Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2073

Search results for: evaluation

63 A Quantum-Inspired Evolutionary Algorithm forMultiobjective Image Segmentation

Authors: Hichem Talbi, Mohamed Batouche, Amer Draa

Abstract:

In this paper we present a new approach to deal with image segmentation. The fact that a single segmentation result do not generally allow a higher level process to take into account all the elements included in the image has motivated the consideration of image segmentation as a multiobjective optimization problem. The proposed algorithm adopts a split/merge strategy that uses the result of the k-means algorithm as input for a quantum evolutionary algorithm to establish a set of non-dominated solutions. The evaluation is made simultaneously according to two distinct features: intra-region homogeneity and inter-region heterogeneity. The experimentation of the new approach on natural images has proved its efficiency and usefulness.

Keywords: Image segmentation, multiobjective optimization, quantum computing, evolutionary algorithms.

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62 Lessons Learned from Observing User Behavior through Repeated Usability Evaluations

Authors: Hanmin Jung, Mikyoung Lee, Won-kyung Sung

Abstract:

Academic research information service is a must for surveying previous studies in research and development process. OntoFrame is an academic research information service under Semantic Web framework different from simple keyword-based services such as CiteSeer and Google Scholar. The first purpose of this study is for revealing user behavior in their surveys, the objects of using academic research information services, and their needs. The second is for applying lessons learned from the results to OntoFrame.

Keywords: User Behavior, Usability Evaluation, OntoFrame, CiteSeer, Google Scholar, Academic Research Information Service.

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61 A Force Measurement Evaluation Tool for Telerobotic Cutting Applications: Development of an Effective Characterization Platform

Authors: Dean J. Callaghan, Mark M. McGrath

Abstract:

Sensorized instruments that accurately measure the interaction forces (between biological tissue and instrument endeffector) during surgical procedures offer surgeons a greater sense of immersion during minimally invasive robotic surgery. Although there is ongoing research into force measurement involving surgical graspers little corresponding effort has been carried out on the measurement of forces between scissor blades and tissue. This paper presents the design and development of a force measurement test apparatus, which will serve as a sensor characterization and evaluation platform. The primary aim of the experiments is to ascertain whether the system can differentiate between tissue samples with differing mechanical properties in a reliable, repeatable manner. Force-angular displacement curves highlight trends in the cutting process as well the forces generated along the blade during a cutting procedure. Future applications of the test equipment will involve the assessment of new direct force sensing technologies for telerobotic surgery.

Keywords: Force measurement, minimally invasive surgery, scissor blades, tissue cutting.

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60 A Task-Based Design Approach for Augmented Reality Systems

Authors: Costin Pribeanu, Rytis Vilkonis, Dragoş Daniel Iordache

Abstract:

User interaction components of Augmented Reality (AR) systems have to be tested with users in order to find and fix usability problems as early as possible. In this paper we will report on a user-centered design approach for AR systems following the experience acquired during the design and evaluation of a software prototype for an AR-based educational platform. In this respect we will focus on the re-design of the user task based on the results from a formative usability evaluation. The basic idea of our approach is to describe task scenarios in a tabular format, to develop a task model in a task modeling environment and then to simulate the execution.

Keywords: AR-based educational systems, task-based design, usability evaluation.

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59 A Wavelet-Based Watermarking Method Exploiting the Contrast Sensitivity Function

Authors: John N. Ellinas, Panagiotis Kenterlis

Abstract:

The efficiency of an image watermarking technique depends on the preservation of visually significant information. This is attained by embedding the watermark transparently with the maximum possible strength. The current paper presents an approach for still image digital watermarking in which the watermark embedding process employs the wavelet transform and incorporates Human Visual System (HVS) characteristics. The sensitivity of a human observer to contrast with respect to spatial frequency is described by the Contrast Sensitivity Function (CSF). The strength of the watermark within the decomposition subbands, which occupy an interval on the spatial frequencies, is adjusted according to this sensitivity. Moreover, the watermark embedding process is carried over the subband coefficients that lie on edges where distortions are less noticeable. The experimental evaluation of the proposed method shows very good results in terms of robustness and transparency.

Keywords: Image watermarking, wavelet transform, human visual system, contrast sensitivity function.

