Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 250

Search results for: critical infrastructure

70 Study of Effective Moisture Diffusivity of Oak Acorn

Authors: Habibeh Nalbandi, Sadegh Seiiedlou, Hamid R. Ghasemzadeh, Naser Hamdami

Abstract:

The purpose of present work was to study the drying kinetics of whole acorn and its kernel at different drying air temperatures and their effective moisture diffusivity. The results indicated that the drying time of whole acorn was 442, 206 and 188 min at the air temperature of 65, 75 and 85ºC, respectively. At the same temperatures, the drying time of kernel was 131, 56 and 76min. The results showed that the effect of drying air temperature increasing on the drying time reduction could not be significant on acorn drying at all conditions. The effective moisture diffusivity of whole acorn and kernel increased with increasing air temperature from 65 to 75ºC. However more air temperature increasing, led to decreasing this property of acorn kernel. The critical temperature of acorn drying was about 75°C in which acorn kernel had the highest effective moisture diffusivity.

Keywords: Critical temperature, Drying kinetics, Moisture diffusivity, Oak acorn.

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69 An Energy Efficient Algorithm for Distributed Mutual Exclusion in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

Authors: Sayani Sil, Sukanta Das

Abstract:

This paper reports a distributed mutual exclusion algorithm for mobile Ad-hoc networks. The network is clustered hierarchically. The proposed algorithm considers the clustered network as a logical tree and develops a token passing scheme to get the mutual exclusion. The performance analysis and simulation results show that its message requirement is optimal, and thus the algorithm is energy efficient.

Keywords: Critical section, Distributed mutual exclusion, MobileAd-hoc network, Token-based algorithms.

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68 Hot Deformability of Si-Steel Strips Containing Al

Authors: Mohamed Yousef, Magdy Samuel, Maha El-Meligy, Taher El-Bitar

Abstract:

The present work is dealing with 2% Si-steel alloy. The alloy contains 0.05% C as well as 0.85% Al. The alloy under investigation would be used for electrical transformation purposes. A heating (expansion) - cooling (contraction) dilation investigation was executed to detect the a, a+g, and g transformation temperatures at the inflection points of the dilation curve. On heating, primary a  was detected at a temperature range between room temperature and 687 oC. The domain of a+g was detected in the range between 687 oC and 746 oC. g phase exists in the closed g region at the range between 746 oC and 1043 oC. The domain of a phase appears again at a temperature range between 1043 and 1105 oC, and followed by secondary a at temperature higher than 1105 oC. A physical simulation of thermo-mechanical processing on the as-cast alloy was carried out. The simulation process took into consideration the hot flat rolling pilot plant parameters. The process was executed on the thermo-mechanical simulator (Gleeble 3500). The process was designed to include seven consecutive passes. The 1st pass represents the roughing stage, while the remaining six passes represent finish rolling stage. The whole process was executed at the temperature range from 1100 oC to 900 oC. The amount of strain starts with 23.5% at the roughing pass and decreases continuously to reach 7.5 % at the last finishing pass. The flow curve of the alloy can be abstracted from the stress-strain curves representing simulated passes. It shows alloy hardening from a pass to the other up to pass no. 6, as a result of decreasing the deformation temperature and increasing of cumulative strain. After pass no. 6, the deformation process enhances the dynamic recrystallization phenomena to appear, where the z-parameter would be high.

Keywords: Si-steel, hot deformability, critical transformation temperature, physical simulation, thermo-mechanical processing, flow curve, dynamic softening.

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67 Q-Test of Undergraduate Epistemology and Scientific Thought: Development and Testing of an Assessment of Scientific Epistemology

Authors: Matthew J. Zagumny

Abstract:

The QUEST is an assessment of scientific epistemic beliefs and was developed to measure students’ intellectual development in regards to beliefs about knowledge and knowing. The QUEST utilizes Q-sort methodology, which requires participants to rate the degree to which statements describe them personally. As a measure of personal theories of knowledge, the QUEST instrument is described with the Q-sort distribution and scoring explained. A preliminary demonstration of the QUEST assessment is described with two samples of undergraduate students (novice/lower division compared to advanced/upper division students) being assessed and their average QUEST scores compared. The usefulness of an assessment of epistemology is discussed in terms of the principle that assessment tends to drive educational practice and university mission. The critical need for university and academic programs to focus on development of students’ scientific epistemology is briefly discussed.

