Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: fermentable sugars

9 Fermentable Sugars from Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Biomass for Bioethanol Production

Authors: U. A. Asli, H. Hamid, Z.A. Zakaria, A. N. Sadikin, R. Rasit

Abstract:

This study investigated the effect of a dilute acid, lime and ammonia aqueous pretreatment on the fermentable sugars conversion from empty fruit bunch (EFB) biomass. The dilute acid treatment was carried out in an autoclave, at 121ºC with 4% of sulfuric acid. In the lime pretreatment, 3 wt % of calcium hydroxide was used, whereas the third method was done by soaking EFB with 28% ammonia solution. The EFB biomass was then subjected to a two-stage-acid hydrolysis process. Subsequently, the hydrolysate was fermented by using instant baker’s yeast to produce bioethanol. The highest glucose yield was 890 mg/g of biomass, obtained from the sample which underwent lime pretreatment. The highest bioethanol yield of 6.1mg/g of glucose was achieved from acid pretreatment. This showed that the acid pretreatment gave the most fermentable sugars compared to the other two pretreatments.

Keywords: Bioethanol, biomass, empty fruit bunch (EFB), fermentable sugars.

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8 Conversion of Sugarcane Shoots to Reducing Sugars

Authors: Sathida Phonoy, Bongotrut Pitiyont, Vichien kitpreechavanich

Abstract:

Sugarcane Shoots is an abundantly available residual resources consisting of lignocelluloses which take it into the benefit. The present study was focused on utilizing of sugarcane shoot for reducing sugar production as a substrate in ethanol production. Physical and chemical pretreatments of sugarcane shoot were investigated. Results showed that the size of sugarcane shoot influenced the cellulose content. The maximum cellulose yield (60 %) can be obtained from alkaline pretreated sugarcane shoot with 1.0 M NaOH at 30 oC for 90 min. The cellulose yield reached up to 93.9% (w/w). Enzymatically hydrolyzed of cellulosic residual in 0.04 citrate buffer (pH 5) with celluclast 1.5L (0.7 FPU/ml) resulted in the highest amount of reducing sugar at a rate of 32.1 g/l after 4 h incubation at 50°C, and 100 oC for 5 min . Cellulose conversion was 55.5%.

Keywords: Conversion, Sugarcane Shoots, Reducing Sugars.

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7 Study of Effect Different of Ozone Doses on Sugars Content in Tomatoes at Different Stages of Ripening

Authors: Milad. A. Shalluf

Abstract:

The determination of sugars in foods is very significant. Their relation in fact, can affect the chemical and sensorial quality of the matrix (e.g., sweetness, pH, total acidity, microbial stability, global acceptability) and can provide information on food to optimize several selected technological processes. Three stages of ripeness (green, yellow and red) of tomatoes (Lycopersicon Esculentum cv. Elegance) at different harvest dates were evaluated. Fruit from all harvests were exposed to different of ozone doses (0.25, 0.50 and 1 mg O3/g tomatoes) and clean air for 5 day at 15 °C±2 and 90-95 % relative humidity. Then, fruits were submitted for extraction and analysis after a day from the finish of exposure of each stage. The concentrations of the glucose and fructose increased in the tomatoes which were subjected to ozone treatments.

Keywords: Post-harvest Treatment, Controlled Atmosphere Storage, Ozone, Tomatoes, Glucose, Fructose

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6 Physical-Chemical Parameters of Latvian Apple Juices and Their Suitability for Cider Production

Authors: Rita Riekstina-Dolge, Zanda Kruma, Daina Karklina, Fredijs Dimins

Abstract:

Apple juice is the main raw material for cider production. In this study apple juices obtained from 14 dessert and crab variety apples grown in Latvia were investigated. For all samples soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH and sugar content were determined. Crab apples produce more dry matter, total sugar and acid content compared to the dessert apples but it depends on the apple variety. Total sugar content of crab apple juices was 1.3 to 1.8 times larger than in dessert apple juices. Titratable acidity of dessert apple juices is in the range of 4.1g L-1 to 10.83g L-1 and in crab apple juices titratable acidity is from 7.87g L-1 to 19.6g L-1. Fructose was detected as the main sugar whereas glucose level varied depending on the variety. The highest titratable acidity and content of sugars was detected in ‘Cornelia’ apples juice.

Keywords: Apple juice, hierarchical cluster analysis, sugars, titratable acidity.

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5 Fermentation of Xylose and Glucose Mixture in Intensified Reactors by Scheffersomyces stipitis to Produce Ethanol

Authors: S. C. Santos, S. R. Dionísio, A. L. D. De Andrade, L. R. Roque, A. C. Da Costa, J. L. Ienczak

Abstract:

In this work, two fermentations at different temperatures (25 and 30ºC), with cell recycling, were accomplished to produce ethanol, using a mix of commercial substrates, xylose (70%) and glucose (30%), as organic source for Scheffersomyces stipitis. Five consecutive fermentations of 80 g L-1 (1º, 2º and 3º recycles), 96 g L-1 (4º recycle) and 120 g L-1 (5º recycle)reduced sugars led to a final maximum ethanol concentration of 17.2 and 34.5 g L-1, at 25 and 30ºC, respectively. Glucose was the preferred substrate; moreover xylose startup degradation was initiated after a remaining glucose presence in the medium. Results showed that yeast acid treatment, performed before each cycle, provided improvements on cell viability, accompanied by ethanol productivity of 2.16 g L-1 h- 1 at 30ºC. A maximum 36% of xylose was retained in the fermentation medium and after five-cycle fermentation an ethanol yield of 0.43 g ethanol/g sugars was observed. S. stipitis fermentation capacity and tolerance showed better results at 30ºC with 83.4% of theoretical yield referenced on initial biomass.

