Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2536

Search results for: feature learning

2536 Genetic Algorithms for Feature Generation in the Context of Audio Classification

Authors: José A. Menezes, Giordano Cabral, Bruno T. Gomes

Abstract:

Choosing good features is an essential part of machine learning. Recent techniques aim to automate this process. For instance, feature learning intends to learn the transformation of raw data into a useful representation to machine learning tasks. In automatic audio classification tasks, this is interesting since the audio, usually complex information, needs to be transformed into a computationally convenient input to process. Another technique tries to generate features by searching a feature space. Genetic algorithms, for instance, have being used to generate audio features by combining or modifying them. We find this approach particularly interesting and, despite the undeniable advances of feature learning approaches, we wanted to take a step forward in the use of genetic algorithms to find audio features, combining them with more conventional methods, like PCA, and inserting search control mechanisms, such as constraints over a confusion matrix. This work presents the results obtained on particular audio classification problems.

Keywords: Feature generation, feature learning, genetic algorithm, music information retrieval.

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2535 Learning to Recognize Faces by Local Feature Design and Selection

Authors: Yanwei Pang, Lei Zhang, Zhengkai Liu

Abstract:

Studies in neuroscience suggest that both global and local feature information are crucial for perception and recognition of faces. It is widely believed that local feature is less sensitive to variations caused by illumination, expression and illumination. In this paper, we target at designing and learning local features for face recognition. We designed three types of local features. They are semi-global feature, local patch feature and tangent shape feature. The designing of semi-global feature aims at taking advantage of global-like feature and meanwhile avoiding suppressing AdaBoost algorithm in boosting weak classifies established from small local patches. The designing of local patch feature targets at automatically selecting discriminative features, and is thus different with traditional ways, in which local patches are usually selected manually to cover the salient facial components. Also, shape feature is considered in this paper for frontal view face recognition. These features are selected and combined under the framework of boosting algorithm and cascade structure. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach outperforms the standard eigenface method and Bayesian method. Moreover, the selected local features and observations in the experiments are enlightening to researches in local feature design in face recognition.

Keywords: Face recognition, local feature, AdaBoost, subspace analysis.

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2534 A Fast Object Detection Method with Rotation Invariant Features

Authors: Zilong He, Yuesheng Zhu

Abstract:

Based on the combined shape feature and texture feature, a fast object detection method with rotation invariant features is proposed in this paper. A quick template matching scheme based online learning designed for online applications is also introduced in this paper. The experimental results have shown that the proposed approach has the features of lower computation complexity and higher detection rate, while keeping almost the same performance compared to the HOG-based method, and can be more suitable for run time applications.

Keywords: gradient feature, online learning, rotationinvariance, template feature

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2533 Face Detection using Variance based Haar-Like feature and SVM

Authors: Cuong Nguyen Khac, Ju H. Park, Ho-Youl Jung

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new approach to perform the problem of real-time face detection. The proposed method combines primitive Haar-Like feature and variance value to construct a new feature, so-called Variance based Haar-Like feature. Face in image can be represented with a small quantity of features using this new feature. We used SVM instead of AdaBoost for training and classification. We made a database containing 5,000 face samples and 10,000 non-face samples extracted from real images for learning purposed. The 5,000 face samples contain many images which have many differences of light conditions. And experiments showed that face detection system using Variance based Haar-Like feature and SVM can be much more efficient than face detection system using primitive Haar-Like feature and AdaBoost. We tested our method on two Face databases and one Non-Face database. We have obtained 96.17% of correct detection rate on YaleB face database, which is higher 4.21% than that of using primitive Haar-Like feature and AdaBoost.

Keywords: AdaBoost, Haar-Like feature, SVM, variance, Variance based Haar-Like feature.

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2532 E-Learning Management Systems General Framework

Authors: Hamed Fawareh

Abstract:

The recent development in learning technologies leads to emerge many learning management systems (LMS). In this study, we concentrate on the specifications and characteristics of LMSs. Furthermore, this paper emphasizes on the feature of e-learning management systems. The features take on the account main indicators to assist and evaluate the quality of e-learning systems. The proposed indicators based of ten dimensions.

