Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2846

Search results for: explicit group iterative scheme

2846 Parallel Explicit Group Domain Decomposition Methods for the Telegraph Equation

Authors: Kew Lee Ming, Norhashidah Hj. Mohd. Ali

Abstract:

In a previous work, we presented the numerical solution of the two dimensional second order telegraph partial differential equation discretized by the centred and rotated five-point finite difference discretizations, namely the explicit group (EG) and explicit decoupled group (EDG) iterative methods, respectively. In this paper, we utilize a domain decomposition algorithm on these group schemes to divide the tasks involved in solving the same equation. The objective of this study is to describe the development of the parallel group iterative schemes under OpenMP programming environment as a way to reduce the computational costs of the solution processes using multicore technologies. A detailed performance analysis of the parallel implementations of points and group iterative schemes will be reported and discussed.

Keywords: Telegraph equation, explicit group iterative scheme, domain decomposition algorithm, parallelization.

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2845 New Explicit Group Newton's Iterative Methods for the Solutions of Burger's Equation

Authors: Tan K. B., Norhashidah Hj. M. Ali

Abstract:

In this article, we aim to discuss the formulation of two explicit group iterative finite difference methods for time-dependent two dimensional Burger-s problem on a variable mesh. For the non-linear problems, the discretization leads to a non-linear system whose Jacobian is a tridiagonal matrix. We discuss the Newton-s explicit group iterative methods for a general Burger-s equation. The proposed explicit group methods are derived from the standard point and rotated point Crank-Nicolson finite difference schemes. Their computational complexity analysis is discussed. Numerical results are given to justify the feasibility of these two proposed iterative methods.

Keywords: Standard point Crank-Nicolson (CN), Rotated point Crank-Nicolson (RCN), Explicit Group (EG), Explicit Decoupled Group (EDG).

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2844 New High Order Group Iterative Schemes in the Solution of Poisson Equation

Authors: Sam Teek Ling, Norhashidah Hj. Mohd. Ali

Abstract:

We investigate the formulation and implementation of new explicit group iterative methods in solving the two-dimensional Poisson equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions. The methods are derived from a fourth order compact nine point finite difference discretization. The methods are compared with the existing second order standard five point formula to show the dramatic improvement in computed accuracy. Numerical experiments are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

Keywords: Explicit group iterative method, finite difference, fourth order compact, Poisson equation.

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2843 Efficient Iterative Detection Technique in Wireless Communication System

Authors: Hwan-Jun Choi, Sung-Bok Choi, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

Recently, among the MIMO-OFDM detection techniques, a lot of papers suggested V-BLAST scheme which can achieve high data rate. Therefore, the signal detection of MIMO-OFDM system is important issue. In this paper, efficient iterative V-BLAST detection technique is proposed in wireless communication system. The proposed scheme adjusts the number of candidate symbol and iterative scheme based on channel state. According to the simulation result, the proposed scheme has better BER performance than conventional schemes and similar BER performance of the QRD-M with iterative scheme. Moreover complexity of proposed scheme has 50.6% less than complexity of QRD-M detection with iterative scheme. Therefore the proposed detection scheme can be efficiently used in wireless communication.

Keywords: MIMO-OFDM, V-BLAST, QR-decomposition, QRD-M, DFE, Iterative scheme, Channel condition.

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2842 A Comparative Study of High Order Rotated Group Iterative Schemes on Helmholtz Equation

Authors: Norhashidah Hj. Mohd Ali, Teng Wai Ping

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a high order group explicit method in solving the two dimensional Helmholtz equation. The presented method is derived from a nine-point fourth order finite difference approximation formula obtained from a 45-degree rotation of the standard grid which makes it possible for the construction of iterative procedure with reduced complexity. The developed method will be compared with the existing group iterative schemes available in literature in terms of computational time, iteration counts, and computational complexity. The comparative performances of the methods will be discussed and reported.

Keywords: Explicit group method, finite difference, Helmholtz equation, rotated grid, standard grid.

