Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2032

Search results for: deep learning

1882 Social Semantic Web-Based Analytics Approach to Support Lifelong Learning

Authors: Khaled Halimi, Hassina Seridi-Bouchelaghem

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to describe how learning analytics approaches based on social semantic web techniques can be applied to enhance the lifelong learning experiences in a connectivist perspective. For this reason, a prototype of a system called SoLearn (Social Learning Environment) that supports this approach. We observed and studied literature related to lifelong learning systems, social semantic web and ontologies, connectivism theory, learning analytics approaches and reviewed implemented systems based on these fields to extract and draw conclusions about necessary features for enhancing the lifelong learning process. The semantic analytics of learning can be used for viewing, studying and analysing the massive data generated by learners, which helps them to understand through recommendations, charts and figures their learning and behaviour, and to detect where they have weaknesses or limitations. This paper emphasises that implementing a learning analytics approach based on social semantic web representations can enhance the learning process. From one hand, the analysis process leverages the meaning expressed by semantics presented in the ontology (relationships between concepts). From the other hand, the analysis process exploits the discovery of new knowledge by means of inferring mechanism of the semantic web.

Keywords: Connectivism, data visualization, informal learning, learning analytics, semantic web, social web.

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1881 Studies of Zooplankton in Gdańsk Basin (2010-2011)

Authors: Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, A. Lemieszek, M. Figiela

Abstract:

In 2010-2011, the research on zooplankton was conducted in the southern part of the Baltic Sea to determine seasonal variability in changes occurring throughout the zooplankton in 2010 and 2011, both in the region of Gdańsk Deep, and in the western part of Gdańsk Bay. The research in the sea showed that the taxonomic composition of holoplankton in the southern part of the Baltic Sea was similar to that recorded in this region for many years. The maximum values of abundance and biomass of zooplankton both in the Deep and the Bay of Gdańsk were observed in the summer season. Copepoda dominated in the composition of zooplankton for almost the entire study period, while rotifers occurred in larger numbers only in the summer 2010 in the Gdańsk Deep as well as in May and July 2010 in the western part of Gdańsk Bay, and meroplankton – in April 2011.

Keywords: Baltic Sea, composition, Gdańsk Bay, zooplankton.

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1880 Extending E-learning systems based on Clause-Rule model

Authors: Keisuke Nakamura, Kiyoshi Akama, Hiroshi Mabuchi

Abstract:

E-Learning systems are used by many learners and teachers. The developer is developing the e-Learning system. However, the developer cannot do system construction to satisfy all of users- demands. We discuss a method of constructing e-Learning systems where learners and teachers can design, try to use, and share extending system functions that they want to use; which may be nally added to the system by system managers.

Keywords: Clause-Rule-Model, database-access, e-Learning, Web-Application.

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1879 Using Multimedia in Computer Based Learning (CBL) A Case Study: Teaching Science to Student

Authors: Maryam Honarmand

Abstract:

Regarding to the fast growth of computer, internet, and virtual learning in our country (Iran) and need computer-based learning systems and multimedia tools as an essential part of such education, designing and implementing such systems would help teach different field such as science. This paper describes the basic principle of multimedia. At the end, with a description of learning science to the infant students, the method of this system will be explained.

Keywords: Multimedia tools, computer based learning, science, student.

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1878 Experimental Verification of the Relationship between Physiological Indexes and the Presence or Absence of an Operation during E-learning

Authors: Masaki Omata, Shumma Hosokawa

Abstract:

An experiment to verify the relationships between physiological indexes of an e-learner and the presence or absence of an operation during e-learning is described. Electroencephalogram (EEG), hemoencephalography (HEG), skin conductance (SC), and blood volume pulse (BVP) values were measured while participants performed experimental learning tasks. The results show that there are significant differences between the SC values when reading with clicking on learning materials and the SC values when reading without clicking, and between the HEG ratio when reading (with and without clicking) and the HEG ratio when resting for four of five participants. We conclude that the SC signals can be used to estimate whether or not a learner is performing an active task and that the HEG ratios can be used to estimate whether a learner is learning.