Keywords: Scientific epistemology, critical thinking, Q-sort method, STEM undergraduates.

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66 Perturbed-Chain Statistical Association Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT) Parameters for Propane, Ethylene, and Hydrogen under Supercritical Conditions

Authors: Ilke Senol

Abstract:

Perturbed-Chain Statistical Association Fluid Theory (PC-SAFT) equation of state (EOS) is a modified SAFT EOS with three pure component specific parameters: segment number (m), diameter (σ) and energy (ε). These PC-SAFT parameters need to be determined for each component under the conditions of interest by fitting experimental data, such as vapor pressure, density or heat capacity. PC-SAFT parameters for propane, ethylene and hydrogen in supercritical region were successfully estimated by fitting experimental density data available in literature. The regressed PCSAFT parameters were compared with the literature values by means of estimating pure component density and calculating average absolute deviation between the estimated and experimental density values. PC-SAFT parameters available in literature especially for ethylene and hydrogen estimated density in supercritical region reasonably well. However, the regressed PC-SAFT parameters performed better in supercritical region than the PC-SAFT parameters from literature.

Keywords: Equation of state, perturbed-chain, PC-SAFT, super critical.

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65 On the Design of Electronic Control Unitsfor the Safety-Critical Vehicle Applications

Authors: Kyung-Jung Lee, Hyun-Sik Ahn

Abstract:

This paper suggests a design methodology for the hardware and software of the electronic control unit (ECU) of safety-critical vehicle applications such as braking and steering. The architecture of the hardware is a high integrity system such thatit incorporates a high performance 32-bit CPU and a separate peripheral controlprocessor (PCP) together with an external watchdog CPU. Communication between the main CPU and the PCP is executed via a common area of RAM and events on either processor which are invoked by interrupts. Safety-related software is also implemented to provide a reliable, self-testing computing environment for safety critical and high integrity applications. The validity of the design approach is shown by using the hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS)for electric power steering(EPS) systemswhich consists of the EPS mechanism, the designed ECU, and monitoring tools.

Keywords: Electronic control unit, electric power steering, functional safety, hardware-in-the-loop simulation.

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64 Comparative Study of Sub-Critical and Supercritical ORC Applications for Exhaust Waste Heat Recovery

Authors: Buket Boz, Alvaro Diez

Abstract:

Waste heat recovery by means of Organic Rankine Cycle is a promising technology for the recovery of engine exhaust heat. However, it is complex to find out the optimum cycle conditions with appropriate working fluids to match exhaust gas waste heat due to its high temperature. Hence, this paper focuses on comparing sub-critical and supercritical ORC conditions with eight working fluids on a combined diesel engine-ORC system. The model employs two ORC designs, Regenerative-ORC and Pre-Heating-Regenerative-ORC respectively. The thermodynamic calculations rely on the first and second law of thermodynamics, thermal efficiency and exergy destruction factors are the fundamental parameters evaluated. Additionally, in this study, environmental and safety, GWP (Global Warming Potential) and ODP (Ozone Depletion Potential), characteristic of the refrigerants are taken into consideration as evaluation criteria to define the optimal ORC configuration and conditions. Consequently, the studys outcomes reveal that supercritical ORCs with alkane and siloxane are more suitable for high temperature exhaust waste heat recovery in contrast to sub-critical conditions.

Keywords: Internal combustion engine, organic rankine cycle, waste heat recovery, working fluids.

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63 Critical Psychosocial Risk Treatment for Engineers and Technicians

Authors: R. Berglund, T. Backström, M. Bellgran

Abstract:

This study explores how management addresses psychosocial risks in seven teams of engineers and technicians in the midst of the fourth industrial revolution. The sample is from an ongoing quasi-experiment about psychosocial risk management in a manufacturing company in Sweden. Each of the seven teams belongs to one of two clusters: a positive cluster or a negative cluster. The positive cluster reports a significantly positive change in psychosocial risk levels between two time-points and the negative cluster reports a significantly negative change. The data are collected using semi-structured interviews. The results of the computer aided thematic analysis show that there are more differences than similarities when comparing the risk treatment actions taken between the two clusters. Findings show that the managers in the positive cluster use more enabling actions that foster and support formal and informal relationship building. In contrast, managers that use less enabling actions hinder the development of positive group processes and contribute negative changes in psychosocial risk levels. This exploratory study sheds some light on how management can influence significant positive and negative changes in psychosocial risk levels during a risk management process.

