differences for Free Vibration of Stepped Thickness Plates

Abstract:

The main objective of the present paper is to derive an easy numerical technique for the analysis of the free vibration through the stepped regions of plates. Based on the utilities of the step by step integration initial values IV and Finite differences FD methods, the present improved Initial Value Finite Differences (IVFD) technique is achieved. The first initial conditions are formulated in convenient forms for the step by step integrations while the upper and lower edge conditions are expressed in finite difference modes. Also compatibility conditions are created due to the sudden variation of plate thickness. The present method (IVFD) is applied to solve the fourth order partial differential equation of motion for stepped plate across two different panels under the sudden step compatibility in addition to different types of end conditions. The obtained results are examined and the validity of the present method is proved showing excellent efficiency and rapid convergence.

##### 62 Computational Initial Value Method for Vibration Analysis of Symmetrically Laminated Composite Plate

Abstract:

In the present paper, an improved initial value numerical technique is presented to analyze the free vibration of symmetrically laminated rectangular plate. A combination of the initial value method (IV) and the finite differences (FD) devices is utilized to develop the present (IVFD) technique. The achieved technique is applied to the equation of motion of vibrating laminated rectangular plate under various types of boundary conditions. Three common types of laminated symmetrically cross-ply, orthotropic and isotropic plates are analyzed here. The convergence and accuracy of the presented Initial Value-Finite Differences (IVFD) technique have been examined. Also, the merits and validity of improved technique are satisfied via comparing the obtained results with those available in literature indicating good agreements. Downloads 2058
##### 61 Photonic Crystal Waveguide 1x3 Flexible Power Splitter for Optical Network

Abstract:

A compact 1x3 power splitter based on Photonic Crystal Waveguides (PCW) with flexible power splitting ratio is presented in this paper. Multimode interference coupler (MMI) is integrated with PCW. The device size reduction compared with the conventional MMI power splitter is attributed to the large dispersion of the PCW. Band Solve tool is used to calculate the band structure of PCW. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method is adopted to simulate the relevant structure at 1550nm wavelength. The device is polarization insensitive and allows the control of output (o/p) powers within certain percentage points for both polarizations. Downloads 1462
##### 60 From Experiments to Numerical Modeling: A Tool for Teaching Heat Transfer in Mechanical Engineering

Authors: D. Zabala, Y. Cárdenas, G. Núñez

Abstract:

In this work the numerical simulation of transient heat transfer in a cylindrical probe is done. An experiment was conducted introducing a steel cylinder in a heating chamber and registering its surface temperature along the time during one hour. In parallel, a mathematical model was solved for one dimension transient heat transfer in cylindrical coordinates, considering the boundary conditions of the test. The model was solved using finite difference method, because the thermal conductivity in the cylindrical steel bar and the convection heat transfer coefficient used in the model are considered temperature dependant functions, and both conditions prevent the use of the analytical solution. The comparison between theoretical and experimental results showed the average deviation is below 2%. It was concluded that numerical methods are useful in order to solve engineering complex problems. For constant k and h, the experimental methodology used here can be used as a tool for teaching heat transfer in mechanical engineering, using mathematical simplified models with analytical solutions. Downloads 1149
##### 59 The Finite Difference Scheme for the Suspended String Equation with the Nonlinear Damping Term

Authors: Jaipong Kasemsuwan

Abstract:

A numerical solution of the initial boundary value problem of the suspended string vibrating equation with the particular nonlinear damping term based on the finite difference scheme is presented in this paper. The investigation of how the second and third power terms of the nonlinear term affect the vibration characteristic. We compare the vibration amplitude as a result of the third power nonlinear damping with the second power obtained from previous report provided that the same initial shape and initial velocities are assumed. The comparison results show that the vibration amplitude is inversely proportional to the coefficient of the damping term for the third power nonlinear damping case, while the vibration amplitude is proportional to the coefficient of the damping term in the second power nonlinear damping case. Downloads 1124
##### 58 Application of the Central-Difference with Half- Sweep Gauss-Seidel Method for Solving First Order Linear Fredholm Integro-Differential Equations

Authors: E. Aruchunan, J. Sulaiman

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to analyse the application of the Half-Sweep Gauss-Seidel (HSGS) method by using the Half-sweep approximation equation based on central difference (CD) and repeated trapezoidal (RT) formulas to solve linear fredholm integro-differential equations of first order. The formulation and implementation of the Full-Sweep Gauss-Seidel (FSGS) and Half- Sweep Gauss-Seidel (HSGS) methods are also presented. The HSGS method has been shown to rapid compared to the FSGS methods. Some numerical tests were illustrated to show that the HSGS method is superior to the FSGS method. Downloads 1484
##### 57 Alternating Implicit Block FDTD Method For Scalar Wave Equation

Authors: N. M. Nusi, M. Othman, M. Suleiman, F. Ismail, N. Alias

Abstract:

In this paper, an alternating implicit block method for solving two dimensional scalar wave equation is presented. The new method consist of two stages for each time step implemented in alternating directions which are very simple in computation. To increase the speed of computation, a group of adjacent points is computed simultaneously. It is shown that the presented method increase the maximum time step size and more accurate than the conventional finite difference time domain (FDTD) method and other existing method of natural ordering. Downloads 1494
##### 56 Magnetohydrodynamics Boundary Layer Flows over a Stretching Surface with Radiation Effect and Embedded in Porous Medium

Abstract:

A steady two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics flow and heat transfer over a stretching vertical sheet influenced by radiation and porosity is studied. The governing boundary layer equations of partial differential equations are reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations using similarity transformation. The system is solved numerically by using a finite difference scheme known as the Keller-box method for some values of parameters, namely the radiation parameter N, magnetic parameter M, buoyancy parameter l , Prandtl number Pr and permeability parameter K. The effects of the parameters on the heat transfer characteristics are analyzed and discussed. It is found that both the skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number decrease as the magnetic parameter M and permeability parameter K increase. Heat transfer rate at the surface decreases as the radiation parameter increases. Downloads 1613
##### 55 Applications of High-Order Compact Finite Difference Scheme to Nonlinear Goursat Problems

Abstract:

Several numerical schemes utilizing central difference approximations have been developed to solve the Goursat problem. However, in a recent years compact discretization methods which leads to high-order finite difference schemes have been used since it is capable of achieving better accuracy as well as preserving certain features of the equation e.g. linearity. The basic idea of the new scheme is to find the compact approximations to the derivative terms by differentiating centrally the governing equations. Our primary interest is to study the performance of the new scheme when applied to two Goursat partial differential equations against the traditional finite difference scheme. Downloads 1379
##### 54 Study on the Variation Effects of Diverging Angleon Characteristics of Flow in Converging and Diverging Ducts by Numerical Method

Abstract:

The present paper develops and validates a numerical procedure for the calculation of turbulent combustive flow in converging and diverging ducts and throuh simulation of the heat transfer processes, the amount of production and spread of Nox pollutant has been measured. A marching integration solution procedure employing the TDMA is used to solve the discretized equations. The turbulence model is the Prandtl Mixing Length method. Modeling the combustion process is done by the use of Arrhenius and Eddy Dissipation method. Thermal mechanism has been utilized for modeling the process of forming the nitrogen oxides. Finite difference method and Genmix numerical code are used for numerical solution of equations. Our results indicate the important influence of the limiting diverging angle of diffuser on the coefficient of recovering of pressure. Moreover, due to the intense dependence of Nox pollutant to the maximum temperature in the domain with this feature, the Nox pollutant amount is also in maximum level.