Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 287

Search results for: current limiter

287 New Design of a Broadband Microwave Zero Bias Power Limiter

Authors: K. Echchakhaoui, E. Abdelmounim, J. Zbitou, H. Bennis, N. Ababssi, M. Latrach

Abstract:

In this paper a new design of a broadband microwave power limiter is presented and validated into simulation by using ADS software (Advanced Design System) from Agilent technologies. The final circuit is built on microstrip lines by using identical Zero Bias Schottky diodes. The power limiter is designed by Associating 3 stages Schottky diodes. The obtained simulation results permit to validate this circuit with a threshold input power level of 0 dBm until a maximum input power of 30 dBm.

Keywords: Limiter, microstrip, zero-biais.

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286 Reducing the Short Circuit Levels in Kuwait Transmission Network (A Case Study)

Authors: Mahmoud Gilany, Wael Al-Hasawi

Abstract:

Preliminary studies on Kuwait high voltage transmission system show significant increase in the short circuit level at some of the grid substations and some generating stations. This increase results from the growth in the power transmission systems in size and complexity. New generating stations are expected to be added to the system within the next few years. This paper describes the study analysis performed to evaluate the available and potential solutions to control SC levels in Kuwait power system. It also presents a modified planning of the transmission network in order to fulfill this task.

Keywords: Short circuit current, network splitting, fault current limiter, power transmission planning.

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285 Novel Intrinsic Conducting Polymer Current Limiting Device (CLD) for Surge Protection

Authors: Noor H Jabarullah

Abstract:

In the past many uneconomic solutions for limitation and interruption of short-circuit currents in low power applications have been introduced, especially polymer switch based on the positive temperature coefficient of resistance (PCTR) concept. However there are many limitations in the active material, which consists of conductive fillers. This paper presents a significantly improved and simplified approach that replaces the existing current limiters with faster switching elements. Its elegance lies in the remarkable simplicity and low-cost processes of producing the device using polyaniline (PANI) doped with methane-sulfonic acid (MSA). Samples characterized as lying in the metallic and critical regimes of metal insulator transition have been studied by means of electrical performance in the voltage range from 1V to 5 V under different environmental conditions. Moisture presence is shown to increase the resistivity and also improved its current limiting performance. Additionally, the device has also been studied for electrical resistivity in the temperature range 77 K-300 K. The temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity gives evidence for a transport mechanism based on variable range hopping in three dimensions.

Keywords: Conducting polymer, current limiter, intrinsic, moisture dependence, polyaniline, resettable, surge protection.

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284 SFCL Location Selection Considering Reliability Indices

Authors: Wook-Won Kim, Sung-Yul Kim, Jin-O Kim

Abstract:

The fault current levels through the electric devices have a significant impact on failure probability. New fault current results in exceeding the rated capacity of circuit breaker and switching equipments and changes operation characteristic of overcurrent relay. In order to solve these problems, SFCL (Superconducting Fault Current Limiter) has rising as one of new alternatives so as to improve these problems. A fault current reduction differs depending on installed location. Therefore, a location of SFCL is very important. Also, SFCL decreases the fault current, and it prevents surrounding protective devices to be exposed to fault current, it then will bring a change of reliability. In this paper, we propose method which determines the optimal location when SFCL is installed in power system. In addition, the reliability about the power system which SFCL was installed is evaluated. The efficiency and effectiveness of this method are also shown by numerical examples and the reliability indices are evaluated in this study at each load points. These results show a reliability change of a system when SFCL was installed.

Keywords: Superconducting Fault Current Limiter, OptimalLocation, Reliability

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283 A 0.9 V, High-Speed, Low-Power Tunable Gain Current Mirror

Authors: Hassan Faraji Baghtash

Abstract:

A high-speed current mirror with low-power method of adjusting current gain is presented. The current mirror provides continuous gain adjustment; yet, its gain can simply be programmed digitally, as well. The structure features the ever interesting merits of linear-in-dB gain control scheme and low power/voltage operation. The performance of proposed structure is verified through the simulation in TSMC 0.18 µm CMOS Technology. The proposed tunable gain current mirror structure draws only 18 µW from 0.9 V power supply and can operate at high frequencies up to 550 MHz in the worst case condition of maximum gain setting.

