Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 83

Search results for: feeder reconfiguration

83 Distribution Feeder Reconfiguration Considering Distributed Generators

Authors: R. Khorshidi , T. Niknam, M. Nayeripour

Abstract:

Recently, distributed generation technologies have received much attention for the potential energy savings and reliability assurances that might be achieved as a result of their widespread adoption. Fueling the attention have been the possibilities of international agreements to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, electricity sector restructuring, high power reliability requirements for certain activities, and concern about easing transmission and distribution capacity bottlenecks and congestion. So it is necessary that impact of these kinds of generators on distribution feeder reconfiguration would be investigated. This paper presents an approach for distribution reconfiguration considering Distributed Generators (DGs). The objective function is summation of electrical power losses A Tabu search optimization is used to solve the optimal operation problem. The approach is tested on a real distribution feeder.

Keywords: Distributed Generator, Daily Optimal Operation, Genetic Algorithm.

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82 Feeder Reconfiguration for Loss Reduction in Unbalanced Distribution System Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Ganesh. Vulasala, Sivanagaraju. Sirigiri, Ramana. Thiruveedula

Abstract:

This paper presents an efficient approach to feeder reconfiguration for power loss reduction and voltage profile imprvement in unbalanced radial distribution systems (URDS). In this paper Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used to obtain solution for reconfiguration of radial distribution systems to minimize the losses. A forward and backward algorithm is used to calculate load flows in unbalanced distribution systems. By simulating the survival of the fittest among the strings, the optimum string is searched by randomized information exchange between strings by performing crossover and mutation. Results have shown that proposed algorithm has advantages over previous algorithms The proposed method is effectively tested on 19 node and 25 node unbalanced radial distribution systems.

Keywords: Distribution system, Load flows, Reconfiguration, Genetic Algorithm.

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81 Network Reconfiguration for Load Balancing in Distribution System with Distributed Generation and Capacitor Placement

Authors: T. Lantharthong, N. Rugthaicharoencheep

Abstract:

This paper presents an efficient algorithm for optimization of radial distribution systems by a network reconfiguration to balance feeder loads and eliminate overload conditions. The system load-balancing index is used to determine the loading conditions of the system and maximum system loading capacity. The index value has to be minimum in the optimal network reconfiguration of load balancing. A method based on Tabu search algorithm, The Tabu search algorithm is employed to search for the optimal network reconfiguration. The basic idea behind the search is a move from a current solution to its neighborhood by effectively utilizing a memory to provide an efficient search for optimality. It presents low computational effort and is able to find good quality configurations. Simulation results for a radial 69-bus system with distributed generations and capacitors placement. The study results show that the optimal on/off patterns of the switches can be identified to give the best network reconfiguration involving balancing of feeder loads while respecting all the constraints.

Keywords: Network reconfiguration, Distributed generation Capacitor placement, Load balancing, Optimization technique

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80 A New Approach for Network Reconfiguration Problem in Order to Deviation Bus Voltage Minimization with Regard to Probabilistic Load Model and DGs

Authors: Mahmood Reza Shakarami, Reza Sedaghati

Abstract:

Recently, distributed generation technologies have received much attention for the potential energy savings and reliability assurances that might be achieved as a result of their widespread adoption. The distribution feeder reconfiguration (DFR) is one of the most important control schemes in the distribution networks, which can be affected by DGs. This paper presents a new approach to DFR at the distribution networks considering wind turbines. The main objective of the DFR is to minimize the deviation of the bus voltage. Since the DFR is a nonlinear optimization problem, we apply the Adaptive Modified Firefly Optimization (AMFO) approach to solve it. As a result of the conflicting behavior of the single- objective function, a fuzzy based clustering technique is employed to reach the set of optimal solutions called Pareto solutions. The approach is tested on the IEEE 32-bus standard test system.

Keywords: Adaptive Modified Firefly Optimization (AMFO), Pareto solutions, feeder reconfiguration, wind turbines, bus voltage.

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79 Heuristic Optimization Techniques for Network Reconfiguration in Distribution System

Authors: A. Charlangsut, N. Rugthaicharoencheep, S. Auchariyamet

Abstract:

Network reconfiguration is an operation to modify the network topology. The implementation of network reconfiguration has many advantages such as loss minimization, increasing system security and others. In this paper, two topics about the network reconfiguration in distribution system are briefly described. The first topic summarizes its impacts while the second explains some heuristic optimization techniques for solving the network reconfiguration problem.