Keywords: Group process model, risk treatment, risk management, psychosocial.

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62 Different Multimedia Presentation Types and Students' Interpretation Achievement

Authors: Cenk Akbiyik, Gonul Altin Akbiyik

Abstract:

The main purpose of the study was to determine whether students- interpretation achievement differed with the use of various multimedia presentation types. Four groups of students, text only (T), audio only (A), text and audio (TA), text and image (TI), were arranged and they were presented the same story via different types of multimedia presentations. Inference achievement was measured by a critical thinking inference test. Higher mean scores for the TA group compared to the other three groups were found. Also when compared pairwise, interpretation achievement of the TA group differed significantly from scores of the T and TI groups. These differences were interpreted with the increased cognitive load. Increased cognitive load for the TA group may have invited students to put more effort into comprehending the text, thus resulting in better test scores. Findings of the study can be seen as a sign of the importance of learning situations and learning outcomes in multimedia-supported learning environments and may have practical benefits for instructional designers.

Keywords: Multimedia, cognitive multimedia, dual coding, cognitive load, critical thinking.

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61 Critical Approach to Define the Architectural Structure of a Health Prototype in a Rural Area of Brazil

Authors: Domenico Chizzoniti, Monica Moscatelli, Letizia Cattani, Luca Preis

Abstract:

A primary healthcare facility in developing countries should be a multifunctional space able to respond to different requirements: Flexibility, modularity, aggregation and reversibility. These basic features could be better satisfied if applied to an architectural artifact that complies with the typological, figurative and constructive aspects of the context in which it is located. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to identify a procedure that can define the figurative aspects of the architectural structure of the health prototype for the marginal areas of developing countries through a critical approach. The application context is the rural areas of the Northeast of Bahia in Brazil. The prototype should be located in the rural district of Quingoma, in the municipality of Lauro de Freitas, a particular place where there is still a cultural fusion of black and indigenous populations. Based on the historical analysis of settlement strategies and architectural structures in spaces of public interest or collective use, this paper aims to provide a procedure able to identify the categories and rules underlying typological and figurative aspects, in order to detect significant and generalizable elements, as well as materials and constructive techniques typically adopted in the rural areas of Brazil. The object of this work is therefore not only the recovery of certain constructive approaches but also the development of a procedure that integrates the requirements of the primary healthcare prototype with its surrounding economic, social, cultural, settlement and figurative conditions.

Keywords: Architectural typology, Developing countries, Local construction techniques, Primary health care.

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60 Critical Assessment of Scoring Schemes for Protein-Protein Docking Predictions

Authors: Dhananjay C. Joshi, Jung-Hsin Lin

Abstract:

Protein-protein interactions (PPI) play a crucial role in many biological processes such as cell signalling, transcription, translation, replication, signal transduction, and drug targeting, etc. Structural information about protein-protein interaction is essential for understanding the molecular mechanisms of these processes. Structures of protein-protein complexes are still difficult to obtain by biophysical methods such as NMR and X-ray crystallography, and therefore protein-protein docking computation is considered an important approach for understanding protein-protein interactions. However, reliable prediction of the protein-protein complexes is still under way. In the past decades, several grid-based docking algorithms based on the Katchalski-Katzir scoring scheme were developed, e.g., FTDock, ZDOCK, HADDOCK, RosettaDock, HEX, etc. However, the success rate of protein-protein docking prediction is still far from ideal. In this work, we first propose a more practical measure for evaluating the success of protein-protein docking predictions,the rate of first success (RFS), which is similar to the concept of mean first passage time (MFPT). Accordingly, we have assessed the ZDOCK bound and unbound benchmarks 2.0 and 3.0. We also createda new benchmark set for protein-protein docking predictions, in which the complexes have experimentally determined binding affinity data. We performed free energy calculation based on the solution of non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann equation (nlPBE) to improve the binding mode prediction. We used the well-studied thebarnase-barstarsystem to validate the parameters for free energy calculations. Besides,thenlPBE-based free energy calculations were conducted for the badly predicted cases by ZDOCK and ZRANK. We found that direct molecular mechanics energetics cannot be used to discriminate the native binding pose from the decoys.Our results indicate that nlPBE-based calculations appeared to be one of the promising approaches for improving the success rate of binding pose predictions.