Keywords: E-learning, physiological index, physiological signal, state of learning.

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1877 Causal Relation Identification Using Convolutional Neural Networks and Knowledge Based Features

Authors: Tharini N. de Silva, Xiao Zhibo, Zhao Rui, Mao Kezhi

Abstract:

Causal relation identification is a crucial task in information extraction and knowledge discovery. In this work, we present two approaches to causal relation identification. The first is a classification model trained on a set of knowledge-based features. The second is a deep learning based approach training a model using convolutional neural networks to classify causal relations. We experiment with several different convolutional neural networks (CNN) models based on previous work on relation extraction as well as our own research. Our models are able to identify both explicit and implicit causal relations as well as the direction of the causal relation. The results of our experiments show a higher accuracy than previously achieved for causal relation identification tasks.

Keywords: Causal relation identification, convolutional neural networks, natural Language Processing, Machine Learning.

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1876 Oscillation Effect of the Multi-stage Learning for the Layered Neural Networks and Its Analysis

Authors: Isao Taguchi, Yasuo Sugai

Abstract:

This paper proposes an efficient learning method for the layered neural networks based on the selection of training data and input characteristics of an output layer unit. Comparing to recent neural networks; pulse neural networks, quantum neuro computation, etc, the multilayer network is widely used due to its simple structure. When learning objects are complicated, the problems, such as unsuccessful learning or a significant time required in learning, remain unsolved. Focusing on the input data during the learning stage, we undertook an experiment to identify the data that makes large errors and interferes with the learning process. Our method devides the learning process into several stages. In general, input characteristics to an output layer unit show oscillation during learning process for complicated problems. The multi-stage learning method proposes by the authors for the function approximation problems of classifying learning data in a phased manner, focusing on their learnabilities prior to learning in the multi layered neural network, and demonstrates validity of the multi-stage learning method. Specifically, this paper verifies by computer experiments that both of learning accuracy and learning time are improved of the BP method as a learning rule of the multi-stage learning method. In learning, oscillatory phenomena of a learning curve serve an important role in learning performance. The authors also discuss the occurrence mechanisms of oscillatory phenomena in learning. Furthermore, the authors discuss the reasons that errors of some data remain large value even after learning, observing behaviors during learning.

Keywords: data selection, function approximation problem, multistage leaning, neural network, voluntary oscillation.

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1875 Learning Objects Content Presentation Adaptation Model Considering Students' Learning Styles

Authors: Zenaide Carvalho da Silva, Andrey Ricardo Pimentel, Leandro Rodrigues Ferreira

Abstract:

Learning styles (LSs) correspond to the individual preferences of a person regarding the modes and forms in which he/she prefers to learn throughout the teaching/learning process. The content presentation of learning objects (LOs) using knowledge about the students’ LSs offers them digital educational resources tailored to their individual learning preferences. In this context, the most relevant characteristics of the LSs along with the most appropriate forms of LOs' content presentation were mapped and associated. Such was performed in order to define the composition of an adaptive model of LO's content presentation considering the LSs, which was called Adaptation of Content Presentation of Learning Objects Considering Learning Styles (ACPLOLS). LO prototypes were created with interfaces that were adapted to students' LSs. These prototypes were based on a model created for validation of the approaches that were used, which were established through experiments with the students. The results of subjective measures of students' emotional responses demonstrated that the ACPLOLS has reached the desired results in relation to the adequacy of the LOs interface, in accordance with the Felder-Silverman LSs Model.

Keywords: Adaptation, interface, learning styles, learning objects, students.

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1874 Convergence Analysis of Training Two-Hidden-Layer Partially Over-Parameterized ReLU Networks via Gradient Descent

Authors: Zhifeng Kong

Abstract:

Over-parameterized neural networks have attracted a great deal of attention in recent deep learning theory research, as they challenge the classic perspective of over-fitting when the model has excessive parameters and have gained empirical success in various settings. While a number of theoretical works have been presented to demystify properties of such models, the convergence properties of such models are still far from being thoroughly understood. In this work, we study the convergence properties of training two-hidden-layer partially over-parameterized fully connected networks with the Rectified Linear Unit activation via gradient descent. To our knowledge, this is the first theoretical work to understand convergence properties of deep over-parameterized networks without the equally-wide-hidden-layer assumption and other unrealistic assumptions. We provide a probabilistic lower bound of the widths of hidden layers and proved linear convergence rate of gradient descent. We also conducted experiments on synthetic and real-world datasets to validate our theory.