Keywords: Current mirror, current mode, low power, low voltage, tunable circuit, variable current amplifier.

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282 Design of a Hand-Held, Clamp-on, Leakage Current Sensor for High Voltage Direct Current Insulators

Authors: Morné Roman, Robert van Zyl, Nishanth Parus, Nishal Mahatho

Abstract:

Leakage current monitoring for high voltage transmission line insulators is of interest as a performance indicator. Presently, to the best of our knowledge, there is no commercially available, clamp-on type, non-intrusive device for measuring leakage current on energised high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission line insulators. The South African power utility, Eskom, is investigating the development of such a hand-held sensor for two important applications; first, for continuous real-time condition monitoring of HVDC line insulators and, second, for use by live line workers to determine if it is safe to work on energised insulators. In this paper, a DC leakage current sensor based on magnetic field sensing techniques is developed. The magnetic field sensor used in the prototype can also detect alternating current up to 5 MHz. The DC leakage current prototype detects the magnetic field associated with the current flowing on the surface of the insulator. Preliminary HVDC leakage current measurements are performed on glass insulators. The results show that the prototype can accurately measure leakage current in the specified current range of 1-200 mA. The influence of external fields from the HVDC line itself on the leakage current measurements is mitigated through a differential magnetometer sensing technique. Thus, the developed sensor can perform measurements on in-service HVDC insulators. The research contributes to the body of knowledge by providing a sensor to measure leakage current on energised HVDC insulators non-intrusively. This sensor can also be used by live line workers to inform them whether or not it is safe to perform maintenance on energized insulators.

Keywords: Direct current, insulator, leakage current, live line, magnetic field, sensor, transmission lines.

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281 Hydrodynamic Simulation of Co-Current and Counter Current of Column Distillation Using Euler Lagrange Approach

Authors: H. Troudi, M. Ghiss, Z. Tourki, M. Ellejmi

Abstract:

Packed columns of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) consists of separating the liquid mixture of propane and butane to pure gas components by the distillation phenomenon. The flow of the gas and liquid inside the columns is operated by two ways: The co-current and the counter current operation. Heat, mass and species transfer between phases represent the most important factors that influence the choice between those two operations. In this paper, both processes are discussed using computational CFD simulation through ANSYS-Fluent software. Only 3D half section of the packed column was considered with one packed bed. The packed bed was characterized in our case as a porous media. The simulations were carried out at transient state conditions. A multi-component gas and liquid mixture were used out in the two processes. We utilized the Euler-Lagrange approach in which the gas was treated as a continuum phase and the liquid as a group of dispersed particles. The heat and the mass transfer process was modeled using multi-component droplet evaporation approach. The results show that the counter-current process performs better than the co-current, although such limitations of our approach are noted. This comparison gives accurate results for computations times higher than 2 s, at different gas velocity and at packed bed porosity of 0.9.

Keywords: Co-current, counter current, Euler Lagrange model, heat transfer, mass transfer.

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280 Compensation–Based Current Decomposition

Authors: Mihaela Popescu, Alexandru Bitoleanu, Mircea Dobriceanu

Abstract:

This paper deals with the current space-vector decomposition in three-phase, three-wire systems on the basis of some case studies. We propose four components of the current spacevector in terms of DC and AC components of the instantaneous active and reactive powers. The term of supplementary useless current vector is also pointed out. The analysis shows that the current decomposition which respects the definition of the instantaneous apparent power vector is useful for compensation reasons only if the supply voltages are sinusoidal. A modified definition of the components of the current is proposed for the operation under nonsinusoidal voltage conditions.

Keywords: Active current, Active filtering, p–q theory, Reactive current.