Keywords: E-Learning, System Requirement, Social Requirement, Learning Management System.

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2531 Correlation-based Feature Selection using Ant Colony Optimization

Authors: M. Sadeghzadeh, M. Teshnehlab

Abstract:

Feature selection has recently been the subject of intensive research in data mining, specially for datasets with a large number of attributes. Recent work has shown that feature selection can have a positive effect on the performance of machine learning algorithms. The success of many learning algorithms in their attempts to construct models of data, hinges on the reliable identification of a small set of highly predictive attributes. The inclusion of irrelevant, redundant and noisy attributes in the model building process phase can result in poor predictive performance and increased computation. In this paper, a novel feature search procedure that utilizes the Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is presented. The ACO is a metaheuristic inspired by the behavior of real ants in their search for the shortest paths to food sources. It looks for optimal solutions by considering both local heuristics and previous knowledge. When applied to two different classification problems, the proposed algorithm achieved very promising results.

Keywords: Ant colony optimization, Classification, Datamining, Feature selection.

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2530 Evolutionary Feature Selection for Text Documents using the SVM

Authors: Daniel I. Morariu, Lucian N. Vintan, Volker Tresp

Abstract:

Text categorization is the problem of classifying text documents into a set of predefined classes. After a preprocessing step, the documents are typically represented as large sparse vectors. When training classifiers on large collections of documents, both the time and memory restrictions can be quite prohibitive. This justifies the application of feature selection methods to reduce the dimensionality of the document-representation vector. In this paper, we present three feature selection methods: Information Gain, Support Vector Machine feature selection called (SVM_FS) and Genetic Algorithm with SVM (called GA_SVM). We show that the best results were obtained with GA_SVM method for a relatively small dimension of the feature vector.

Keywords: Feature Selection, Learning with Kernels, Support Vector Machine, Genetic Algorithm, and Classification.

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2529 Feature Selection Methods for an Improved SVM Classifier

Authors: Daniel Morariu, Lucian N. Vintan, Volker Tresp

Abstract:

Text categorization is the problem of classifying text documents into a set of predefined classes. After a preprocessing step, the documents are typically represented as large sparse vectors. When training classifiers on large collections of documents, both the time and memory restrictions can be quite prohibitive. This justifies the application of feature selection methods to reduce the dimensionality of the document-representation vector. In this paper, three feature selection methods are evaluated: Random Selection, Information Gain (IG) and Support Vector Machine feature selection (called SVM_FS). We show that the best results were obtained with SVM_FS method for a relatively small dimension of the feature vector. Also we present a novel method to better correlate SVM kernel-s parameters (Polynomial or Gaussian kernel).

Keywords: Feature Selection, Learning with Kernels, SupportVector Machine, and Classification.

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2528 Anomaly Detection using Neuro Fuzzy system

Authors: Fatemeh Amiri, Caro Lucas, Nasser Yazdani

Abstract:

As the network based technologies become omnipresent, demands to secure networks/systems against threat increase. One of the effective ways to achieve higher security is through the use of intrusion detection systems (IDS), which are a software tool to detect anomalous in the computer or network. In this paper, an IDS has been developed using an improved machine learning based algorithm, Locally Linear Neuro Fuzzy Model (LLNF) for classification whereas this model is originally used for system identification. A key technical challenge in IDS and LLNF learning is the curse of high dimensionality. Therefore a feature selection phase is proposed which is applicable to any IDS. While investigating the use of three feature selection algorithms, in this model, it is shown that adding feature selection phase reduces computational complexity of our model. Feature selection algorithms require the use of a feature goodness measure. The use of both a linear and a non-linear measure - linear correlation coefficient and mutual information- is investigated respectively

Keywords: anomaly Detection, feature selection, Locally Linear Neuro Fuzzy (LLNF), Mutual Information (MI), liner correlation coefficient.