Keywords: Network Reconfiguration, Optimization Techniques, Distribution System

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78 Fault and Theft Recognition Using Toro Dial Sensor in Programmable Current Relay for Feeder Security

Authors: R. Kamalakannan, N. Ravi Kumar

Abstract:

Feeder protection is important in transmission and distribution side because if any fault occurs in any feeder or transformer, man power is needed to identify the problem and it will take more time. In the existing system, directional overcurrent elements with load further secured by a load encroachment function can be used to provide necessary security and sensitivity for faults on remote points in a circuit. It is validated only in renewable plant collector circuit protection applications over a wide range of operating conditions. In this method, the directional overcurrent feeder protection is developed by using monitoring of feeder section through internet. In this web based monitoring, the fault and power theft are identified by using Toro dial sensor and its information is received by SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) and controlled by ARM microcontroller. This web based monitoring is also used to monitor the feeder management, directional current detection, demand side management, overload fault. This monitoring system is capable of monitoring the distribution feeder over a large area depending upon the cost. It is also used to reduce the power theft, time and man power. The simulation is done by MATLAB software.

Keywords: Current sensor, distribution feeder protection, directional overcurrent, power theft, protective relay.

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77 Effects of Distributed Generation on Voltage Profile for Reconfiguration of Distribution Networks

Authors: Mahdi Hayatdavudi, Ali Reza Rajabi, Mohammad Hassan Raouf, Mojtaba Saeedimoghadam, Amir Habibi

Abstract:

Generally, distributed generation units refer to small-scale electric power generators that produce electricity at a site close to the customer or an electric distribution system (in parallel mode). From the customers’ point of view, a potentially lower cost, higher service reliability, high power quality, increased energy efficiency, and energy independence can be the key points of a proper DG unit. Moreover, the use of renewable types of distributed generations such as wind, photovoltaic, geothermal or hydroelectric power can also provide significant environmental benefits. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to study their impacts on the distribution networks. A marked increase in Distributed Generation (DG), associated with medium voltage distribution networks, may be expected. Nowadays, distribution networks are planned for unidirectional power flows that are peculiar to passive systems, and voltage control is carried out exclusively by varying the tap position of the HV/MV transformer. This paper will compare different DG control methods and possible network reconfiguration aimed at assessing their effect on voltage profiles.

Keywords: Distribution Feeder Reconfiguration (DFR), Distributed Generator (DG), Voltage Profile, Control.

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76 Investigation of Inter Feeder Power Flow Regulator: Load Sharing Mode

Authors: Ahmed Hossam-Eldin, Ahmed Elserougi, Ahmed Massoud, Shehab Ahmed

Abstract:

The Inter feeder Power Flow Regulator (IFPFR) proposed in this paper consists of several voltage source inverters with common dc bus; each inverter is connected in series with one of different independent distribution feeders in the power system. This paper is concerned with how to transfer power between the feeders for load sharing purpose. The power controller of each inverter injects the power (for sending feeder) or absorbs the power (for receiving feeder) via injecting suitable voltage; this voltage injection is simulated by voltage drop across series virtual impedance, the impedance value is selected to achieve the concept of power exchange between the feeders without perturbing the load voltage magnitude of each feeder. In this paper a new control scheme for load sharing using IFPFR is proposed.

Keywords: IFPFR, Load sharing, Power transfer

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75 Network Reconfiguration of Distribution System Using Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

Authors: S. Ganesh

Abstract:

Power distribution systems typically have tie and sectionalizing switches whose states determine the topological configuration of the network. The aim of network reconfiguration of the distribution network is to minimize the losses for a load arrangement at a particular time. Thus the objective function is to minimize the losses of the network by satisfying the distribution network constraints. The various constraints are radiality, voltage limits and the power balance condition. In this paper the status of the switches is obtained by using Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm. ABC is based on a particular intelligent behavior of honeybee swarms. ABC is developed based on inspecting the behaviors of real bees to find nectar and sharing the information of food sources to the bees in the hive. The proposed methodology has three stages. In stage one ABC is used to find the tie switches, in stage two the identified tie switches are checked for radiality constraint and if the radilaity constraint is satisfied then the procedure is proceeded to stage three otherwise the process is repeated. In stage three load flow analysis is performed. The process is repeated till the losses are minimized. The ABC is implemented to find the power flow path and the Forward Sweeper algorithm is used to calculate the power flow parameters. The proposed methodology is applied for a 33–bus single feeder distribution network using MATLAB.