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58 Design of Expert System for Search Allergy and Selection of the Skin Tests using CLIPS

Authors: St. Karagiannis, A. I. Dounis, T. Chalastras, P. Tiropanis, D. Papachristos

Abstract:

This work presents the design of an expert system that aims in the procurement of patient medial background and in the search for suitable skin test selections. Skin testing is the tool used most widely to diagnose allergies. The language of expert systems CLIPS is used as a tool of designing. Finally, we present the evaluation of the proposed expert system which was achieved with the import of certain medical cases and the system produced with suitable successful skin tests.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, expert system - CLIPS, allergy and skin test.

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57 Personalisation of SOA Registry Query Results: Implementation, Performance Analysis and Scalability Evaluation

Authors: Kee-Leong Tan, Karyn Wei-Ju Khoo, Hui-Na Chua

Abstract:

Service discovery is a very important component of Service Oriented Architectures (SOA). This paper presents two alternative approaches to customise the query results of private service registry such as Universal Description, Discovery and Integration (UDDI). The customisation is performed based on some pre-defined and/or real-time changing parameters. This work identifies the requirements, designs and additional mechanisms that must be applied to UDDI in order to support this customisation capability. We also detail the implements of the approaches and examine its performance and scalability. Based on our experimental results, we conclude that both approaches can be used to customise registry query results, but by storing personalization parameters in external resource will yield better performance and but less scalable when size of query results increases. We believe these approaches when combined with semantics enabled service registry will enhance the service discovery methods within a private UDDI registry environment.

Keywords: Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), Web service, Service discovery, registry, UDDI

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56 A Novel Metric for Performance Evaluation of Image Fusion Algorithms

Authors: Nedeljko Cvejic, Artur Łoza, David Bull, Nishan Canagarajah

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a novel objective nonreference performance assessment algorithm for image fusion. It takes into account local measurements to estimate how well the important information in the source images is represented by the fused image. The metric is based on the Universal Image Quality Index and uses the similarity between blocks of pixels in the input images and the fused image as the weighting factors for the metrics. Experimental results confirm that the values of the proposed metrics correlate well with the subjective quality of the fused images, giving a significant improvement over standard measures based on mean squared error and mutual information.

Keywords: Fusion performance measures, image fusion, non-reference quality measures, objective quality measures.

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55 A New Fuzzy Decision Support Method for Analysis of Economic Factors of Turkey's Construction Industry

Authors: R. Tur, A. Yardımcı

Abstract:

Imperfect knowledge cannot be avoided all the time. Imperfections may have several forms; uncertainties, imprecision and incompleteness. When we look to classification of methods for the management of imperfect knowledge we see fuzzy set-based techniques. The choice of a method to process data is linked to the choice of knowledge representation, which can be numerical, symbolic, logical or semantic and it depends on the nature of the problem to be solved for example decision support, which will be mentioned in our study. Fuzzy Logic is used for its ability to manage imprecise knowledge, but it can take advantage of the ability of neural networks to learn coefficients or functions. Such an association of methods is typical of so-called soft computing. In this study a new method was used for the management of imprecision for collected knowledge which related to economic analysis of construction industry in Turkey. Because of sudden changes occurring in economic factors decrease competition strength of construction companies. The better evaluation of these changes in economical factors in view of construction industry will made positive influence on company-s decisions which are dealing construction.

Keywords: Fuzzy logic, decision support systems, construction industry.

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54 Determining Senses for Word Sense Disambiguation in Turkish

Authors: Zeynep Orhan, Zeynep Altan

Abstract:

Word sense disambiguation is an important intermediate stage for many natural language processing applications. The senses of an ambiguous word are the classification of usages for that specific word. This paper deals with the methodologies of determining the senses for a given word if they can not be obtained from an already available resource like WordNet. We offer a method that helps us to determine the sense boundaries gradually. In this method, first we decide on some features that are thought to be effective on the senses and divide the instances first into two, then according to the results of evaluations we continue dividing instances gradually. In a second method we use the pseudo words. We devise artificial words depending on some criteria and evaluate classification algorithms on these previously classified words.

Keywords: Word sense disambiguation, sense determination, pseudo words, sense granularity.