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2527 Classification of Political Affiliations by Reduced Number of Features

Authors: Vesile Evrim, Aliyu Awwal

Abstract:

By the evolvement in technology, the way of expressing opinions switched direction to the digital world. The domain of politics, as one of the hottest topics of opinion mining research, merged together with the behavior analysis for affiliation determination in texts, which constitutes the subject of this paper. This study aims to classify the text in news/blogs either as Republican or Democrat with the minimum number of features. As an initial set, 68 features which 64 were constituted by Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC) features were tested against 14 benchmark classification algorithms. In the later experiments, the dimensions of the feature vector reduced based on the 7 feature selection algorithms. The results show that the “Decision Tree”, “Rule Induction” and “M5 Rule” classifiers when used with “SVM” and “IGR” feature selection algorithms performed the best up to 82.5% accuracy on a given dataset. Further tests on a single feature and the linguistic based feature sets showed the similar results. The feature “Function”, as an aggregate feature of the linguistic category, was found as the most differentiating feature among the 68 features with the accuracy of 81% in classifying articles either as Republican or Democrat.

Keywords: Politics, machine learning, feature selection, LIWC.

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2526 Analysis of Relation between Unlabeled and Labeled Data to Self-Taught Learning Performance

Authors: Ekachai Phaisangittisagul, Rapeepol Chongprachawat

Abstract:

Obtaining labeled data in supervised learning is often difficult and expensive, and thus the trained learning algorithm tends to be overfitting due to small number of training data. As a result, some researchers have focused on using unlabeled data which may not necessary to follow the same generative distribution as the labeled data to construct a high-level feature for improving performance on supervised learning tasks. In this paper, we investigate the impact of the relationship between unlabeled and labeled data for classification performance. Specifically, we will apply difference unlabeled data which have different degrees of relation to the labeled data for handwritten digit classification task based on MNIST dataset. Our experimental results show that the higher the degree of relation between unlabeled and labeled data, the better the classification performance. Although the unlabeled data that is completely from different generative distribution to the labeled data provides the lowest classification performance, we still achieve high classification performance. This leads to expanding the applicability of the supervised learning algorithms using unsupervised learning.

Keywords: Autoencoder, high-level feature, MNIST dataset, selftaught learning, supervised learning.

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2525 Development of a Wiki-based Feature Library for a Process Planning System

Authors: Hendry Muljadi, Hideaki Takeda, Koichi Ando

Abstract:

A manufacturing feature can be defined simply as a geometric shape and its manufacturing information to create the shape. In a feature-based process planning system, feature library plays an important role in the extraction of manufacturing features with their proper manufacturing information. However, to manage the manufacturing information flexibly, it is important to build a feature library that is easy to modify. In this paper, a Wiki-based feature library is proposed.

Keywords: Manufacturing feature, feature library, feature ontology, process planning, Wiki, MediaWiki.

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2524 Emotion Classification for Students with Autism in Mathematics E-learning using Physiological and Facial Expression Measures

Authors: Hui-Chuan Chu, Min-Ju Liao, Wei-Kai Cheng, William Wei-Jen Tsai, Yuh-Min Chen

Abstract:

Avoiding learning failures in mathematics e-learning environments caused by emotional problems in students with autism has become an important topic for combining of special education with information and communications technology. This study presents an adaptive emotional adjustment model in mathematics e-learning for students with autism, emphasizing the lack of emotional perception in mathematics e-learning systems. In addition, an emotion classification for students with autism was developed by inducing emotions in mathematical learning environments to record changes in the physiological signals and facial expressions of students. Using these methods, 58 emotional features were obtained. These features were then processed using one-way ANOVA and information gain (IG). After reducing the feature dimension, methods of support vector machines (SVM), k-nearest neighbors (KNN), and classification and regression trees (CART) were used to classify four emotional categories: baseline, happy, angry, and anxious. After testing and comparisons, in a situation without feature selection, the accuracy rate of the SVM classification can reach as high as 79.3-%. After using IG to reduce the feature dimension, with only 28 features remaining, SVM still has a classification accuracy of 78.2-%. The results of this research could enhance the effectiveness of eLearning in special education.