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2841 New Fourth Order Explicit Group Method in the Solution of the Helmholtz Equation

Authors: Norhashidah Hj. Mohd Ali, Teng Wai Ping

Abstract:

In this paper, the formulation of a new group explicit method with a fourth order accuracy is described in solving the two dimensional Helmholtz equation. The formulation is based on the nine-point fourth order compact finite difference approximation formula. The complexity analysis of the developed scheme is also presented. Several numerical experiments were conducted to test the feasibility of the developed scheme. Comparisons with other existing schemes will be reported and discussed. Preliminary results indicate that this method is a viable alternative high accuracy solver to the Helmholtz equation.

Keywords: Explicit group method, finite difference, Helmholtz equation, five-point formula, nine-point formula.

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2840 MEGSOR Iterative Scheme for the Solution of 2D Elliptic PDE's

Authors: J. Sulaiman, M. Othman, M. K. Hasan

Abstract:

Recently, the findings on the MEG iterative scheme has demonstrated to accelerate the convergence rate in solving any system of linear equations generated by using approximation equations of boundary value problems. Based on the same scheme, the aim of this paper is to investigate the capability of a family of four-point block iterative methods with a weighted parameter, ω such as the 4 Point-EGSOR, 4 Point-EDGSOR, and 4 Point-MEGSOR in solving two-dimensional elliptic partial differential equations by using the second-order finite difference approximation. In fact, the formulation and implementation of three four-point block iterative methods are also presented. Finally, the experimental results show that the Four Point MEGSOR iterative scheme is superior as compared with the existing four point block schemes.

Keywords: MEG iteration, second-order finite difference, weighted parameter.

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2839 Impact of the Decoder Connection Schemes on Iterative Decoding of GPCB Codes

Authors: Fouad Ayoub, Mohammed Lahmer, Mostafa Belkasmi, El Houssine Bouyakhf

Abstract:

In this paper we present a study of the impact of connection schemes on the performance of iterative decoding of Generalized Parallel Concatenated block (GPCB) constructed from one step majority logic decodable (OSMLD) codes and we propose a new connection scheme for decoding them. All iterative decoding connection schemes use a soft-input soft-output threshold decoding algorithm as a component decoder. Numerical result for GPCB codes transmitted over Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel are provided. It will show that the proposed scheme is better than Hagenauer-s scheme and Lucas-s scheme [1] and slightly better than the Pyndiah-s scheme.

Keywords: Generalized parallel concatenated block codes, OSMLD codes, threshold decoding, iterative decoding scheme, and performance.

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2838 A Study on the Iterative Scheme for Stratified Shields Gamma Ray Buildup FactorsUsing Layer-Splitting Technique in Double-Layer Shields

Authors: Sari F. Alkhatib, Chang Je Park, Gyuhong Roh

Abstract:

Theiterative scheme which is used to treat buildup factors for stratified shields is being investigated here using the layer-splitting technique.A simple suggested formalism for the scheme based on the Kalos’ formula is introduced, based on which the implementation of the testing technique is carried out.

The second layer in a double-layer shield was split into two equivalent layers and the scheme (with the suggested formalism) was implemented on the new “three-layer” shieldconfiguration.The results of such manipulation on water-lead and water-iron shields combinations are presented here for 1MeV photons.

It was found that splitting the second layer introduces some deviation on the overall buildup factor value. This expected deviation appeared to be higher in the case of low Z layer followed by high Z. However, the overall performance of the iterative scheme showed a great consistency and strong coherence even with the introduced changes. The introduced layer-splitting testing technique shows the capability to be implemented in test the iterative scheme with a wide range of formalisms.

Keywords: Buildup Factor, Iterative Scheme, Stratified Shields

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2837 Dynamic Authenticated Secure Group Communication

Authors: R. Aparna, B. B. Amberker

Abstract:

Providing authentication for the messages exchanged between group members in addition to confidentiality is an important issue in Secure Group communication. We develop a protocol for Secure Authentic Communication where we address authentication for the group communication scheme proposed by Blundo et al. which only provides confidentiality. Authentication scheme used is a multiparty authentication scheme which allows all the users in the system to send and receive messages simultaneously. Our scheme is secure against colluding malicious parties numbering fewer than k.

Keywords: Secure Group Communication, Secret key, Authentication, Authentication code, Threshold.