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53 A Learning Agent for Knowledge Extraction from an Active Semantic Network

Authors: Simon Thiel, Stavros Dalakakis, Dieter Roller

Abstract:

This paper outlines the development of a learning retrieval agent. Task of this agent is to extract knowledge of the Active Semantic Network in respect to user-requests. Based on a reinforcement learning approach, the agent learns to interpret the user-s intention. Especially, the learning algorithm focuses on the retrieval of complex long distant relations. Increasing its learnt knowledge with every request-result-evaluation sequence, the agent enhances his capability in finding the intended information.

Keywords: Reinforcement learning, learning retrieval agent, search in semantic networks.

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52 A Support System to Consult Remote another Doctor on Assessment and/or Medical Treatment Plan when a Doctor has a Patient not in His/Her Major

Authors: T. Gotoh, T. Takayama, M. Ishiki, T. Ikeda

Abstract:

Recently, majors of doctors are divided into terribly lots of detailed areas. However, it is actually not a rare case that a doctor has a patient who is not in his/her major. He/She must judge an assessment and make a medical treatment plan for this patient. According to our investigation, conventional approaches such as image diagnosis cooperation are insufficient. This paper proposes an 'Assessment / Medical Treatment Plan Consulting System'. We have implemented a pilot system based on our proposition. Its effectiveness is clarified by an evaluation.

Keywords: Application, computational intelligence and telecommunications, medicine, intelligent systems.

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51 An Organizational Strategic Analysis for Dynamics of Generating Firms- Alliance Networks

Authors: Takao Sakakura, Kazunori Fujimoto

Abstract:

This paper proposes an analytical method for the dynamics of generating firms- alliance networks along with business phases. Dynamics in network developments have previously been discussed in the research areas of organizational strategy rather than in the areas of regional cluster, where the static properties of the networks are often discussed. The analytical method introduces the concept of business phases into innovation processes and uses relationships called prior experiences; this idea was developed in organizational strategy to investigate the state of networks from the viewpoints of tradeoffs between link stabilization and node exploration. This paper also discusses the results of the analytical method using five cases of the network developments of firms. The idea of Embeddedness helps interpret the backgrounds of the analytical results. The analytical method is useful for policymakers of regional clusters to establish concrete evaluation targets and a viewpoint for comparisons of policy programs.

Keywords: Regional Clusters, Alliance Networks, Innovation Processes, Prior Experiences, Embeddedness.

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50 Augmented Reality in Schools: Preliminary Evaluation Results from a Summer School

Authors: Alexandru Balog, Costin Pribeanu, Dragos Iordache

Abstract:

Formative usability evaluation aims at finding usability problems during the development process. The earlier these problems are identified, the less expensive to fix they are. This paper presents some preliminary results from a formative usability testing of the 1st prototype developed for the ARiSE (Augmented Reality in School Environments) project.

Keywords: AR-based educational systems, formative evaluation, usability evaluation, user testing.

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49 Evaluation of Degree and the Effect of Order in the Family on Violence against Children A Survey among Guidance School Students in Gilanegharb City in Iran

Authors: Javadi Alimohammad, Javadi Maryam, Feizi Fereidoon

Abstract:

A review of the literature found that Domestic violence and child maltreatment co-occur in many families, the purpose of this study attempts to emphasize the factors relating to intra-family relationships (order point of view) on violence against the children, For this purpose a survey technique on the sample size amounted 200 students of governmental guidance schools of city of Gilanegharb in country of Iran were considered. For measurement of violence against the children (VAC) the CTS scaled has been used .The results showed that children have experienced the violence more than once during the last year. degree of order in family is high. Explanation result indicated that the order variables in family including collective thinking, empathy, communal co-circumstance have significant effects on VAC.

Keywords: Violence, domestic violence, violence against children, order, guidance school, family, children.

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48 Energy-Efficient Sensing Concept for a Micromachined Yaw Rate Sensor

Authors: D. Oshinubi, M. Rocznik, K. Dostert

Abstract:

The need for micromechanical inertial sensors is increasing in future electronic stability control (ESC) and other positioning, navigation and guidance systems. Due to the rising density of sensors in automotive and consumer devices the goal is not only to get high performance, robustness and smaller package sizes, but also to optimize the energy management of the overall sensor system. This paper presents an evaluation concept for a surface micromachined yaw rate sensor. Within this evaluation concept an energy-efficient operation of the drive mode of the yaw rate sensor is enabled. The presented system concept can be realized within a power management subsystem.