Keywords: Emotion classification, Physiological and facial Expression measures, Students with autism, Mathematics e-learning.

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2523 Towards Growing Self-Organizing Neural Networks with Fixed Dimensionality

Authors: Guojian Cheng, Tianshi Liu, Jiaxin Han, Zheng Wang

Abstract:

The competitive learning is an adaptive process in which the neurons in a neural network gradually become sensitive to different input pattern clusters. The basic idea behind the Kohonen-s Self-Organizing Feature Maps (SOFM) is competitive learning. SOFM can generate mappings from high-dimensional signal spaces to lower dimensional topological structures. The main features of this kind of mappings are topology preserving, feature mappings and probability distribution approximation of input patterns. To overcome some limitations of SOFM, e.g., a fixed number of neural units and a topology of fixed dimensionality, Growing Self-Organizing Neural Network (GSONN) can be used. GSONN can change its topological structure during learning. It grows by learning and shrinks by forgetting. To speed up the training and convergence, a new variant of GSONN, twin growing cell structures (TGCS) is presented here. This paper first gives an introduction to competitive learning, SOFM and its variants. Then, we discuss some GSONN with fixed dimensionality, which include growing cell structures, its variants and the author-s model: TGCS. It is ended with some testing results comparison and conclusions.

Keywords: Artificial neural networks, Competitive learning, Growing cell structures, Self-organizing feature maps.

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2522 Automatic Threshold Search for Heat Map Based Feature Selection: A Cancer Dataset Analysis

Authors: Carlos Huertas, Reyes Juarez-Ramirez

Abstract:

Public health is one of the most critical issues today; therefore, there is great interest to improve technologies in the area of diseases detection. With machine learning and feature selection, it has been possible to aid the diagnosis of several diseases such as cancer. In this work, we present an extension to the Heat Map Based Feature Selection algorithm, this modification allows automatic threshold parameter selection that helps to improve the generalization performance of high dimensional data such as mass spectrometry. We have performed a comparison analysis using multiple cancer datasets and compare against the well known Recursive Feature Elimination algorithm and our original proposal, the results show improved classification performance that is very competitive against current techniques.

Keywords: Feature selection, mass spectrometry, biomarker discovery, cancer.

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2521 Imputation Technique for Feature Selection in Microarray Data Set

Authors: Younies Mahmoud, Mai Mabrouk, Elsayed Sallam

Abstract:

Analyzing DNA microarray data sets is a great challenge, which faces the bioinformaticians due to the complication of using statistical and machine learning techniques. The challenge will be doubled if the microarray data sets contain missing data, which happens regularly because these techniques cannot deal with missing data. One of the most important data analysis process on the microarray data set is feature selection. This process finds the most important genes that affect certain disease. In this paper, we introduce a technique for imputing the missing data in microarray data sets while performing feature selection.

Keywords: DNA microarray, feature selection, missing data, bioinformatics.

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2520 Feature Selection and Predictive Modeling of Housing Data Using Random Forest

Authors: Bharatendra Rai

Abstract:

Predictive data analysis and modeling involving machine learning techniques become challenging in presence of too many explanatory variables or features. Presence of too many features in machine learning is known to not only cause algorithms to slow down, but they can also lead to decrease in model prediction accuracy. This study involves housing dataset with 79 quantitative and qualitative features that describe various aspects people consider while buying a new house. Boruta algorithm that supports feature selection using a wrapper approach build around random forest is used in this study. This feature selection process leads to 49 confirmed features which are then used for developing predictive random forest models. The study also explores five different data partitioning ratios and their impact on model accuracy are captured using coefficient of determination (r-square) and root mean square error (rsme).

Keywords: Housing data, feature selection, random forest, Boruta algorithm, root mean square error.

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2519 Development of a Semantic Wiki-based Feature Library for the Extraction of Manufacturing Feature and Manufacturing Information

Authors: Hendry Muljadi, Hideaki Takeda, Koichi Ando

Abstract:

A manufacturing feature can be defined simply as a geometric shape and its manufacturing information to create the shape. In a feature-based process planning system, feature library that consists of pre-defined manufacturing features and the manufacturing information to create the shape of the features, plays an important role in the extraction of manufacturing features with their proper manufacturing information. However, to manage the manufacturing information flexibly, it is important to build a feature library that can be easily modified. In this paper, the implementation of Semantic Wiki for the development of the feature library is proposed.