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2836 Overloading Scheme for Cellular DS-CDMA using Quasi-Orthogonal Sequences and Iterative Interference Cancellation Receiver

Authors: Preetam Kumar, Saswat Chakrabarti

Abstract:

Overloading is a technique to accommodate more number of users than the spreading factor N. This is a bandwidth efficient scheme to increase the number users in a fixed bandwidth. One of the efficient schemes to overload a CDMA system is to use two sets of orthogonal signal waveforms (O/O). The first set is assigned to the N users and the second set is assigned to the additional M users. An iterative interference cancellation technique is used to cancel interference between the two sets of users. In this paper, the performance of an overloading scheme in which the first N users are assigned Walsh-Hadamard orthogonal codes and extra users are assigned the same WH codes but overlaid by a fixed (quasi) bent sequence [11] is evaluated. This particular scheme is called Quasi- Orthogonal Sequence (QOS) O/O scheme, which is a part of cdma2000 standard [12] to provide overloading in the downlink using single user detector. QOS scheme are balance O/O scheme, where the correlation between any set-1 and set-2 users are equalized. The allowable overload of this scheme is investigated in the uplink on an AWGN and Rayleigh fading channels, so that the uncoded performance with iterative multistage interference cancellation detector remains close to the single user bound. It is shown that this scheme provides 19% and 11% overloading with SDIC technique for N= 16 and 64 respectively, with an SNR degradation of less than 0.35 dB as compared to single user bound at a BER of 0.00001. But on a Rayleigh fading channel, the channel overloading is 45% (29 extra users) at a BER of 0.0005, with an SNR degradation of about 1 dB as compared to single user performance for N=64. This is a significant amount of channel overloading on a Rayleigh fading channel.

Keywords: DS-CDMA, Iterative Interference CancellationOrthogonal codes, Overloading.

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2835 Robustness of Hybrid Learning Acceleration Feedback Control Scheme in Flexible Manipulators

Authors: M. Z Md Zain, M. O. Tokhi, M. S. Alam

Abstract:

This paper describes a practical approach to design and develop a hybrid learning with acceleration feedback control (HLC) scheme for input tracking and end-point vibration suppression of flexible manipulator systems. Initially, a collocated proportionalderivative (PD) control scheme using hub-angle and hub-velocity feedback is developed for control of rigid-body motion of the system. This is then extended to incorporate a further hybrid control scheme of the collocated PD control and iterative learning control with acceleration feedback using genetic algorithms (GAs) to optimize the learning parameters. Experimental results of the response of the manipulator with the control schemes are presented in the time and frequency domains. The performance of the HLC is assessed in terms of input tracking, level of vibration reduction at resonance modes and robustness with various payloads.

Keywords: Flexible manipulator, iterative learning control, vibration suppression.

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2834 Approximating Fixed Points by a Two-Step Iterative Algorithm

Authors: Safeer Hussain Khan

Abstract:

In this paper, we introduce a two-step iterative algorithm to prove a strong convergence result for approximating common fixed points of three contractive-like operators. Our algorithm basically generalizes an existing algorithm..Our iterative algorithm also contains two famous iterative algorithms: Mann iterative algorithm and Ishikawa iterative algorithm. Thus our result generalizes the corresponding results proved for the above three iterative algorithms to a class of more general operators. At the end, we remark that nothing prevents us to extend our result to the case of the iterative algorithm with error terms.

Keywords: Contractive-like operator, iterative algorithm, fixed point, strong convergence.

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2833 Sprayer Boom Active Suspension Using Intelligent Active Force Control

Authors: M. Tahmasebi, R.A. Rahman, M. Mailah, M. Gohari

Abstract:

The control of sprayer boom undesired vibrations pose a great challenge to investigators due to various disturbances and conditions. Sprayer boom movements lead to reduce of spread efficiency and crop yield. This paper describes the design of a novel control method for an active suspension system applying proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller with an active force control (AFC) scheme integration of an iterative learning algorithm employed to a sprayer boom. The iterative learning as an intelligent method is principally used as a method to calculate the best value of the estimated inertia of the sprayer boom needed for the AFC loop. Results show that the proposed AFC-based scheme performs much better than the standard PID control technique. Also, this shows that the system is more robust and accurate.

Keywords: Active force control, sprayer boom, active suspension, iterative learning.