Keywords: Over-parameterization, Rectified Linear Units (ReLU), convergence, gradient descent, neural networks.

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1873 Socioculture and Cognitivist Perspectives on Language and Communication Barriers in Learning

Authors: David Hallberg

Abstract:

It is believed that major account on language diversity must be taken in learning, and especially in learning using ICT. This paper-s objective is to exhibit language and communication barriers in learning, to approach the topic from socioculture and cognitivist perspectives, and to give exploratory solutions of handling such barriers. The review is mainly conducted by approaching the journal Computers & Education, but also an initially broad search was conducted. The results show that not much attention is paid on language and communication barriers in an immediate relation to learning using ICT. The results shows, inter alia, that language and communication barriers are caused because of not enough account is taken on both the individual-s background and the technology.

Keywords: communication barriers, cognitive, ICT, language barriers, learning, socioculture

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1872 Evolving Knowledge Extraction from Online Resources

Authors: Zhibo Xiao, Tharini Nayanika de Silva, Kezhi Mao

Abstract:

In this paper, we present an evolving knowledge extraction system named AKEOS (Automatic Knowledge Extraction from Online Sources). AKEOS consists of two modules, including a one-time learning module and an evolving learning module. The one-time learning module takes in user input query, and automatically harvests knowledge from online unstructured resources in an unsupervised way. The output of the one-time learning is a structured vector representing the harvested knowledge. The evolving learning module automatically schedules and performs repeated one-time learning to extract the newest information and track the development of an event. In addition, the evolving learning module summarizes the knowledge learned at different time points to produce a final knowledge vector about the event. With the evolving learning, we are able to visualize the key information of the event, discover the trends, and track the development of an event.

Keywords: Evolving learning, knowledge extraction, knowledge graph, text mining.

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1871 Application of Neural Network and Finite Element for Prediction the Limiting Drawing Ratio in Deep Drawing Process

Authors: H.Mohammadi Majd, M.Jalali Azizpour, A.V. Hoseini

Abstract:

In this paper back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) is employed to predict the limiting drawing ratio (LDR) of the deep drawing process. To prepare a training set for BPANN, some finite element simulations were carried out. die and punch radius, die arc radius, friction coefficient, thickness, yield strength of sheet and strain hardening exponent were used as the input data and the LDR as the specified output used in the training of neural network. As a result of the specified parameters, the program will be able to estimate the LDR for any new given condition. Comparing FEM and BPANN results, an acceptable correlation was found.

Keywords: Back-propagation artificial neural network(BPANN), deep drawing, prediction, limiting drawing ratio (LDR).

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1870 A Computer Model of Language Acquisition – Syllable Learning – Based on Hebbian Cell Assemblies and Reinforcement Learning

Authors: Sepideh Fazeli, Fariba Bahrami

Abstract:

Investigating language acquisition is one of the most challenging problems in the area of studying language. Syllable learning as a level of language acquisition has a considerable significance since it plays an important role in language acquisition. Because of impossibility of studying language acquisition directly with children, especially in its developmental phases, computer models will be useful in examining language acquisition. In this paper a computer model of early language learning for syllable learning is proposed. It is guided by a conceptual model of syllable learning which is named Directions Into Velocities of Articulators model (DIVA). The computer model uses simple associational and reinforcement learning rules within neural network architecture which are inspired by neuroscience. Our simulation results verify the ability of the proposed computer model in producing phonemes during babbling and early speech. Also, it provides a framework for examining the neural basis of language learning and communication disorders.

Keywords: Brain modeling, computer models, language acquisition, reinforcement learning.