Keywords: protein-protein docking, protein-protein interaction, molecular mechanics energetics, Poisson-Boltzmann calculations

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59 A Comparative Understanding of Critical Problems Faced by Pakistani and Indian Transportation Industry

Authors: Saleh Abduallah Saleh, Mohammad Basir Bin Saud, Mohd Azwardi Md Isa

Abstract:

It is very important for a developing nation to developing their infrastructure on the prime priority because their infrastructure particularly their roads and transportation functions as a blood in the system. Almost 1.1 billion populations share the travel and transportation industry in India. On the other hand, the Pakistan transportation industry is also extensive and elevating about 170 million users of transportation. Indian and Pakistani specifically within bus industry are well connected within and between the urban and rural areas. The transportation industry is radically helping the economic alleviation of both countries. Due to high economic instability, unemployment and poverty rate both countries governments are very serious and committed to help for boosting their economy. They believe that any form of transportation development would play a vital role in the development of land, infrastructure which could indirectly support many other industries’ developments, such as tourism, freighting and shipping businesses, just to mention a few. However, it seems that their previous transportation planning in the due course has failed to meet the fast growing demand. As with the span of time, both the countries are looking forward to a long-term, and economical solutions, because the demand is from time to time keep appreciating and reacting according to other key economic drivers. Content analysis method and case study approach is used in this paper and secondary data from the bureau of statistic is used for case analysis. The paper focused on the mobility concerns of the lower and middle-income people in India and Pakistan. The paper is aimed to highlight the weaknesses, opportunities and limitations resulting from low priority industry for a government, which is making the either country's public suffer. The paper has concluded that the main issue is identified as the slow, inappropriate, and unfavorable decisions which are not in favor of long-term country’s economic development and public interest. The paper also recommends to future research avenues for public and private transportation, which is continuously failing to meet the public expectations.

Keywords: Bus transportation industries, transportation demand, government parallel initiatives, road and traffic congestions.

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58 A New Approach for Prioritization of Failure Modes in Design FMEA using ANOVA

Authors: Sellappan Narayanagounder, Karuppusami Gurusami

Abstract:

The traditional Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) uses Risk Priority Number (RPN) to evaluate the risk level of a component or process. The RPN index is determined by calculating the product of severity, occurrence and detection indexes. The most critically debated disadvantage of this approach is that various sets of these three indexes may produce an identical value of RPN. This research paper seeks to address the drawbacks in traditional FMEA and to propose a new approach to overcome these shortcomings. The Risk Priority Code (RPC) is used to prioritize failure modes, when two or more failure modes have the same RPN. A new method is proposed to prioritize failure modes, when there is a disagreement in ranking scale for severity, occurrence and detection. An Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is used to compare means of RPN values. SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) statistical analysis package is used to analyze the data. The results presented are based on two case studies. It is found that the proposed new methodology/approach resolves the limitations of traditional FMEA approach.

Keywords: Failure mode and effects analysis, Risk priority code, Critical failure mode, Analysis of variance.

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57 Anodic Growth of Highly Ordered Titanium Oxide Nanotube Arrays: Effects of Critical Anodization Factors on their Photocatalytic Activity

Authors: Chin-Jung Lin, Yi-Hsien Yu, Szu-Ying Chen, Ya-Hsuan Liou

Abstract:

Highly ordered arrays of TiO2 nanotubes (TiNTs) were grown vertically on Ti foil by electrochemical anodization. We controlled the lengths of these TiNTs from 2.4 to 26.8 ¶üÇóμm while varying the water contents (1, 3, and 6 wt%) of the electrolyte in ethylene glycol in the presence of 0.5 wt% NH4F with anodization for various applied voltages (20–80 V), periods (10–240 min) and temperatures (10–30 oC). For vertically aligned TiNT arrays, not only the increase in their tube lengths, but also their geometric (wall thickness and surface roughness) and crystalline structure lead to a significant influence on photocatalytic activity. The length optimization for methylene blue (MB) photodegradation was 18 μm. Further extending the TiNT length yielded lower photocatalytic activity presumably related to the limited MB diffusion and light-penetration depth into the TiNT arrays. The results indicated that a maximum MB photodegradation rate was obtained for the discrete anatase TiO2 nanotubes with thick and rough walls.