Keywords: Manufacturing feature, feature library, feature ontology, process planning, Wiki, MediaWiki, Semantic Wiki.

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2518 Unsupervised Feature Learning by Pre-Route Simulation of Auto-Encoder Behavior Model

Authors: Youngjae Jin, Daeshik Kim

Abstract:

This paper describes a cycle accurate simulation results of weight values learned by an auto-encoder behavior model in terms of pre-route simulation. Given the results we visualized the first layer representations with natural images. Many common deep learning threads have focused on learning high-level abstraction of unlabeled raw data by unsupervised feature learning. However, in the process of handling such a huge amount of data, the learning method’s computation complexity and time limited advanced research. These limitations came from the fact these algorithms were computed by using only single core CPUs. For this reason, parallel-based hardware, FPGAs, was seen as a possible solution to overcome these limitations. We adopted and simulated the ready-made auto-encoder to design a behavior model in VerilogHDL before designing hardware. With the auto-encoder behavior model pre-route simulation, we obtained the cycle accurate results of the parameter of each hidden layer by using MODELSIM. The cycle accurate results are very important factor in designing a parallel-based digital hardware. Finally this paper shows an appropriate operation of behavior model based pre-route simulation. Moreover, we visualized learning latent representations of the first hidden layer with Kyoto natural image dataset.

Keywords: Auto-encoder, Behavior model simulation, Digital hardware design, Pre-route simulation, Unsupervised feature learning.

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2517 A Hybrid Feature Selection by Resampling, Chi squared and Consistency Evaluation Techniques

Authors: Amir-Massoud Bidgoli, Mehdi Naseri Parsa

Abstract:

In this paper a combined feature selection method is proposed which takes advantages of sample domain filtering, resampling and feature subset evaluation methods to reduce dimensions of huge datasets and select reliable features. This method utilizes both feature space and sample domain to improve the process of feature selection and uses a combination of Chi squared with Consistency attribute evaluation methods to seek reliable features. This method consists of two phases. The first phase filters and resamples the sample domain and the second phase adopts a hybrid procedure to find the optimal feature space by applying Chi squared, Consistency subset evaluation methods and genetic search. Experiments on various sized datasets from UCI Repository of Machine Learning databases show that the performance of five classifiers (Naïve Bayes, Logistic, Multilayer Perceptron, Best First Decision Tree and JRIP) improves simultaneously and the classification error for these classifiers decreases considerably. The experiments also show that this method outperforms other feature selection methods.

Keywords: feature selection, resampling, reliable features, Consistency Subset Evaluation.

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2516 Dataset Analysis Using Membership-Deviation Graph

Authors: Itgel Bayarsaikhan, Jimin Lee, Sejong Oh

Abstract:

Classification is one of the primary themes in computational biology. The accuracy of classification strongly depends on quality of a dataset, and we need some method to evaluate this quality. In this paper, we propose a new graphical analysis method using 'Membership-Deviation Graph (MDG)' for analyzing quality of a dataset. MDG represents degree of membership and deviations for instances of a class in the dataset. The result of MDG analysis is used for understanding specific feature and for selecting best feature for classification.

Keywords: feature, classification, machine learning algorithm.

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2515 On the Learning of Causal Relationships between Banks in Saudi Equities Market Using Ensemble Feature Selection Methods

Authors: Adel Aloraini

Abstract:

Financial forecasting using machine learning techniques has received great efforts in the last decide . In this ongoing work, we show how machine learning of graphical models will be able to infer a visualized causal interactions between different banks in the Saudi equities market. One important discovery from such learned causal graphs is how companies influence each other and to what extend. In this work, a set of graphical models named Gaussian graphical models with developed ensemble penalized feature selection methods that combine ; filtering method, wrapper method and a regularizer will be shown. A comparison between these different developed ensemble combinations will also be shown. The best ensemble method will be used to infer the causal relationships between banks in Saudi equities market.