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1869 Impact of VARK Learning Model at Tertiary Level Education

Authors: Munazza A. Mirza, Khawar Khurshid

Abstract:

Individuals are generally associated with different learning styles, which have been explored extensively in recent past. The learning styles refer to the potential of an individual by which s/he can easily comprehend and retain information. Among various learning style models, VARK is the most accepted model which categorizes the learners with respect to their sensory characteristics. Based on the number of preferred learning modes, the learners can be categorized as uni-modal, bi-modal, tri-modal, or quad/multi-modal. Although there is a prevalent belief in the learning styles, however, the model is not being frequently and effectively utilized in the higher education. This research describes the identification model to validate teacher’s didactic practice and student’s performance linkage with the learning styles. The identification model is recommended to check the effective application and evaluation of the various learning styles. The proposed model is a guideline to effectively implement learning styles inventory in order to ensure that it will validate performance linkage with learning styles. If performance is linked with learning styles, this may help eradicate the distrust on learning style theory. For this purpose, a comprehensive study was conducted to compare and understand how VARK inventory model is being used to identify learning preferences and their correlation with learner’s performance. A comparative analysis of the findings of these studies is presented to understand the learning styles of tertiary students in various disciplines. It is concluded with confidence that the learning styles of students cannot be associated with any specific discipline. Furthermore, there is not enough empirical proof to link performance with learning styles.

Keywords: Learning style, VARK, sensory preferences, identification model, didactic practices.

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1868 E-learning for Professional Education of Personnel in a Hospital

Authors: G. Cossu, A. Esposito, G. Picco, C. Scrizzi, A. Tartaglia, E. Tresso

Abstract:

A collaboration among the Hospital S. Giovanni Battista of Turin, the Politecnico of Turin, and the MUST company is described. The content of the collaboration has been and is the use of ICT-s, e-learning, and blended learning for the internal professional education, training, and keeping up to date of the personnel of the hospital. A platform for the delivery of the teaching materials has been built, including an evaluation and self-evaluation tool. The first on line courses have been developed and delivered and many more are in preparation. The first results of the monitoring of the efficacy of the online education have been positive.

Keywords: E-learning, blended learning, on line education, ICT.

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1867 Prediction the Limiting Drawing Ratio in Deep Drawing Process by Back Propagation Artificial Neural Network

Authors: H.Mohammadi Majd, M.Jalali Azizpour, M. Goodarzi

Abstract:

In this paper back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) with Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm is employed to predict the limiting drawing ratio (LDR) of the deep drawing process. To prepare a training set for BPANN, some finite element simulations were carried out. die and punch radius, die arc radius, friction coefficient, thickness, yield strength of sheet and strain hardening exponent were used as the input data and the LDR as the specified output used in the training of neural network. As a result of the specified parameters, the program will be able to estimate the LDR for any new given condition. Comparing FEM and BPANN results, an acceptable correlation was found.

Keywords: BPANN, deep drawing, prediction, limiting drawingratio (LDR), Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm

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1866 The Effects of Visual Elements and Cognitive Styles on Students Learning in Hypermedia Environment

Authors: Rishi Ruttun

Abstract:

One of the major features of hypermedia learning is its non-linear structure, allowing learners, the opportunity of flexible navigation to accommodate their own needs. Nevertheless, such flexibility can also cause problems such as insufficient navigation and disorientation for some learners, especially those with Field Dependent cognitive styles. As a result students learning performance can be deteriorated and in turn, they can have negative attitudes with hypermedia learning systems. It was suggested that visual elements can be used to compensate dilemmas. However, it is unclear whether these visual elements improve their learning or whether problems still exist. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of students cognitive styles and visual elements on students learning performance and attitudes in hypermedia learning environment. Cognitive Style Analysis (CSA), Learning outcome in terms of pre and post-test, practical task, and Attitude Questionnaire (AQ) were administered to a sample of 60 university students. The findings revealed that FD students preformed equally to those of FI. Also, FD students experienced more disorientation in the hypermedia learning system where they depend a lot on the visual elements for navigation and orientation purposes. Furthermore, they had more positive attitudes towards the visual elements which escape them from experiencing navigation and disorientation dilemmas. In contrast, FI students were more comfortable, did not get disturbed or did not need some of the visual elements in the hypermedia learning system.