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279 A Low Voltage High Performance Self Cascode Current Mirror

Authors: Jasdeep Kaur, Nupur Prakash, S. S. Rajput

Abstract:

A current mirror (CM) based on self cascode MOSFETs low voltage analog and mixed mode structures has been proposed. The proposed CM has high output impedance and can operate at 0.5 V. P-Spice simulations confirm the high performance of this CM with a bandwidth of 6.0 GHz at input current of 100 μA.

Keywords: Current Mirrors, Composite Cascode Structure, Current Source/Sink

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278 Performance Comparison and Analysis of Different Schemes and Limiters

Authors: Wang Wen-long, Li Hua, Pan Sha

Abstract:

Eight difference schemes and five limiters are applied to numerical computation of Riemann problem. The resolution of discontinuities of each scheme produced is compared. Numerical dissipation and its estimation are discussed. The result shows that the numerical dissipation of each scheme is vital to improve scheme-s accuracy and stability. MUSCL methodology is an effective approach to increase computational efficiency and resolution. Limiter should be selected appropriately by balancing compressive and diffusive performance.

Keywords: Scheme; Limiter, Numerical simulation, Riemannproblem.

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277 First Order Filter Based Current-Mode Sinusoidal Oscillators Using Current Differencing Transconductance Amplifiers (CDTAs)

Authors: S. Summart, C. Saetiaw, T. Thosdeekoraphat, C. Thongsopa

Abstract:

This article presents new current-mode oscillator circuits using CDTAs which is designed from block diagram. The proposed circuits consist of two CDTAs and two grounded capacitors. The condition of oscillation and the frequency of oscillation can be adjusted by electronic method. The circuits have high output impedance and use only grounded capacitors without any external resistor which is very appropriate to future development into an integrated circuit. The results of PSPICE simulation program are corresponding to the theoretical analysis.

Keywords: Current-mode, Quadrature Oscillator, Block Diagram, CDTA.

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276 Implementation of Second Order Current- Mode Quadrature Sinusoidal Oscillator with Current Controllability

Authors: Koson Pitaksuttayaprot, Winai Jaikla

Abstract:

The realization of current-mode quadrature oscillators using current controlled current conveyor transconductance amplifiers (CCCCTAs) and grounded capacitors is presented. The proposed oscillators can provide 2 sinusoidal output currents with 90º phase difference. It is enabled non-interactive dual-current control for both the condition of oscillation and the frequency of oscillation. High output impedances of the configurations enable the circuit to be cascaded without additional current buffers. The use of only grounded capacitors is ideal for integration. The circuit performances are depicted through PSpice simulations, they show good agreement to theoretical anticipation.

Keywords: Current-mode, Oscillator, Integrated circuit, CCCCTA.

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275 A Novel Logarithmic Current-Controlled Current Amplifier (LCCA)

Authors: Karama M. AL-Tamimi, Munir A. Al-Absi

Abstract:

A new OTA-based logarithmic-control variable gain current amplifier (LCCA) is presented. It consists of two Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA) and two PMOS transistors biased in weak inversion region. The circuit operates from 0.6V DC power supply and consumes 0.6 μW. The linear-dB controllable output range is 43 dB with maximum error less than 0.5dB. The functionality of the proposed design was confirmed using HSPICE in 0.35μm CMOS process technology.

Keywords: LCCA, OTA, Logarithmic, VGA, Weak inversion, Current-mode

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274 About the Structural Stability of the Model of the Nonelectroneutral Current Sheath

Authors: V.V. Lyahov, V.M. Neshchadim

Abstract:

The structural stability of the model of a nonelectroneutral current sheath is investigated. The stationary model of a current sheath represents the system of four connected nonlinear differential first-order equations and thus they should manifest structural instability property, i.e. sensitivity to the infinitesimal changes of parameters and starting conditions. Domains of existence of the solutions of current sheath type are found. Those solutions of the current sheath type are realized only in some regions of sevendimensional space of parameters of the problem. The phase volume of those regions is small in comparison with the whole phase volume of the definition range of those parameters. It is shown that the offered model of a nonelectroneutral current sheath is applicable for theoretical interpretation of the bifurcational current sheaths observed in the magnetosphere.