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2832 Finite-Horizon Tracking Control for Repetitive Systems with Uncertain Initial Conditions

Authors: Sung Wook Yun, Yun Jong Choi, Kyong-min Lee, Poogyeon Park*

Abstract:

Repetitive systems stand for a kind of systems that perform a simple task on a fixed pattern repetitively, which are widely spread in industrial fields. Hence, many researchers have been interested in those systems, especially in the field of iterative learning control (ILC). In this paper, we propose a finite-horizon tracking control scheme for linear time-varying repetitive systems with uncertain initial conditions. The scheme is derived both analytically and numerically for state-feedback systems and only numerically for output-feedback systems. Then, it is extended to stable systems with input constraints. All numerical schemes are developed in the forms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). A distinguished feature of the proposed scheme from the existing iterative learning control is that the scheme guarantees the tracking performance exactly even under uncertain initial conditions. The simulation results demonstrate the good performance of the proposed scheme.

Keywords: Finite time horizon, linear matrix inequality (LMI), repetitive system, uncertain initial condition.

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2831 The Convergence Results between Backward USSOR and Jacobi Iterative Matrices

Authors: Zuan-De Wang, Hou-biao Li, Zhong-xi Gao

Abstract:

In this paper, the backward Ussor iterative matrix is proposed. The relationship of convergence between the backward Ussor iterative matrix and Jacobi iterative matrix is obtained, which makes the results in the corresponding references be improved and refined.Moreover,numerical examples also illustrate the effectiveness of these conclusions.

Keywords: Backward USSOR iterative matrix, Jacobi iterative matrix, convergence, spectral radius

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2830 A Shape Optimization Method in Viscous Flow Using Acoustic Velocity and Four-step Explicit Scheme

Authors: Yoichi Hikino, Mutsuto Kawahara

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to derive optimal shapes of a body located in viscous flows by the finite element method using the acoustic velocity and the four-step explicit scheme. The formulation is based on an optimal control theory in which a performance function of the fluid force is introduced. The performance function should be minimized satisfying the state equation. This problem can be transformed into the minimization problem without constraint conditions by using the adjoint equation with adjoint variables corresponding to the state equation. The performance function is defined by the drag and lift forces acting on the body. The weighted gradient method is applied as a minimization technique, the Galerkin finite element method is used as a spatial discretization and the four-step explicit scheme is used as a temporal discretization to solve the state equation and the adjoint equation. As the interpolation, the orthogonal basis bubble function for velocity and the linear function for pressure are employed. In case that the orthogonal basis bubble function is used, the mass matrix can be diagonalized without any artificial centralization. The shape optimization is performed by the presented method.

Keywords: Shape Optimization, Optimal Control Theory, Finite Element Method, Weighted Gradient Method, Fluid Force, Orthogonal Basis Bubble Function, Four-step Explicit Scheme, Acoustic Velocity.

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2829 The Relationship of Eigenvalues between Backward MPSD and Jacobi Iterative Matrices

Authors: Zhuan-de Wang, Hou-biao Li, Zhong-xi Gao

Abstract:

In this paper, the backward MPSD (Modified Preconditioned Simultaneous Displacement) iterative matrix is firstly proposed. The relationship of eigenvalues between the backward MPSD iterative matrix and backward Jacobi iterative matrix for block p-cyclic case is obtained, which improves and refines the results in the corresponding references.

Keywords: Backward MPSD iterative matrix, Jacobi iterative matrix, eigenvalue, p-cyclic matrix.

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2828 Image Transmission via Iterative Cellular-Turbo System

Authors: Ersin Gose, Kenan Buyukatak, Onur Osman, Osman N. Ucan

Abstract:

To compress, improve bit error performance and also enhance 2D images, a new scheme, called Iterative Cellular-Turbo System (IC-TS) is introduced. In IC-TS, the original image is partitioned into 2N quantization levels, where N is denoted as bit planes. Then each of the N-bit-plane is coded by Turbo encoder and transmitted over Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel. At the receiver side, bit-planes are re-assembled taking into consideration of neighborhood relationship of pixels in 2-D images. Each of the noisy bit-plane values of the image is evaluated iteratively using IC-TS structure, which is composed of equalization block; Iterative Cellular Image Processing Algorithm (ICIPA) and Turbo decoder. In IC-TS, there is an iterative feedback link between ICIPA and Turbo decoder. ICIPA uses mean and standard deviation of estimated values of each pixel neighborhood. It has extra-ordinary satisfactory results of both Bit Error Rate (BER) and image enhancement performance for less than -1 dB Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) values, compared to traditional turbo coding scheme and 2-D filtering, applied separately. Also, compression can be achieved by using IC-TS systems. In compression, less memory storage is used and data rate is increased up to N-1 times by simply choosing any number of bit slices, sacrificing resolution. Hence, it is concluded that IC-TS system will be a compromising approach in 2-D image transmission, recovery of noisy signals and image compression.