Keywords: Hypermedia learning, cognitive styles, visual elements, support, learning performance, attitudes and perceptions

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1865 A GA-Based Role Assignment Approach for Web-based Cooperative Learning Environments

Authors: Yi-Chun Chang, Jian-Wei Li

Abstract:

Web-based cooperative learning focuses on (1) the interaction and the collaboration of community members, and (2) the sharing and the distribution of knowledge and expertise by network technology to enhance learning performance. Numerous research literatures related to web-based cooperative learning have demonstrated that cooperative scripts have a positive impact to specify, sequence, and assign cooperative learning activities. Besides, literatures have indicated that role-play in web-based cooperative learning environments enhances two or more students to work together toward the completion of a common goal. Since students generally do not know each other and they lack the face-to-face contact that is necessary for the negotiation of assigning group roles in web-based cooperative learning environments, this paper intends to further extend the application of genetic algorithm (GA) and propose a GA-based algorithm to tackle the problem of role assignment in web-based cooperative learning environments, which not only saves communication costs but also reduces conflict between group members in negotiating role assignments.

Keywords: genetic algorithm (GA), role assignment, role-play; web-based cooperative learning.

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1864 Collaborative Professional Education for e-Teaching in Networked Schools

Authors: Ken Stevens

Abstract:

Networked schools have become a feature of education systems in countries that seek to provide learning opportunities in schools located beyond major centres of population. The internet and e-learning have facilitated the development of virtual educational structures that complement traditional schools, encouraging collaborative teaching and learning to proceed. In rural New Zealand and in the Atlantic Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador, e-learning is able to provide new ways of organizing teaching, learning and the management of educational opportunities. However, the future of e-teaching and e-learning in networked schools depends on the development of professional education programs that prepare teachers for collaborative teaching and learning environments in which both virtual and traditional face to face instruction co-exist.

Keywords: Advanced Placement, Cybercells, Extranet, Intranet.

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1863 Adaptive E-Learning System Using Fuzzy Logic and Concept Map

Authors: Mesfer Al Duhayyim, Paul Newbury

Abstract:

This paper proposes an effective adaptive e-learning system that uses a coloured concept map to show the learner's knowledge level for each concept in the chosen subject area. A Fuzzy logic system is used to evaluate the learner's knowledge level for each concept in the domain, and produce a ranked concept list of learning materials to address weaknesses in the learner’s understanding. This system obtains information on the learner's understanding of concepts by an initial pre-test before the system is used for learning and a post-test after using the learning system. A Fuzzy logic system is used to produce a weighted concept map during the learning process. The aim of this research is to prove that such a proposed novel adapted e-learning system will enhance learner's performance and understanding. In addition, this research aims to increase participants' overall understanding of their learning level by providing a coloured concept map of understanding followed by a ranked concepts list of learning materials.

Keywords: Adaptive e-learning system, coloured concept map, fuzzy logic, ranked concept list.

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1862 Software Engineering Mobile Learning Software Solution Using Task Based Learning Approach

Authors: Bekim Fetaji, Majlinda Fetaji

Abstract:

The development and use of mobile devices as well as its integration within education systems to deliver electronic contents and to support real-time communications was the focus of this research. In order to investigate the software engineering issues in using mobile devices a research on electronic content was initiated. The Developed MP3 mobile software solution was developed as a prototype for testing and developing a strategy for designing a usable m-learning environment. The mobile software solution was evaluated using mobile device using the link: http://projects.seeu.edu.mk/mlearn. The investigation also tested the correlation between the two mobile learning indicators: electronic content and attention, based on the Task Based learning instructional method. The mobile software solution ''M-Learn“ was developed as a prototype for testing the approach and developing a strategy for designing usable m-learning environment. The proposed methodology is about what learning modeling approach is more appropriate to use when developing mobile learning software.