Keywords: Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm, Distribution system, Loss reduction, Network reconfiguration.

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74 A New Distribution Network Reconfiguration Approach using a Tree Model

Authors: E. Dolatdar, S. Soleymani, B. Mozafari

Abstract:

Power loss reduction is one of the main targets in power industry and so in this paper, the problem of finding the optimal configuration of a radial distribution system for loss reduction is considered. Optimal reconfiguration involves the selection of the best set of branches to be opened ,one each from each loop, for reducing resistive line losses , and reliving overloads on feeders by shifting the load to adjacent feeders. However ,since there are many candidate switching combinations in the system ,the feeder reconfiguration is a complicated problem. In this paper a new approach is proposed based on a simple optimum loss calculation by determining optimal trees of the given network. From graph theory a distribution network can be represented with a graph that consists a set of nodes and branches. In fact this problem can be viewed as a problem of determining an optimal tree of the graph which simultaneously ensure radial structure of each candidate topology .In this method the refined genetic algorithm is also set up and some improvements of algorithm are made on chromosome coding. In this paper an implementation of the algorithm presented by [7] is applied by modifying in load flow program and a comparison of this method with the proposed method is employed. In [7] an algorithm is proposed that the choice of the switches to be opened is based on simple heuristic rules. This algorithm reduce the number of load flow runs and also reduce the switching combinations to a fewer number and gives the optimum solution. To demonstrate the validity of these methods computer simulations with PSAT and MATLAB programs are carried out on 33-bus test system. The results show that the performance of the proposed method is better than [7] method and also other methods.

Keywords: Distribution System, Reconfiguration, Loss Reduction , Graph Theory , Optimization , Genetic Algorithm

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73 Experimental and Numerical Study of the Effect of Lateral Wind on the Feeder Airship

Authors: A. Suñol, D. Vucinic, S.Vanlanduit, T. Markova, A. Aksenov, I. Moskalyov

Abstract:

Feeder is one of the airships of the Multibody Advanced Airship for Transport (MAAT) system, under development within the EU FP7 project. MAAT is based on a modular concept composed of two different parts that have the possibility to join; respectively they are the so-called Cruiser and Feeder, designed on the lighter than air principle. Feeder, also named ATEN (Airship Transport Elevator Network), is the smaller one which joins the bigger one, Cruiser, also named PTAH (Photovoltaic modular Transport Airship for High altitude),envisaged to happen at 15km altitude. During the MAAT design phase, the aerodynamic studies of the both airships and their interactions are analyzed. The objective of these studies is to understand the aerodynamic behavior of all the preselected configurations, as an important element in the overall MAAT system design. The most of these configurations are only simulated by CFD, while the most feasible one is experimentally analyzed in order to validate and thrust the CFD predictions. This paper presents the numerical and experimental investigation of the Feeder “conical like" shape configuration. The experiments are focused on the aerodynamic force coefficients and the pressure distribution over the Feeder outer surface, while the numerical simulation cover also the analysis of the velocity and pressure distribution. Finally, the wind tunnel experiment is compared with its CFD model in order to validate such specific simulations with respective experiments and to better understand the difference between the wind tunnel and in-flight circumstances.

Keywords: MAAT project Feeder, CFD simulations, wind tunnel experiments, lateral wind influence.

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72 A Processor with Dynamically Reconfigurable Circuit for Floating-Point Arithmetic

Authors: Yukinari Minagi , Akinori Kanasugi

Abstract:

This paper describes about dynamic reconfiguration to miniaturize arithmetic circuits in general-purpose processor. Dynamic reconfiguration is a technique to realize required functions by changing hardware construction during operation. The proposed arithmetic circuit performs floating-point arithmetic which is frequently used in science and technology. The data format is floating-point based on IEEE754. The proposed circuit is designed using VHDL, and verified the correct operation by simulations and experiments.