Keywords: Iterative Cellular Image Processing Algorithm (ICIPA), Turbo Coding, Iterative Cellular Turbo System (IC-TS), Image Compression.

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2827 A New Preconditioned AOR Method for Z-matrices

Authors: Guangbin Wang, Ning Zhang, Fuping Tan

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a preconditioned AOR-type iterative method for solving the linear systems Ax = b, where A is a Z-matrix. And give some comparison theorems to show that the rate of convergence of the preconditioned AOR-type iterative method is faster than the rate of convergence of the AOR-type iterative method.

Keywords: Z-matrix, AOR-type iterative method, precondition, comparison.

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2826 Preconditioned Mixed-Type Splitting Iterative Method For Z-Matrices

Authors: Li Jiang, Baoguang Tian

Abstract:

In this paper, we present the preconditioned mixed-type splitting iterative method for solving the linear systems, Ax = b, where A is a Z-matrix. And we give some comparison theorems to show that the convergence rate of the preconditioned mixed-type splitting iterative method is faster than that of the mixed-type splitting iterative method. Finally, we give a numerical example to illustrate our results.

Keywords: Z-matrix, mixed-type splitting iterative method, precondition, comparison theorem, linear system.

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2825 Fixed Points of Contractive-Like Operators by a Faster Iterative Process

Authors: Safeer Hussain Khan

Abstract:

In this paper, we prove a strong convergence result using a recently introduced iterative process with contractive-like operators. This improves andgeneralizes corresponding results in the literature in two ways: iterativeprocess is faster, operators are more general. At the end, we indicatethat the results can also be proved with the iterative process witherror terms.

Keywords: Contractive-like operator, iterative process, fixed point, strong convergence.

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2824 Iterative Clustering Algorithm for Analyzing Temporal Patterns of Gene Expression

Authors: Seo Young Kim, Jae Won Lee, Jong Sung Bae

Abstract:

Microarray experiments are information rich; however, extensive data mining is required to identify the patterns that characterize the underlying mechanisms of action. For biologists, a key aim when analyzing microarray data is to group genes based on the temporal patterns of their expression levels. In this paper, we used an iterative clustering method to find temporal patterns of gene expression. We evaluated the performance of this method by applying it to real sporulation data and simulated data. The patterns obtained using the iterative clustering were found to be superior to those obtained using existing clustering algorithms.

Keywords: Clustering, microarray experiment, temporal pattern of gene expression data.

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2823 An Iterative Algorithm to Compute the Generalized Inverse A(2) T,S Under the Restricted Inner Product

Authors: Xingping Sheng

Abstract:

Let T and S be a subspace of Cn and Cm, respectively. Then for A ∈ Cm×n satisfied AT ⊕ S = Cm, the generalized inverse A(2) T,S is given by A(2) T,S = (PS⊥APT )†. In this paper, a finite formulae is presented to compute generalized inverse A(2) T,S under the concept of restricted inner product, which defined as < A,B >T,S=< PS⊥APT,B > for the A,B ∈ Cm×n. By this iterative method, when taken the initial matrix X0 = PTA∗PS⊥, the generalized inverse A(2) T,S can be obtained within at most mn iteration steps in absence of roundoff errors. Finally given numerical example is shown that the iterative formulae is quite efficient.

Keywords: Generalized inverse A(2) T, S, Restricted inner product, Iterative method, Orthogonal projection.