Keywords: 5-carbon sugar, cell recycling fermenter, mixed sugars, xylose-fermenting yeast.

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4 Compositional and Morphological Characteristics of the Tissues of Three Common Dates Grown in Algeria

Authors: H. Amellal-Chibane, Y. Noui, A. Djouab, S. Benamara

Abstract:

Mech-Degla, Degla-Beida and Frezza are the date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) common varieties with a more or less good availability and feeble trade value. Some morphologic and physicochemical factors were determined. Results show that the whole date weight is significantly different (P= 95%) concerning Mech-Degla and Degla-Beida which are more commercialized than Frezza whereas the pulp mass proportion in relation to whole fruits is highest for Frezza (88.28%). Moreover, there is a large variability concerning the weights and densities of constitutive tissues in each variety. The white tissue is dominant in Mech-Degla in opposite to the two other varieties. The variance analyze showed that the difference in weights between brown and white tissues is significant (P = 95%) for all studied varieties. Some other morphologic and chemical proprieties of the whole pulps and their two constitutive parts (brown or pigmented and white) are also investigated. The predominance of phenolics in Mech-Degla (4.01g/100g, w.b) and Frezza (4.96 g/100g, w.b) pulps brown part is the main result revealed in this study.

Keywords: Common dates, phenolics, sugars, tissues.

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3 Kinetics Study for the Recombinant Cellulosome to the Degradation of Chlorella Cell Residuals

Authors: C.-C. Lin, S.-C. Kan, C.-W. Yeh, C.-I Chen, C.-J. Shieh, Y.-C. Liu

Abstract:

In this study, lipid-deprived residuals of microalgae were hydrolyzed for the production of reducing sugars by using the recombinant Bacillus cellulosome, carrying eight genes from the Clostridium thermocellum ATCC27405. The obtained cellulosome was found to exist mostly in the broth supernatant with a cellulosome activity of 2.4 U/mL. Furthermore, the Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) and Vmax of cellulosome were found to be 14.832 g/L and 3.522 U/mL. The activation energy of the cellulosome to hydrolyze microalgae LDRs was calculated as 32.804 kJ/mol.

Keywords: Lipid-deprived residuals of microalgae, cellulosome, cellulose, reducing sugars, kinetics.

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2 Study of the Glucidic Fraction of Celtis Australis L, Crataegus Azarolus L, Crataegus Monogyna Jacq., Elaeagnus Angustifolia L. and Zizyphus Lotus L. Fruits

Authors: Saadoudi Mouni, Hamebaba Leila, Abdeddaim Mohamed

Abstract:

In Algeria, some fruit trees produce fruits in free nature. Such trees are Celtis australis, Crataegus azarolus, Crataegus monogyna and Zizyphus lotus. In spite of their appreciable consumption, their nutritional value remains unknown. The objective of this study is the determination of sugars in the pulpe and almond of the above fruits. The biochemical analysis shows that these fruits present interesting contents of soluble sugars which confers significant caloric intakes to them. As well as significant fibres which give them therapeutic and industrial benefits? The analysis of the almonds shows that it contains considerable contents of sugars which enable them to be an energetic food.

Keywords: Celtis australis, Crataegus azarolus, Crataegus monogyna, Zizyphus lotus, Fibres, Soluble sugars.

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1 Solid State Fermentation of Cassava Peel with Trichoderma viride (ATCC 36316) for Protein Enrichment

Authors: Olufunke O. Ezekiel, Ogugua C. Aworh

Abstract:

Solid state fermentation of cassava peel with emphasis on protein enrichment using Trichoderma viride was evaluated. The effect of five variables: moisture content, pH, particle size (p), nitrogen source and incubation temperature; on the true protein and total sugars of cassava peel was investigated. The optimum fermentation period was established to be 8 days. Total sugars were 5-fold higher at pH 6 relative to pH 4 and 7-fold higher when cassava peels were fermented at 30oC relative to 25oC as well as using ammonium sulfate as the nitrogen source relative to urea or a combination of both. Total sugars ranged between 123.21mg/g at 50% initial moisture content to 374mg/g at 60% and from 190.59mg/g with particle size range of 2.00>p>1.41mm to 310.10mg/g with 4.00>p>3.35mm.True protein ranged from 229.70 mg/g at pH 4 to 284.05 mg/g at pH 6; from 200.87 mg/g with urea as nitrogen source and to 254.50mg/g with ammonium sulfate; from 213.82mg/g at 50% initial moisture content to 254.50mg/g at 60% moisture content, from 205.75mg/g in cassava peel with 5.6>p> 4.75mm to 268.30 in cassava peel with particle size 4.00>p>3.35mm, from 207.57mg/g at 25oC to 254.50mg/g at 30oC Cassava peel with particle size 4.00>p>3.35 mm and initial moisture content of 60% at pH 6.0, 30oC incubation temperature with ammonium sulfate (10g N / kg substrate) was most suitable for protein enrichment with Trichoderma viride. Crude protein increased from 4.21 % in unfermented cassava peel samples to 10.43 % in fermented samples.

Keywords: Cassava peel, Solid state fermentation, Trichoderma viride, Total sugars, True protein.

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