Keywords: dynamic reconfiguration, floating-point arithmetic, double precision, FPGA

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71 Loss Reduction and Reliability Improvement of Industrial Distribution System through Network Reconfiguration

Authors: Ei Ei Phyu, Kyaw Myo Lin, Thin Thin Moe

Abstract:

The paper presents an approach to improve the reliability and reduce line losses of practical distribution system applying network reconfiguration. The change of the topology redirects the power flow within the distribution network to obtain better performance of the system. Practical distribution network (Pyigyitagon Industrial Zone (I)) is used as the case study network. The detailed calculations of the reliability indices are done by using analytical method and power flow calculation is performed by Newton-Rephason solver. The comparison of various network reconfiguration techniques are described with respect to power loss and reliability index levels. Finally, the optimal reconfigured network is selected among difference cases based on the two factors: the most reliable network and the least loss minimization.

Keywords: Distribution system reliability, loss reduction, network reconfiguration, reliability enhancement, reliability indices.

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70 Hub Port Positioning and Route Planning of Feeder Lines for Regional Transportation Network

Authors: Huang Xiaoling, Liu Lufeng

Abstract:

In this paper, we seek to determine one reasonable local hub port and optimal routes for a containership fleet, performing pick-ups and deliveries, between the hub and spoke ports in a same region. The relationship between a hub port, and traffic in feeder lines is analyzed. A new network planning method is proposed, an integrated hub port location and route design, a capacitated vehicle routing problem with pick-ups, deliveries and time deadlines are formulated and solved using an improved genetic algorithm for positioning the hub port and establishing routes for a containership fleet. Results on the performance of the algorithm and the feasibility of the approach show that a relatively small fleet of containerships could provide efficient services within deadlines.

Keywords: Route planning, Hub port location, Container feeder service.

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69 Architecture Based on Dynamic Graphs for the Dynamic Reconfiguration of Farms of Computers

Authors: Carmen Navarrete, Eloy Anguiano

Abstract:

In the last years, the computers have increased their capacity of calculus and networks, for the interconnection of these machines. The networks have been improved until obtaining the actual high rates of data transferring. The programs that nowadays try to take advantage of these new technologies cannot be written using the traditional techniques of programming, since most of the algorithms were designed for being executed in an only processor,in a nonconcurrent form instead of being executed concurrently ina set of processors working and communicating through a network.This paper aims to present the ongoing development of a new system for the reconfiguration of grouping of computers, taking into account these new technologies.

Keywords: Dynamic network topology, resource and task allocation, parallel computing, heterogeneous computing, dynamic reconfiguration.

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68 Impact of Increasing Distributed Solar PV Systems on Distribution Networks in South Africa

Authors: Aradhna Pandarum

Abstract:

South Africa is experiencing an exponential growth of distributed solar PV installations. This is due to various factors with the predominant one being increasing electricity tariffs along with decreasing installation costs, resulting in attractive business cases to some end-users. Despite there being a variety of economic and environmental advantages associated with the installation of PV, their potential impact on distribution grids has yet to be thoroughly investigated. This is especially true since the locations of these units cannot be controlled by Network Service Providers (NSPs) and their output power is stochastic and non-dispatchable. This report details two case studies that were completed to determine the possible voltage and technical losses impact of increasing PV penetration in the Northern Cape of South Africa. Some major impacts considered for the simulations were ramping of PV generation due to intermittency caused by moving clouds, the size and overall hosting capacity and the location of the systems. The main finding is that the technical impact is different on a constrained feeder vs a non-constrained feeder. The acceptable PV penetration level is much lower for a constrained feeder than a non-constrained feeder, depending on where the systems are located.

Keywords: Medium voltage networks, power system losses, power system voltage, solar photovoltaic, PV.

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67 A New Heuristic Approach for Optimal Network Reconfiguration in Distribution Systems

Authors: R. Srinivasa Rao, S. V. L. Narasimham

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel approach for optimal reconfiguration of radial distribution systems. Optimal reconfiguration involves the selection of the best set of branches to be opened, one each from each loop, such that the resulting radial distribution system gets the desired performance. In this paper an algorithm is proposed based on simple heuristic rules and identified an effective switch status configuration of distribution system for the minimum loss reduction. This proposed algorithm consists of two parts; one is to determine the best switching combinations in all loops with minimum computational effort and the other is simple optimum power loss calculation of the best switching combination found in part one by load flows. To demonstrate the validity of the proposed algorithm, computer simulations are carried out on 33-bus system. The results show that the performance of the proposed method is better than that of the other methods.

Keywords: Distribution system, network reconfiguration, powerloss reduction, radial network, heuristic technique.