Keywords: Distribution function, electromagnetic field, magnetoactive plasma, nonelectroneutral current sheath, structural instability, bifurcational current sheath.

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273 A ±0.5V BiCMOS Class-A Current Conveyor

Authors: Subodh Thankachan, Manisha Pattanaik, S. S. Rajput

Abstract:

In this paper, a new BiCMOS CCII and CCCII, capable of operate at ±0.5V and having wide dynamic range with achieved bandwidth of 480MHz and 430MHz respectively have been proposed. The structures have been found to be insensitive to the threshold voltage variations. The proposed circuits are suitable for implementation using 0.25μm BiCMOS technology. Pspice simulations confirm the performance of the proposed structures.

Keywords: BiCMOS, Current conveyor, Compound current conveyor, Low supply voltage, Threshold voltage variation.

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272 Two Active Elements Based All-Pass Section Suited for Current-Mode Cascading

Authors: J. Mohan, S. Maheshwari

Abstract:

A new circuit topology realizing a first-order currentmode all-pass filter is proposed using two dual-output second generation current conveyor and two passive components. The circuit possesses low-input and high-output impedance, which makes it ideal for current-mode systems. The proposed circuit is verified through PSPICE simulation results.

Keywords: active filter, all-pass filter, current-mode, current conveyor.

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271 A 5-V to 30-V Current-Mode Boost Converter with Integrated Current Sensor and Power-on Protection

Authors: Jun Yu, Yat-Hei Lam, Boris Grinberg, Kevin Chai Tshun Chuan

Abstract:

This paper presents a 5-V to 30-V current-mode boost converter for powering the drive circuit of a micro-electro-mechanical sensor. The design of a transconductance amplifier and an integrated current sensing circuit are presented. In addition, essential building blocks for power-on protection such as a soft-start and clamp block and supply and clock ready block are discussed in details. The chip is fabricated in a 0.18-μm CMOS process. Measurement results show that the soft-start and clamp block can effectively limit the inrush current during startup and protect the boost converter from startup failure.

Keywords: Boost Converter, Current Sensing, Power-on protection, Step-up Converter, Soft-start.

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270 Optimization and Determination of Process Parameters in Thin Film SOI Photo-BJMOSFET

Authors: Hai-Qing Xie, Yun Zeng, Yong-Hong Yan, Guo-Liang Zhang, Tai-Hong Wang

Abstract:

We propose photo-BJMOSFET (Bipolar Junction Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor) fabricated on SOI film. ITO film is adopted in the device as gate electrode to reduce light absorption. I-V characteristics of photo-BJMOSFET obtained in dark (dark current) and under 570nm illumination (photo current) are studied furthermore to achieve high photo-to-dark-current contrast ratio. Two variables in the calculation were the channel length and the thickness of the film which were set equal to six different values, i.e., L=2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12μm and three different values, i.e., dsi =100, 200 and 300nm, respectively. The results indicate that the greatest photo-to-dark-current contrast ratio is achieved with L=10μm and dsi=200 nm at VGK=0.6V.

Keywords: Photo-to-dark-current contrast ratio, Photo-current, Dark-current, Process parameter

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269 High-performance Second-Generation Controlled Current Conveyor CCCII and High Frequency Applications

Authors: Néjib Hassen, Thouraya Ettaghzouti, Kamel Besbes

Abstract:

In this paper, a modified CCCII is presented. We have used a current mirror with low supply voltage. This circuit is operated at low supply voltage of ±1V. Tspice simulations for TSMC 0.18μm CMOS Technology has shown that the current and voltage bandwidth are respectively 3.34GHz and 4.37GHz, and parasitic resistance at port X has a value of 169.320 for a control current of 120μA. In order to realize this circuit, we have implemented in this first step a universal current mode filter where the frequency can reach the 134.58MHz. In the second step, we have implemented two simulated inductors: one floating and the other grounded. These two inductors are operated in high frequency and variable depending on bias current I0. Finally, we have used the two last inductors respectively to implement two sinusoidal oscillators domains of frequencies respectively: [470MHz, 692MHz], and [358MHz, 572MHz] for bias currents I0 [80μA, 350μA].