Keywords: Causal interactions , banks, feature selection, regularizere,

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2514 Estimating an Optimal Neighborhood Size in the Spherical Self-Organizing Feature Map

Authors: Alexandros Leontitsis, Archana P. Sangole

Abstract:

This article presents a short discussion on optimum neighborhood size selection in a spherical selforganizing feature map (SOFM). A majority of the literature on the SOFMs have addressed the issue of selecting optimal learning parameters in the case of Cartesian topology SOFMs. However, the use of a Spherical SOFM suggested that the learning aspects of Cartesian topology SOFM are not directly translated. This article presents an approach on how to estimate the neighborhood size of a spherical SOFM based on the data. It adopts the L-curve criterion, previously suggested for choosing the regularization parameter on problems of linear equations where their right-hand-side is contaminated with noise. Simulation results are presented on two artificial 4D data sets of the coupled Hénon-Ikeda map.

Keywords: Parameter estimation, self-organizing feature maps, spherical topology.

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2513 Unsupervised Feature Selection Using Feature Density Functions

Authors: Mina Alibeigi, Sattar Hashemi, Ali Hamzeh

Abstract:

Since dealing with high dimensional data is computationally complex and sometimes even intractable, recently several feature reductions methods have been developed to reduce the dimensionality of the data in order to simplify the calculation analysis in various applications such as text categorization, signal processing, image retrieval, gene expressions and etc. Among feature reduction techniques, feature selection is one the most popular methods due to the preservation of the original features. In this paper, we propose a new unsupervised feature selection method which will remove redundant features from the original feature space by the use of probability density functions of various features. To show the effectiveness of the proposed method, popular feature selection methods have been implemented and compared. Experimental results on the several datasets derived from UCI repository database, illustrate the effectiveness of our proposed methods in comparison with the other compared methods in terms of both classification accuracy and the number of selected features.

Keywords: Feature, Feature Selection, Filter, Probability Density Function

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2512 A Hybrid Feature Selection and Deep Learning Algorithm for Cancer Disease Classification

Authors: Niousha Bagheri Khulenjani, Mohammad Saniee Abadeh

Abstract:

Learning from very big datasets is a significant problem for most present data mining and machine learning algorithms. MicroRNA (miRNA) is one of the important big genomic and non-coding datasets presenting the genome sequences. In this paper, a hybrid method for the classification of the miRNA data is proposed. Due to the variety of cancers and high number of genes, analyzing the miRNA dataset has been a challenging problem for researchers. The number of features corresponding to the number of samples is high and the data suffer from being imbalanced. The feature selection method has been used to select features having more ability to distinguish classes and eliminating obscures features. Afterward, a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) classifier for classification of cancer types is utilized, which employs a Genetic Algorithm to highlight optimized hyper-parameters of CNN. In order to make the process of classification by CNN faster, Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is recommended for calculating the mathematic equation in a parallel way. The proposed method is tested on a real-world dataset with 8,129 patients, 29 different types of tumors, and 1,046 miRNA biomarkers, taken from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database.

Keywords: Cancer classification, feature selection, deep learning, genetic algorithm.

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2511 Cardiac Disorder Classification Based On Extreme Learning Machine

Authors: Chul Kwak, Oh-Wook Kwon

Abstract:

In this paper, an extreme learning machine with an automatic segmentation algorithm is applied to heart disorder classification by heart sound signals. From continuous heart sound signals, the starting points of the first (S1) and the second heart pulses (S2) are extracted and corrected by utilizing an inter-pulse histogram. From the corrected pulse positions, a single period of heart sound signals is extracted and converted to a feature vector including the mel-scaled filter bank energy coefficients and the envelope coefficients of uniform-sized sub-segments. An extreme learning machine is used to classify the feature vector. In our cardiac disorder classification and detection experiments with 9 cardiac disorder categories, the proposed method shows significantly better performance than multi-layer perceptron, support vector machine, and hidden Markov model; it achieves the classification accuracy of 81.6% and the detection accuracy of 96.9%.