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66 An Hybrid Approach for Loss Reduction in Distribution Systems using Harmony Search Algorithm

Authors: R. Srinivasa Rao

Abstract:

Individually Network reconfiguration or Capacitor control perform well in minimizing power loss and improving voltage profile of the distribution system. But for heavy reactive power loads network reconfiguration and for heavy active power loads capacitor placement can not effectively reduce power loss and enhance voltage profiles in the system. In this paper, an hybrid approach that combine network reconfiguration and capacitor placement using Harmony Search Algorithm (HSA) is proposed to minimize power loss reduction and improve voltage profile. The proposed approach is tested on standard IEEE 33 and 16 bus systems. Computational results show that the proposed hybrid approach can minimize losses more efficiently than Network reconfiguration or Capacitor control. The results of proposed method are also compared with results obtained by Simulated Annealing (SA). The proposed method has outperformed in terms of the quality of solution compared to SA.

Keywords: Capacitor Control, Network Reconfiguration, HarmonySearch Algorithm, Loss Reduction, Voltage Profile.

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65 A Systematic Review on the Integration of Project Management with Organizational Flows

Authors: Maurício Covolan Rosito, Ricardo Melo Bastos

Abstract:

Software projects are very dynamic and require recurring adjustments of their project plans. These settings can be understood as reconfigurations in the schedule, in the resources allocation and other design elements. Yet, during the planning and execution of a software project, the integration of specific activities in the projects with the activities that take part in the organization-s common activity flow should be considered. This article presents the results from a systematic review of aspects related to software projects- dynamic reconfiguration emphasizing the integration of project management with the organizational flows. A series of studies was analyzed from the year 2000 to the present. The results of this work show that there is a diversity of techniques and strategies for dynamic reconfiguration of software projects-. However, few approaches consider the integration of software project activities with the activities that take part in the organization-s common workflow.

Keywords: Dynamic Reconfiguration, Organizational workflows, Project Management, Systematic Review

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64 Product Yields and Chemical Compounds of Cogongrass by Pyrolysis in Twin Screw Feeder

Authors: Kittiphop Promdee, Tharapong Vitidsant

Abstract:

Continuous pyrolysis of Cogongrass by control temperature in the novel pyrolysis reactor were conducted at three difference temperatures 400, 450 and 500°C. Preliminary calculate of the product yields founded the liquid yield of Cogongrass was highest of 41.45 %, at 500 oC. Indicated that the liquid yield from Cogongrass had good received yields because it gave over 40 % and its produced more liquid than that solid and gas. The compounds detected in bio-oil from Cogongrass showed the functional group, especially; Phenol, Phenol, 2,5-dimethyl, Phenol, 3-methyl, 2- methyl-1,3-oxathiofane, Benzene,1-ethyl-4-methoxy, 2-Cyclopenten- 1-one,2,3-dimethyl, 2- Cyclopenten-1- one, 3-Methyl.

Keywords: Pyrolysis, Cogongrass, Product Yields, Chemical Compounds, Twin Screw Feeder.

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63 Neural Network Based Icing Identification and Fault Tolerant Control of a 340 Aircraft

Authors: F. Caliskan

Abstract:

This paper presents a Neural Network (NN) identification of icing parameters in an A340 aircraft and a reconfiguration technique to keep the A/C performance close to the performance prior to icing. Five aircraft parameters are assumed to be considerably affected by icing. The off-line training for identifying the clear and iced dynamics is based on the Levenberg-Marquard Backpropagation algorithm. The icing parameters are located in the system matrix. The physical locations of the icing are assumed at the right and left wings. The reconfiguration is based on the technique known as the control mixer approach or pseudo inverse technique. This technique generates the new control input vector such that the A/C dynamics is not much affected by icing. In the simulations, the longitudinal and lateral dynamics of an Airbus A340 aircraft model are considered, and the stability derivatives affected by icing are identified. The simulation results show the successful NN identification of the icing parameters and the reconfigured flight dynamics having the similar performance before the icing. In other words, the destabilizing icing affect is compensated.

Keywords: Aircraft Icing, Stability Derivatives, Neural NetworkIdentification, Reconfiguration.