Keywords: M-learning, mobile software development, mobiledevices, learning instructions, task based learning.

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1861 The Effectiveness of Lesson Study via Learning Communities in Increasing Instructional Self-Efficacy of Beginning Special Educators

Authors: David D. Hampton

Abstract:

Lesson study is used as an instructional technique to promote both student and faculty learning. However, little is known about the usefulness of learning communities in supporting results of lesson study on the self-efficacy and development for tenure-track faculty. This study investigated the impact of participation in a lesson study learning community on 34 new faculty members at a mid-size Midwestern University, specifically regarding implementing lesson study evaluations by new faculty on their reported self-efficacy. Results indicate that participation in a lesson study learning community significantly increased faculty members’ lesson study self-efficacy as well as grant and manuscript production over one academic year. Suggestions for future lesson study around faculty learning communities are discussed.

Keywords: Lesson study, learning community, lesson study self-efficacy, new faculty.

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1860 A Design of the Infrastructure and Computer Network for Distance Education, Online Learning via New Media, E-Learning and Blended Learning

Authors: Sumitra Nuanmeesri

Abstract:

The research focus on study, analyze and design the model of the infrastructure and computer networks for distance education, online learning via new media, e-learning and blended learning. The collected information from study and analyze process that information was evaluated by the index of item objective congruence (IOC) by 9 specialists to design model. The results of evaluate the model with the mean and standard deviation by the sample of 9 specialists value is 3.85. The results showed that the infrastructure and computer networks are designed to be appropriate to a great extent appropriate to a great extent.

Keywords: Blended Learning, New Media, Infrastructure and Computer Network, Tele-Education, Online Learning.

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1859 Churn Prediction for Telecommunication Industry Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Ulas Vural, M. Ergun Okay, E. Mesut Yildiz

Abstract:

Telecommunication service providers demand accurate and precise prediction of customer churn probabilities to increase the effectiveness of their customer relation services. The large amount of customer data owned by the service providers is suitable for analysis by machine learning methods. In this study, expenditure data of customers are analyzed by using an artificial neural network (ANN). The ANN model is applied to the data of customers with different billing duration. The proposed model successfully predicts the churn probabilities at 83% accuracy for only three months expenditure data and the prediction accuracy increases up to 89% when the nine month data is used. The experiments also show that the accuracy of ANN model increases on an extended feature set with information of the changes on the bill amounts.

Keywords: Customer relationship management, churn prediction, telecom industry, deep learning, Artificial Neural Networks, ANN.

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1858 Process-Oriented Learning Requirements for Employees and for Organizations

Authors: Richard Pircher, Lukas Zenk, Hanna Risku

Abstract:

Using activity theory, organisational theory and didactics as theoretical foundations, a comprehensive model of the organisational dimensions relevant for learning and knowledge transfer will be developed. In a second step, a Learning Assessment Guideline will be elaborated. This guideline will be designed to permit a targeted analysis of organisations to identify the status quo in those areas crucial to the implementation of learning and knowledge transfer. In addition, this self-analysis tool will enable learning managers to select adequate didactic models for e- and blended learning. As part of the European Integrated Project "Process-oriented Learning and Information Exchange" (PROLIX), this model of organisational prerequisites for learning and knowledge transfer will be empirically tested in four profit and non-profit organisations in Great Britain, Germany and France (to be finalized in autumn 2006). The findings concern not only the capability of the model of organisational dimensions, but also the predominant perceptions of and obstacles to learning in organisations.

Keywords: Activity theory, knowledge management organisational theory, "Process-oriented Learning and Information Exchange" (PROLIX).

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1857 Open Source Implementation of M-Learning for Primary School in Malaysia

Authors: Saipunidzam Mahamad, Mohammad Noor Ibrahim, Mohamad Izzriq Ab Malek Foad, ShakirahMohd Taib

Abstract:

With the proliferation of the mobile device technologies, mobile learning can be used to complement and improve traditional learning problems. Both students and teachers need a proper and handy system to monitor and keep track the performance of the students. This paper presents an implementation of M-learning for primary school in Malaysia by using an open source technology. It focuses on learning mathematics using handheld devices for primary schools- students aged 11 and 12 years old. Main users for this system include students, teachers and the administrator. This application suggests a new mobile learning environment with mobile graph for tracking the students- progress and performance. The purpose of this system is not to replace traditional classroom but to complement the learning process. In a testing conducted, students who used this system performed better in their examination.