Keywords: Current controlled current conveyor CCCII, floating inductor, grounded inductor, oscillator, universal filter.

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268 Current-Mode Resistorless SIMO Universal Filter and Four-Phase Quadrature Oscillator

Authors: Jie Jin

Abstract:

In this paper, a new CMOS current-mode single input and multi-outputs (SIMO) universal filter and quadrature oscillator with a similar circuit are proposed. The circuits only consist of three Current differencing transconductance amplifiers (CDTA) and two grounded capacitors, which are resistorless, and they are suitable for monolithic integration. The universal filter uses minimum CDTAs and passive elements to realize SIMO type low-pass (LP), high-pass (HP), band-pass (BP) band-stop (BS) and all-pass (AP) filter functions simultaneously without any component matching conditions. The angular frequency (ω0) and the quality factor (Q) of the proposed filter can be electronically controlled and tuned orthogonal. By some modifications of the filter, a new current-mode four-phase quadrature oscillator (QO) can be obtained easily. The condition of oscillation (CO) and frequency of oscillation (FO) of the QO can be controlled electronically and independently through the bias current of the CDTAs, and it is suitable for variable frequency oscillator. Moreover, all the passive and active sensitivities of the circuits are low. SPICE simulation results are included to confirm the theory.

Keywords: Universal Filter, Quadrature Oscillator, Current mode, Current differencing transconductance amplifiers.

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267 The Comparison Study of Current Control Techniques for Active Power Filters

Authors: T. Narongrit, K-L. Areerak, K-N. Areerak

Abstract:

This paper presents the comparison study of current control techniques for shunt active power filter. The hysteresis current control, the delta modulation control and the carrier-based PWM control are considered in the paper. The synchronous detection method is used to calculate the reference currents for shunt active power filter. The simulation results show that the carrier-based PWM control technique provides the minimum %THD value of the source currents compared with other comparable techniques after compensation. However, the %THD values of all three techniques can follow the IEEE std.519-1992.

Keywords: hysteresis current control, delta modulation current control, pulse width modulation control, shunt active power filter, synchronous detection.

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266 3 State Current Mode of a Grid Connected PV Converter

Authors: Attila Balogh, Eszter Varga, István Varjasi

Abstract:

Nowadays in applications of renewable energy sources it is important to develop powerful and energy-saving photovoltaic converters and to keep the prescriptions of the standards. In grid connected PV converters the obvious solution to increase the efficiency is to reduce the switching losses. Our new developed control method reduces the switching losses and keeps the limitations of the harmonic distortion standards. The base idea of the method is the utilization of 3-state control causing discontinuous current mode at low input power. In the following sections the control theory, the realizations and the simulation results are presented.

Keywords: Discontinuous current, high efficiency, PVconverter, control method.

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265 Determinants of the U.S. Current Account

Authors: Shuh Liang

Abstract:

This article provides empirical evidence on the effect of domestic and international factors on the U.S. current account deficit. Linear dynamic regression and vector autoregression models are employed to estimate the relationships during the period from 1986 to 2011. The findings of this study suggest that the current and lagged private saving rate and foreign current account for East Asian economies have played a vital role in affecting the U.S. current account. Additionally, using Granger causality tests and variance decompositions, the change of the productivity growth and foreign domestic demand are determined to influence significantly the change of the U.S. current account. To summarize, the empirical relationship between the U.S. current account deficit and its determinants is sensitive to alternative regression models and specifications.

Keywords: Current account deficit, productivity growth, foreign demand, vector autoregression.

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264 Analysis of Direct Current Motor in LabVIEW

Authors: E. Ramprasath, P. Manojkumar, P. Veena

Abstract:

DC motors have been widely used in the past centuries which are proudly known as the workhorse of industrial systems until the invention of the AC induction motors which makes a huge revolution in industries. Since then, the use of DC machines has been decreased due to enormous factors such as reliability, robustness and complexity but it lost its fame due to the losses. In this paper a new methodology is proposed to construct a DC motor through the simulation in LabVIEW to get an idea about its real time performances, if a change in parameter might have bigger improvement in losses and reliability.