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2822 Bit Model Based Key Management Scheme for Secure Group Communication

Authors: R. Varalakshmi

Abstract:

For the last decade, researchers have started to focus their interest on Multicast Group Key Management Framework. The central research challenge is secure and efficient group key distribution. The present paper is based on the Bit model based Secure Multicast Group key distribution scheme using the most popular absolute encoder output type code named Gray Code. The focus is of two folds. The first fold deals with the reduction of computation complexity which is achieved in our scheme by performing fewer multiplication operations during the key updating process. To optimize the number of multiplication operations, an O(1) time algorithm to multiply two N-bit binary numbers which could be used in an N x N bit-model of reconfigurable mesh is used in this proposed work. The second fold aims at reducing the amount of information stored in the Group Center and group members while performing the update operation in the key content. Comparative analysis to illustrate the performance of various key distribution schemes is shown in this paper and it has been observed that this proposed algorithm reduces the computation and storage complexity significantly. Our proposed algorithm is suitable for high performance computing environment.

Keywords: Multicast Group key distribution, Bit model, Integer Multiplications, reconfigurable mesh, optimal algorithm, Gray Code, Computation Complexity, Storage Complexity.

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2821 Iterative Joint Power Control and Partial Crosstalk Cancellation in Upstream VDSL

Authors: H. Bagheri, H. Emami, M. R. Pakravan

Abstract:

Crosstalk is the major limiting issue in very high bit-rate digital subscriber line (VDSL) systems in terms of bit-rate or service coverage. At the central office side, joint signal processing accompanied by appropriate power allocation enables complex multiuser processors to provide near capacity rates. Unfortunately complexity grows with the square of the number of lines within a binder, so by taking into account that there are only a few dominant crosstalkers who contribute to main part of crosstalk power, the canceller structure can be simplified which resulted in a much lower run-time complexity. In this paper, a multiuser power control scheme, namely iterative waterfilling, is combined with previously proposed partial crosstalk cancellation approaches to demonstrate the best ever achieved performance which is verified by simulation results.

Keywords: iterative waterfilling, partial crosstalk cancellation, run-time complexity, VDSL.

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2820 Iterative solutions to the linear matrix equation AXB + CXTD = E

Authors: Yongxin Yuan, Jiashang Jiang

Abstract:

In this paper the gradient based iterative algorithm is presented to solve the linear matrix equation AXB +CXTD = E, where X is unknown matrix, A,B,C,D,E are the given constant matrices. It is proved that if the equation has a solution, then the unique minimum norm solution can be obtained by choosing a special kind of initial matrices. Two numerical examples show that the introduced iterative algorithm is quite efficient.

Keywords: matrix equation, iterative algorithm, parameter estimation, minimum norm solution.

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2819 Iterative Methods for An Inverse Problem

Authors: Minghui Wang, Shanrui Hu

Abstract:

An inverse problem of doubly center matrices is discussed. By translating the constrained problem into unconstrained problem, two iterative methods are proposed. A numerical example illustrate our algorithms.

Keywords: doubly center matrix, electric network theory, iterative methods, least-square problem.

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2818 A Proxy Multi-Signature Scheme with Anonymous Vetoable Delegation

Authors: Pei-yih Ting, Dream-Ming Huang, Xiao-Wei Huang

Abstract:

Frequently a group of people jointly decide and authorize a specific person as a representative in some business/poitical occasions, e.g., the board of a company authorizes the chief executive officer to close a multi-billion acquisition deal. In this paper, an integrated proxy multi-signature scheme that allows anonymously vetoable delegation is proposed. This protocol integrates mechanisms of private veto, distributed proxy key generation, secure transmission of proxy key, and existentially unforgeable proxy multi-signature scheme. First, a provably secure Guillou-Quisquater proxy signature scheme is presented, then the “zero-sharing" protocol is extended over a composite modulus multiplicative group, and finally the above two are combined to realize the GQ proxy multi-signature with anonymously vetoable delegation. As a proxy signature scheme, this protocol protects both the original signers and the proxy signer. The modular design allows simplified implementation with less communication overheads and better computation performance than a general secure multi-party protocol.

Keywords: GQ proxy signature, proxy multi-signature, zero-sharing protocol, secure multi-party protocol, private veto protocol

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2817 Iterative Methods for Computing the Weighted Minkowski Inverses of Matrices in Minkowski Space

Authors: Xiaoji Liu, Yonghui Qin

Abstract:

In this note, we consider a family of iterative formula for computing the weighted Minskowski inverses AM,N in Minskowski space, and give two kinds of iterations and the necessary and sufficient conditions of the convergence of iterations.

Keywords: iterative method, the Minskowski inverse, A

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