Keywords: inertial sensors, micromachined gyros, gyro sensing concepts, power management, FPGA

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47 Elliptical Features Extraction Using Eigen Values of Covariance Matrices, Hough Transform and Raster Scan Algorithms

Authors: J. Prakash, K. Rajesh

Abstract:

In this paper, we introduce a new method for elliptical object identification. The proposed method adopts a hybrid scheme which consists of Eigen values of covariance matrices, Circular Hough transform and Bresenham-s raster scan algorithms. In this approach we use the fact that the large Eigen values and small Eigen values of covariance matrices are associated with the major and minor axial lengths of the ellipse. The centre location of the ellipse can be identified using circular Hough transform (CHT). Sparse matrix technique is used to perform CHT. Since sparse matrices squeeze zero elements and contain a small number of nonzero elements they provide an advantage of matrix storage space and computational time. Neighborhood suppression scheme is used to find the valid Hough peaks. The accurate position of circumference pixels is identified using raster scan algorithm which uses the geometrical symmetry property. This method does not require the evaluation of tangents or curvature of edge contours, which are generally very sensitive to noise working conditions. The proposed method has the advantages of small storage, high speed and accuracy in identifying the feature. The new method has been tested on both synthetic and real images. Several experiments have been conducted on various images with considerable background noise to reveal the efficacy and robustness. Experimental results about the accuracy of the proposed method, comparisons with Hough transform and its variants and other tangential based methods are reported.

Keywords: Circular Hough transform, covariance matrix, Eigen values, ellipse detection, raster scan algorithm.

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46 Objects Extraction by Cooperating Optical Flow, Edge Detection and Region Growing Procedures

Authors: C. Lodato, S. Lopes

Abstract:

The image segmentation method described in this paper has been developed as a pre-processing stage to be used in methodologies and tools for video/image indexing and retrieval by content. This method solves the problem of whole objects extraction from background and it produces images of single complete objects from videos or photos. The extracted images are used for calculating the object visual features necessary for both indexing and retrieval processes. The segmentation algorithm is based on the cooperation among an optical flow evaluation method, edge detection and region growing procedures. The optical flow estimator belongs to the class of differential methods. It permits to detect motions ranging from a fraction of a pixel to a few pixels per frame, achieving good results in presence of noise without the need of a filtering pre-processing stage and includes a specialised model for moving object detection. The first task of the presented method exploits the cues from motion analysis for moving areas detection. Objects and background are then refined using respectively edge detection and seeded region growing procedures. All the tasks are iteratively performed until objects and background are completely resolved. The method has been applied to a variety of indoor and outdoor scenes where objects of different type and shape are represented on variously textured background.

Keywords: Image Segmentation, Motion Detection, Object Extraction, Optical Flow

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45 Svision: Visual Identification of Scanning and Denial of Service Attacks

Authors: Iosif-Viorel Onut, Bin Zhu, Ali A. Ghorbani

Abstract:

We propose a novel graphical technique (SVision) for intrusion detection, which pictures the network as a community of hosts independently roaming in a 3D space defined by the set of services that they use. The aim of SVision is to graphically cluster the hosts into normal and abnormal ones, highlighting only the ones that are considered as a threat to the network. Our experimental results using DARPA 1999 and 2000 intrusion detection and evaluation datasets show the proposed technique as a good candidate for the detection of various threats of the network such as vertical and horizontal scanning, Denial of Service (DoS), and Distributed DoS (DDoS) attacks.

Keywords: Anomaly Visualization, Network Security, Intrusion Detection.

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44 Biometrics Authorize Me!

Authors: João Nóbrega Brites Moita

Abstract:

Can biometrics do what everyone is expecting it will? And more importantly, should it be doing it? Biometrics is the buzzword “on the mouth" of everyone, who are trying to use this technology in a variety of applications. But all this “hype" about biometrics can be dangerous without a careful evaluation of the real needs of each application. In this paper I-ll try to focus on the dangers of using the right technology at the right time in the wrong place.

Keywords: Authentication, Authorization, Biometrics.