Keywords: Heart sound classification, extreme learning machine

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2510 Collaborative Professional Education for e-Teaching in Networked Schools

Authors: Ken Stevens

Abstract:

Networked schools have become a feature of education systems in countries that seek to provide learning opportunities in schools located beyond major centres of population. The internet and e-learning have facilitated the development of virtual educational structures that complement traditional schools, encouraging collaborative teaching and learning to proceed. In rural New Zealand and in the Atlantic Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, e-learning is able to provide new ways of organizing teaching, learning and the management of educational opportunities. However, the future of e-teaching and e-learning in networked schools depends on the development of professional education programs that prepare teachers for collaborative teaching and learning environments in which both virtual and traditional face to face instruction co-exist.

Keywords: Advanced Placement, Cybercells, Extranet, Intranet.

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2509 Hybrid Feature and Adaptive Particle Filter for Robust Object Tracking

Authors: Xinyue Zhao, Yutaka Satoh, Hidenori Takauji, Shun'ichi Kaneko

Abstract:

A hybrid feature based adaptive particle filter algorithm is presented for object tracking in real scenarios with static camera. The hybrid feature is combined by two effective features: the Grayscale Arranging Pairs (GAP) feature and the color histogram feature. The GAP feature has high discriminative ability even under conditions of severe illumination variation and dynamic background elements, while the color histogram feature has high reliability to identify the detected objects. The combination of two features covers the shortage of single feature. Furthermore, we adopt an updating target model so that some external problems such as visual angles can be overcame well. An automatic initialization algorithm is introduced which provides precise initial positions of objects. The experimental results show the good performance of the proposed method.

Keywords: Hybrid feature, adaptive Particle Filter, robust Object Tracking, Grayscale Arranging Pairs (GAP) feature.

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2508 A Fuzzy-Rough Feature Selection Based on Binary Shuffled Frog Leaping Algorithm

Authors: Javad Rahimipour Anaraki, Saeed Samet, Mahdi Eftekhari, Chang Wook Ahn

Abstract:

Feature selection and attribute reduction are crucial problems, and widely used techniques in the field of machine learning, data mining and pattern recognition to overcome the well-known phenomenon of the Curse of Dimensionality. This paper presents a feature selection method that efficiently carries out attribute reduction, thereby selecting the most informative features of a dataset. It consists of two components: 1) a measure for feature subset evaluation, and 2) a search strategy. For the evaluation measure, we have employed the fuzzy-rough dependency degree (FRFDD) of the lower approximation-based fuzzy-rough feature selection (L-FRFS) due to its effectiveness in feature selection. As for the search strategy, a modified version of a binary shuffled frog leaping algorithm is proposed (B-SFLA). The proposed feature selection method is obtained by hybridizing the B-SFLA with the FRDD. Nine classifiers have been employed to compare the proposed approach with several existing methods over twenty two datasets, including nine high dimensional and large ones, from the UCI repository. The experimental results demonstrate that the B-SFLA approach significantly outperforms other metaheuristic methods in terms of the number of selected features and the classification accuracy.

Keywords: Binary shuffled frog leaping algorithm, feature selection, fuzzy-rough set, minimal reduct.

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2507 A Survey on Facial Feature Points Detection Techniques and Approaches

Authors: Rachid Ahdid, Khaddouj Taifi, Said Safi, Bouzid Manaut

Abstract:

Automatic detection of facial feature points plays an important role in applications such as facial feature tracking, human-machine interaction and face recognition. The majority of facial feature points detection methods using two-dimensional or three-dimensional data are covered in existing survey papers. In this article chosen approaches to the facial features detection have been gathered and described. This overview focuses on the class of researches exploiting facial feature points detection to represent facial surface for two-dimensional or three-dimensional face. In the conclusion, we discusses advantages and disadvantages of the presented algorithms.

Keywords: Facial feature points, face recognition, facial feature tracking, two-dimensional data, three-dimensional data.

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