Keywords: M-Learning, Automated Mobile Graph.

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1856 Secured Session Based Profile Caching for E-Learning Systems Using WiMAX Networks

Authors: R. Chithra, B. Kalaavathi

Abstract:

E-Learning enables the users to learn at anywhere at any time. In E-Learning systems, authenticating the E-Learning user has security issues. The usage of appropriate communication networks for providing the internet connectivity for E-learning is another challenge. WiMAX networks provide Broadband Wireless Access through the Multicast Broadcast Service so these networks can be most suitable for E-Learning applications. The authentication of E-Learning user is vulnerable to session hijacking problems. The repeated authentication of users can be done to overcome these issues. In this paper, session based Profile Caching Authentication is proposed. In this scheme, the credentials of E-Learning users can be cached at authentication server during the initial authentication through the appropriate subscriber station. The proposed cache based authentication scheme performs fast authentication by using cached user profile. Thus, the proposed authentication protocol reduces the delay in repeated authentication to enhance the security in ELearning.

Keywords: Authentication, E-Learning, WiMAX, Security, Profile caching.

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1855 Interactive Chinese Character Learning System though Pictograph Evolution

Authors: J.H. Low, C.O. Wong, E.J. Han, K.R Kim K.C. Jung, H.K. Yang

Abstract:

This paper proposes an Interactive Chinese Character Learning System (ICCLS) based on pictorial evolution as an edutainment concept in computer-based learning of language. The advantage of the language origination itself is taken as a learning platform due to the complexity in Chinese language as compared to other types of languages. Users especially children enjoy more by utilize this learning system because they are able to memories the Chinese Character easily and understand more of the origin of the Chinese character under pleasurable learning environment, compares to traditional approach which children need to rote learning Chinese Character under un-pleasurable environment. Skeletonization is used as the representation of Chinese character and object with an animated pictograph evolution to facilitate the learning of the language. Shortest skeleton path matching technique is employed for fast and accurate matching in our implementation. User is required to either write a word or draw a simple 2D object in the input panel and the matched word and object will be displayed as well as the pictograph evolution to instill learning. The target of computer-based learning system is for pre-school children between 4 to 6 years old to learn Chinese characters in a flexible and entertaining manner besides utilizing visual and mind mapping strategy as learning methodology.

Keywords: Computer-based learning, Chinese character, pictograph evolution, skeletonization.

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1854 Problem Based Learning in B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences

Authors: Gurung S., Yadav B. N., Budhathoki SS.

Abstract:

Problem based learning is one of the highly acclaimed learning methods in medical education since its first introduction at Mc-Master University in Canada in the 1960s. It has now been adopted as a teaching learning method in many medical colleges of Nepal. B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences (BPKIHS), a health science deemed university is the second institute in Nepal to establish problem-based learning academic program and need-based teaching approach hence minimizing teaching through lectures since its inception. During the first two years of MBBS course, the curriculum is divided into various organ-systems incorporated with problem-based learning exercise each of one week duration.

Keywords: PBL, medical education.

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1853 Factors of English Language Learning and Acquisition at Bisha College of Technology

Authors: Khalid Albishi

Abstract:

This paper participates in giving new vision and explains the learning and acquisition processes of English language by analyzing a certain context. Five important factors in English language acquisition and learning are discussed and suitable solutions are provided. The factors are compared with the learners' linguistic background at Bisha College of Technology BCT attempting to link the issues faced by students and the research done on similar situations. These factors are phonology, age of acquisition, motivation, psychology and courses of English. These factors are very important; because they interfere and affect specific learning processes at BCT context and general English learning situations.

Keywords: Acquisition, age, factors, language, learning.

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