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43 A Study of the Variability of Very Low Resolution Characters and the Feasibility of Their Discrimination Using Geometrical Features

Authors: Farshideh Einsele, Rolf Ingold

Abstract:

Current OCR technology does not allow to accurately recognizing small text images, such as those found in web images. Our goal is to investigate new approaches to recognize very low resolution text images containing antialiased character shapes. This paper presents a preliminary study on the variability of such characters and the feasibility to discriminate them by using geometrical features. In a first stage we analyze the distribution of these features. In a second stage we present a study on the discriminative power for recognizing isolated characters, using various rendering methods and font properties. Finally we present interesting results of our evaluation tests leading to our conclusion and future focus.

Keywords: World Wide Web, document analysis, pattern recognition, Optical Character Recognition.

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42 Generation of Sets of Synthetic Classifiers for the Evaluation of Abstract-Level Combination Methods

Authors: N. Greco, S. Impedovo, R.Modugno, G. Pirlo

Abstract:

This paper presents a new technique for generating sets of synthetic classifiers to evaluate abstract-level combination methods. The sets differ in terms of both recognition rates of the individual classifiers and degree of similarity. For this purpose, each abstract-level classifier is considered as a random variable producing one class label as the output for an input pattern. From the initial set of classifiers, new slightly different sets are generated by applying specific operators, which are defined at the purpose. Finally, the sets of synthetic classifiers have been used to estimate the performance of combination methods for abstract-level classifiers. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: Abstract-level Classifier, Dempster-Shafer Rule, Multi-expert Systems, Similarity Index, System Evaluation

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41 Accurate Optical Flow Based on Spatiotemporal Gradient Constancy Assumption

Authors: Adam Rabcewicz

Abstract:

Variational methods for optical flow estimation are known for their excellent performance. The method proposed by Brox et al. [5] exemplifies the strength of that framework. It combines several concepts into single energy functional that is then minimized according to clear numerical procedure. In this paper we propose a modification of that algorithm starting from the spatiotemporal gradient constancy assumption. The numerical scheme allows to establish the connection between our model and the CLG(H) method introduced in [18]. Experimental evaluation carried out on synthetic sequences shows the significant superiority of the spatial variant of the proposed method. The comparison between methods for the realworld sequence is also enclosed.

Keywords: optical flow, variational methods, gradient constancy assumption.

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40 Development for the Evaluation Index of an Anesthesia Depth using the Bispectrum Analysis

Authors: Soo-young Ye, Jun-mo Park, Jae-hyung Kim, Jae-hee Jung, Ah-young Jeon, In-cheol Kim, Jung-man Son, Ki-gon Nam, Seong-wan Baik, Jung-hoon Ro, Gye-rok Jeon

Abstract:

The linear SEF (Spectral Edge Frequency) parameter and spectrum analysis method can not reflect the non-linear of EEG. This method can not contribute to acquire real time analysis and obtain a high confidence in the clinic due to low discrimination. To solve the problems, the development of a new index is carried out using the bispectrum analyzing the EEG(electroencephalogram) including the non-linear characteristic. After analyzing the bispectrum of the 2 dimension, the most significant power spectrum density peaks appeared abundantly at the specific area in awakening and anesthesia state. These points are utilized to create the new index since many peaks appeared at the specific area in the frequency coordinate. The measured range of an index was 0-100. An index is 20-50 at an anesthesia, while the index is 90-60 at the awake. New index could afford to effectively discriminate the awake and anesthesia state.

Keywords: Bispectrum, anesthesia depth, EEG, SEF.

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39 Performance Evaluation of Complex Valued Neural Networks Using Various Error Functions

Authors: Anita S. Gangal, P. K. Kalra, D. S. Chauhan

Abstract:

The backpropagation algorithm in general employs quadratic error function. In fact, most of the problems that involve minimization employ the Quadratic error function. With alternative error functions the performance of the optimization scheme can be improved. The new error functions help in suppressing the ill-effects of the outliers and have shown good performance to noise. In this paper we have tried to evaluate and compare the relative performance of complex valued neural network using different error functions. During first simulation for complex XOR gate it is observed that some error functions like Absolute error, Cauchy error function can replace Quadratic error function. In the second simulation it is observed that for some error functions the performance of the complex valued neural network depends on the architecture of the network whereas with few other error functions convergence speed of the network is independent of architecture of the neural network.

Keywords: Complex backpropagation algorithm, complex errorfunctions, complex valued neural network, split activation function.