Keywords: Direct Current motor, LabVIEW software, modelling and analysis, overall characteristics of Direct Current motor.

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263 Fuzzy Logic Controller Based Shunt Active Filter with Different MFs for Current Harmonics Elimination

Authors: Shreyash Sinai Kunde, Siddhang Tendulkar, Shiv Prakash Gupta, Gaurav Kumar, Suresh Mikkili

Abstract:

One of the major power quality concerns in modern times is the problem of current harmonics. The current harmonics is caused due to the increase in non-linear loads which is largely dominated by power electronics devices. The Shunt active filtering is one of the best solutions for mitigating current harmonics. This paper describes a fuzzy logic controller based (FLC) based three Phase Shunt active Filter to achieve low current harmonic distortion (THD) and Reactive power compensation. The performance of fuzzy logic controller is analysed under both balanced sinusoidal and unbalanced sinusoidal source condition. The above controller serves the purpose of maintaining DC Capacitor Voltage constant. The proposed shunt active filter uses hysteresis current controller for current control of IGBT based PWM inverter. The simulation results of model in Simulink MATLAB reveals satisfying results.

Keywords: Shunt active filter, Current harmonics, Fuzzy logic controller, Hysteresis current controller.

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262 Analysis of Current Mirror in 32nm MOSFET and CNTFET Technologies

Authors: Mohini Polimetla, Rajat Mahapatra

Abstract:

There is need to explore emerging technologies based on carbon nanotube electronics as the MOS technology is approaching its limits. As MOS devices scale to the nano ranges, increased short channel effects and process variations considerably effect device and circuit designs. As a promising new transistor, the Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistor(CNTFET) avoids most of the fundamental limitations of the Traditional MOSFET devices. In this paper we present the analysis and comparision of a Carbon Nanotube FET(CNTFET) based 10(A current mirror with MOSFET for 32nm technology node. The comparision shows the superiority of the former in terms of 97% increase in output resistance,24% decrease in power dissipation and 40% decrease in minimum voltage required for constant saturation current. Furthermore the effect on performance of current mirror due to change in chirality vector of CNT has also been investigated. The circuit simulations are carried out using HSPICE model.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistor, Chirality Vector, Current Mirror

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261 Evaluating the Capability of the Flux-Limiter Schemes in Capturing the Turbulence Structures in a Fully Developed Channel Flow

Authors: Mohamed Elghorab, Vendra C. Madhav Rao, Jennifer X. Wen

Abstract:

Turbulence modelling is still evolving, and efforts are on to improve and develop numerical methods to simulate the real turbulence structures by using the empirical and experimental information. The monotonically integrated large eddy simulation (MILES) is an attractive approach for modelling turbulence in high Re flows, which is based on the solving of the unfiltered flow equations with no explicit sub-grid scale (SGS) model. In the current work, this approach has been used, and the action of the SGS model has been included implicitly by intrinsic nonlinear high-frequency filters built into the convection discretization schemes. The MILES solver is developed using the opensource CFD OpenFOAM libraries. The role of flux limiters schemes namely, Gamma, superBee, van-Albada and van-Leer, is studied in predicting turbulent statistical quantities for a fully developed channel flow with a friction Reynolds number, ReT = 180, and compared the numerical predictions with the well-established Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) results for studying the wall generated turbulence. It is inferred from the numerical predictions that Gamma, van-Leer and van-Albada limiters produced more diffusion and overpredicted the velocity profiles, while superBee scheme reproduced velocity profiles and turbulence statistical quantities in good agreement with the reference DNS data in the streamwise direction although it deviated slightly in the spanwise and normal to the wall directions. The simulation results are further discussed in terms of the turbulence intensities and Reynolds stresses averaged in time and space to draw conclusion on the flux limiter schemes performance in OpenFOAM context.