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62 Run-Time Customisation of Soft-Core CPUs on Field Programmable Gate Array

Authors: Rehab Abdullah Shendi

Abstract:

The use of customised soft-core processors in which instructions can be integrated into a system in application hardware is increasing in the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) field. Specifically, the partial run-time reconfiguration of FPGAs in specialised processors for a particular domain can be very beneficial. In this report, the design and implementation for the customisation of a soft-core MIPS processor using an FPGA and partial reconfiguration (PR) of FPGA technology will be addressed to achieve efficient resource use. This can be achieved using a PR design flow that helps the design fit into a smaller device. Moreover, the impact of static power consumption could be reduced due to runtime reconfiguration. This will be done by configurable custom instructions implemented in the hardware as an extension on the MIPS CPU. The aim of this project is to investigate the PR of FPGAs for run-time adaptations of the instruction set of a soft-core CPU, including the integration of custom instructions and the exploration of the potential to use the MultiBoot feature available in Xilinx FPGAs to carry out the PR process. The system will be evaluated and tested on a Nexus 3 development board featuring a Xilinx Spartran-6 FPGA. The system will be able to load reconfigurable custom instructions dynamically into user programs with the help of the trap handler when the custom instruction is called by the MIPS CPU. The results of this experiment demonstrate that custom instructions in hardware can speed up a certain function and many instructions can be saved when compared to a software implementation of the same function. Implementing custom instructions in hardware is perfectly possible and worth exploring.

Keywords: Customisation, FPGA, MIPS, partial reconfiguration.

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61 Fault Tolerant (n, k)-Star Power Network Topology for Multi-Agent Communication in Automated Power Distribution Systems

Authors: Ning Gong, Michael Korostelev, Qiangguo Ren, Li Bai, Saroj Biswas, Frank Ferrese

Abstract:

This paper investigates the joint effect of the interconnected (n,k)-star network topology and Multi-Agent automated control on restoration and reconfiguration of power systems. With the increasing trend in development in Multi-Agent control technologies applied to power system reconfiguration in presence of faulty components or nodes. Fault tolerance is becoming an important challenge in the design processes of the distributed power system topology. Since the reconfiguration of a power system is performed by agent communication, the (n,k)-star interconnected network topology is studied and modeled in this paper to optimize the process of power reconfiguration. In this paper, we discuss the recently proposed (n,k)-star topology and examine its properties and advantages as compared to the traditional multi-bus power topologies. We design and simulate the topology model for distributed power system test cases. A related lemma based on the fault tolerance and conditional diagnosability properties is presented and proved both theoretically and practically. The conclusion is reached that (n,k)-star topology model has measurable advantages compared to standard bus power systems while exhibiting fault tolerance properties in power restoration, as well as showing efficiency when applied to power system route discovery.

Keywords: (n, k)-star Topology, Fault Tolerance, Conditional Diagnosability, Multi-Agent System, Automated Power System.

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60 An Efficient Method for Load−Flow Solution of Radial Distribution Networks

Authors: Smarajit Ghosh , Karma Sonam Sherpa

Abstract:

This paper reports a new and accurate method for load-flow solution of radial distribution networks with minimum data preparation. The node and branch numbering need not to be sequential like other available methods. The proposed method does not need sending-node, receiving-node and branch numbers if these are sequential. The proposed method uses the simple equation to compute the voltage magnitude and has the capability to handle composite load modelling. The proposed method uses the set of nodes of feeder, lateral(s) and sub lateral(s). The effectiveness of the proposed method is compared with other methods using two examples. The detailed load-flow results for different kind of load-modellings are also presented.

Keywords: Load−flow, Feeder, Lateral, Power, Voltage, Composite, Exponential

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59 Optimal Preventive Maintenance of the Reserve Source in the Industrial Electric Network

Authors: M. Bouguerra, H. Meglouli, I. Habi

Abstract:

The great majority of the electric installations belong to the first and second category. In order to ensure a high level of reliability of their electric system feeder, two power supply sources are envisaged, one principal, the other of reserve, generally a cold reserve (electric diesel group). The principal source being under operation, its control can be ideal and sure, however for the reserve source being in stop, a preventive maintenance-s which proceeds on time intervals (periodicity) and for well defined lengths of time are envisaged, so that this source will always available in case of the principal source failure. The choice of the periodicity of preventive maintenance of the source of reserve influences directly the reliability of the electric feeder system. On the basis of the semi-markovians processes, the influence of the periodicity of the preventive maintenance of the source of reserve is studied and is given the optimal periodicity.

Keywords: Semi Markovians processes, reliability, optimization, electric network.