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38 Performance Evaluation of Compression Algorithms for Developing and Testing Industrial Imaging Systems

Authors: Daniel F. Garcia, Julio Molleda, Francisco Gonzalez, Ruben Usamentiaga

Abstract:

The development of many measurement and inspection systems of products based on real-time image processing can not be carried out totally in a laboratory due to the size or the temperature of the manufactured products. Those systems must be developed in successive phases. Firstly, the system is installed in the production line with only an operational service to acquire images of the products and other complementary signals. Next, a recording service of the image and signals must be developed and integrated in the system. Only after a large set of images of products is available, the development of the real-time image processing algorithms for measurement or inspection of the products can be accomplished under realistic conditions. Finally, the recording service is turned off or eliminated and the system operates only with the real-time services for the acquisition and processing of the images. This article presents a systematic performance evaluation of the image compression algorithms currently available to implement a real-time recording service. The results allow establishing a trade off between the reduction or compression of the image size and the CPU time required to get that compression level.

Keywords: Lossless image compression, codec performanceevaluation, grayscale codec comparison, real-time image recording.

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37 Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols For High Density Ad Hoc Networks based on Qos by GlomoSim Simulator

Authors: E. Ahvar, M. Fathy

Abstract:

Ad hoc networks are characterized by multihop wireless connectivity, frequently changing network topology and the need for efficient dynamic routing protocols. We compare the performance of three routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks: Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) , Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV), location-aided routing(LAR1).The performance differentials are analyzed using varying network load, mobility, and network size. We simulate protocols with GLOMOSIM simulator. Based on the observations, we make recommendations about when the performance of either protocol can be best.

Keywords: Ad hoc Network , Glomosim , routing protocols.

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36 Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols for High Density Ad Hoc Networks Based on Energy Consumption by GlomoSim Simulator

Authors: E. Ahvar, M. Fathy

Abstract:

Ad hoc networks are characterized by multihop wireless connectivity, frequently changing network topology and the need for efficient dynamic routing protocols. We compare the performance of three routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks: Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV), location-aided routing (LAR1).Our evaluation is based on energy consumption in mobile ad hoc networks. The performance differentials are analyzed using varying network load, mobility, and network size. We simulate protocols with GLOMOSIM simulator. Based on the observations, we make recommendations about when the performance of either protocol can be best.

Keywords: Ad hoc Network, energy consumption, Glomosim, routing protocols.

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35 Evaluation of Clustering Based on Preprocessing in Gene Expression Data

Authors: Seo Young Kim, Toshimitsu Hamasaki

Abstract:

Microarrays have become the effective, broadly used tools in biological and medical research to address a wide range of problems, including classification of disease subtypes and tumors. Many statistical methods are available for analyzing and systematizing these complex data into meaningful information, and one of the main goals in analyzing gene expression data is the detection of samples or genes with similar expression patterns. In this paper, we express and compare the performance of several clustering methods based on data preprocessing including strategies of normalization or noise clearness. We also evaluate each of these clustering methods with validation measures for both simulated data and real gene expression data. Consequently, clustering methods which are common used in microarray data analysis are affected by normalization and degree of noise and clearness for datasets.

Keywords: Gene expression, clustering, data preprocessing.

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34 Breast Skin-Line Estimation and Breast Segmentation in Mammograms using Fast-Marching Method

Authors: Roshan Dharshana Yapa, Koichi Harada

Abstract:

Breast skin-line estimation and breast segmentation is an important pre-process in mammogram image processing and computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer. Limiting the area to be processed into a specific target region in an image would increase the accuracy and efficiency of processing algorithms. In this paper we are presenting a new algorithm for estimating skin-line and breast segmentation using fast marching algorithm. Fast marching is a partial-differential equation based numerical technique to track evolution of interfaces. We have introduced some modifications to the traditional fast marching method, specifically to improve the accuracy of skin-line estimation and breast tissue segmentation. Proposed modifications ensure that the evolving front stops near the desired boundary. We have evaluated the performance of the algorithm by using 100 mammogram images taken from mini-MIAS database. The results obtained from the experimental evaluation indicate that this algorithm explains 98.6% of the ground truth breast region and accuracy of the segmentation is 99.1%. Also this algorithm is capable of partially-extracting nipple when it is available in the profile.

Keywords: Mammogram, fast marching method, mathematical morphology.

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