Keywords: Flux limiters, MILES, OpenFOAM, turbulence structures, TVD schemes.

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260 Design and Analysis of a Piezoelectric-Based AC Current Measuring Sensor

Authors: Easa Ali Abbasi, Akbar Allahverdizadeh, Reza Jahangiri, Behnam Dadashzadeh

Abstract:

Electrical current measurement is a suitable method for the performance determination of electrical devices. There are two contact and noncontact methods in this measuring process. Contact method has some disadvantages like having direct connection with wire which may endamage the system. Thus, in this paper, a bimorph piezoelectric cantilever beam which has a permanent magnet on its free end is used to measure electrical current in a noncontact way. In mathematical modeling, based on Galerkin method, the governing equation of the cantilever beam is solved, and the equation presenting the relation between applied force and beam’s output voltage is presented. Magnetic force resulting from current carrying wire is considered as the external excitation force of the system. The results are compared with other references in order to demonstrate the accuracy of the mathematical model. Finally, the effects of geometric parameters on the output voltage and natural frequency are presented.

Keywords: Cantilever beam, electrical current measurement, forced excitation, piezoelectric.

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259 Current Controlled Current Conveyor (CCCII)and Application using 65nm CMOS Technology

Authors: Zia Abbas, Giuseppe Scotti, Mauro Olivieri

Abstract:

Current mode circuits like current conveyors are getting significant attention in current analog ICs design due to their higher band-width, greater linearity, larger dynamic range, simpler circuitry, lower power consumption and less chip area. The second generation current controlled conveyor (CCCII) has the advantage of electronic adjustability over the CCII i.e. in CCCII; adjustment of the X-terminal intrinsic resistance via a bias current is possible. The presented approach is based on the CMOS implementation of second generation positive (CCCII+), negative (CCCII-) and dual Output Current Controlled Conveyor (DOCCCII) and its application as Universal filter. All the circuits have been designed and simulated using 65nm CMOS technology model parameters on Cadence Virtuoso / Spectre using 1V supply voltage. Various simulations have been carried out to verify the linearity between output and input ports, range of operation frequency, etc. The outcomes show good agreement between expected and experimental results.

Keywords: CCCII+, CCCII-, DOCCCII, Electronic tunability, Universal filter

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258 A High-Frequency Low-Power Low-Pass-Filter-Based All-Current-Mirror Sinusoidal Quadrature Oscillator

Authors: A. Leelasantitham, B. Srisuchinwong

Abstract:

A high-frequency low-power sinusoidal quadrature oscillator is presented through the use of two 2nd-order low-pass current-mirror (CM)-based filters, a 1st-order CM low-pass filter and a CM bilinear transfer function. The technique is relatively simple based on (i) inherent time constants of current mirrors, i.e. the internal capacitances and the transconductance of a diode-connected NMOS, (ii) a simple negative resistance RN formed by a resistor load RL of a current mirror. Neither external capacitances nor inductances are required. As a particular example, a 1.9-GHz, 0.45-mW, 2-V CMOS low-pass-filter-based all-current-mirror sinusoidal quadrature oscillator is demonstrated. The oscillation frequency (f0) is 1.9 GHz and is current-tunable over a range of 370 MHz or 21.6 %. The power consumption is at approximately 0.45 mW. The amplitude matching and the quadrature phase matching are better than 0.05 dB and 0.15°, respectively. Total harmonic distortions (THD) are less than 0.3 %. At 2 MHz offset from the 1.9 GHz, the carrier to noise ratio (CNR) is 90.01 dBc/Hz whilst the figure of merit called a normalized carrier-to-noise ratio (CNRnorm) is 153.03 dBc/Hz. The ratio of the oscillation frequency (f0) to the unity-gain frequency (fT) of a transistor is 0.25. Comparisons to other approaches are also included.

Keywords: Sinusoidal quadrature oscillator, low-pass-filterbased, current-mirror bilinear transfer function, all-current-mirror, negative resistance, low power, high frequency, low distortion.

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