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58 Three-Level Converters based Generalized Unified Power Quality Conditioner

Authors: Bahr Eldin S. M, K. S. Rama Rao, N. Perumal

Abstract:

A generalized unified power quality conditioner (GUPQC) by using three single-phase three-level voltage source converters (VSCs) connected back-to-back through a common dc link is proposed in this paper as a new custom power device for a three-feeder distribution system. One of the converters is connected in shunt with one feeder for mitigation of current harmonics and reactive power compensation, while the other two VSCs are connected in series with the other two feeders to maintain the load voltage sinusoidal and at constant level. A new control scheme based on synchronous reference frame is proposed for series converters. The simulation analysis on compensation performance of GUPQC based on PSCAD/EMTDC is reported.

Keywords: Custom power device, generalized unified power quality conditioner, PSCAD/ETMDC, voltage source converter

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57 A Dynamically Reconfigurable Arithmetic Circuit for Complex Number and Double Precision Number

Authors: Haruo Shimada, Akinori Kanasugi

Abstract:

This paper proposes an architecture of dynamically reconfigurable arithmetic circuit. Dynamic reconfiguration is a technique to realize required functions by changing hardware construction during operations. The proposed circuit is based on a complex number multiply-accumulation circuit which is used frequently in the field of digital signal processing. In addition, the proposed circuit performs real number double precision arithmetic operations. The data formats are single and double precision floating point number based on IEEE754. The proposed circuit is designed using VHDL, and verified the correct operation by simulations and experiments.

Keywords: arithmetic circuit, complex number, double precision, dynamic reconfiguration

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56 Transmission Mains Earthing Design: Under Ground to Over Head Pole Transition

Authors: A. Hellany, M. Nassereddine, M. Nagrial, J. Rizk

Abstract:

The demand on High voltage (HV) infrastructures is growing due to the corresponding growth in industries and population. New or upgraded HV infrastructure has safety implications since Transmission mains usually occupy the same easement in the vicinity of neighbouring residents. Transmission mains consist of underground (UG) and overhead (OH) sections and the transition between the UG and OH section is known as the UGOH pole. The existence of two transmission mains in the same easement can dictate to resort to more complicated earthing design in order to mitigate the effect of AC interference, and in some cases it can also necessitates completing a Split Study of the system. This paper provides an overview of the AC interference, Split Study and the earthing of an underground feeder including the UGOH pole .In addition, this paper discusses the use of different link boxes on the UG feeder and presents a case study that represent a clear example of the Ac interference and Split factor. Finally, a few recommendations are provided to achieve a safety zone in the area beyond the boundary of the HV system.

Keywords: UGOH, High Voltage, AC interference, Earthing Design.

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55 Information System for Data Selection and New Information Acquisition for Reconfigurable Multifunctional Machine Tools

Authors: Sasho Guergov

Abstract:

The purpose of the paper is to develop an informationcontrol environment for overall management and self-reconfiguration of the reconfigurable multifunctional machine tool for machining both rotation and prismatic parts and high concentration of different technological operations - turning, milling, drilling, grinding, etc. For the realization of this purpose on the basis of defined sub-processes for the implementation of the technological process, architecture of the information-search system for machine control is suggested. By using the object-oriented method, a structure and organization of the search system based on agents and manager with central control are developed. Thus conditions for identification of available information in DBs, self-reconfiguration of technological system and entire control of the reconfigurable multifunctional machine tool are created.

Keywords: Information system, multifunctional machine tool, reconfigurable machine tool, search system.

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54 Reconfiguration of Deregulated Distribution Network for Minimizing Energy Supply Cost by using Multi-Objective BGA

Authors: H. Kazemi Karegar, S. Jalilzadeh, V. Nabaei, A. Shabani

Abstract:

In this paper, the problem of finding the optimal topological configuration of a deregulated distribution network is considered. The new features of this paper are proposing a multiobjective function and its application on deregulated distribution networks for finding the optimal configuration. The multi-objective function will be defined for minimizing total Energy Supply Costs (ESC) and energy losses subject to load flow constraints. The optimal configuration will be obtained by using Binary Genetic Algorithm (BGA).The proposed method has been tested to analyze a sample and a practical distribution networks.

Keywords: Binary Genetic Algorithm, Deregulated Distribution Network, Minimizing Cost, Reconfiguration.

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