Keywords: Anodic oxidation, nanotube, photocatalytic, TiO2.

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56 An Innovative Approach to Improve Skills of Students in Qatar University Spending in Virtual Class through Learning Management System

Authors: Mohammad Shahid Jamil, Mohamed Chabi

Abstract:

In this study, students’ learning has been investigated and satisfaction in one of the course offered at Qatar University Foundation Program. Innovative teaching has been implied methodology that emphasizes on enhancing students’ thinking skills, decision making, and problem solving skills. Some interesting results were found which could be used to further improvement of the teaching methodology. In Fall 2012 in Foundation Program Math department at Qatar University has started implementing new ways of teaching Math by introducing MyMathLab (MML) as an innovative interactive tool in addition of the use Blackboard to support standard teaching such as Discussion board in Virtual class to engage students outside of classroom and to enhance independent, active learning that promote students’ critical thinking skills, decision making, and problem solving skills through the learning process.

Keywords: Blackboard, MyMathLab, study plan, discussion board, critical thinking, active and independent learning, problem solving.

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55 The Role of Blended Modality in Enhancing Active Learning Strategies in Higher Education: A Case Study of a Hybrid Course of Oral Production and Listening of French

Authors: Tharwat N. Hijjawi

Abstract:

Learning oral skills in an Arabic speaking environment is challenging. A blended course (material, activities, and individual/ group work tasks …) was implemented in a module of level B1 for undergraduate students of French as a foreign language in order to increase their opportunities to practice listening and speaking skills. This research investigates the influence of this modality on enhancing active learning and examines the effectiveness of provided strategies. Moreover, it aims at discovering how it allows teacher to flip the traditional classroom and create a learner-centered framework. Which approaches were integrated to motivate students and urge them to search, analyze, criticize, create and accomplish projects? What was the perception of students? This paper is based on the qualitative findings of a questionnaire and a focus group interview with learners. Despite the doubled time and effort both “teacher” and “student” needed, results revealed that the NTIC allowed a shift into a learning paradigm where learners were the “chiefs” of the process. Tasks and collaborative projects required higher intellectual capacities from them. Learners appreciated this experience and developed new life-long learning competencies at many levels: social, affective, ethical and cognitive. To conclude, they defined themselves as motivated young researchers, motivators and critical thinkers.

Keywords: Active learning, critical thinking, inverted classroom, learning paradigm, problem-based.

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54 Bending Gradient Coefficient Correction for I-Beams

Authors: H. R. Kazemi Nia, A. Yeganeh Fallah

Abstract:

Without uncertainty by applying external loads on beams, bending is created. The created bending in I-beams, puts one of the flanges in tension and the other one in compression. With increasing of bending, compression flange buckled and beam in out of its plane direction twisted, this twisting well-known as Lateral Torsional Buckling. Providing bending moment varieties along the beam, the critical moment is greater than the case its under pure bending. In other words, the value of bending gradient coefficient is always greater than unite. In this article by the use of " ANSYS 10.0" software near 80 3-D finite element models developed for the propose of analyzing beams` lateral torsional buckling and surveying influence of slenderness on beams' bending gradient coefficient. Results show that, presented Cb coefficient via AISC is not correct for some of beams and value of this coefficient is smaller than what proposed by AISC. Therefore instead of using a constant Cb for each case of loading , a function with two criterion for calculation of Cb coefficient for some cases is proposed.

Keywords: Beams critical moment, Bending Gradient Coefficient, finite element, Lateral Torsional Buckling

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53 A Critical Study of Media Profiling on Society-s Social Problems from a British Perspective

Authors: Cj Gletus Matthews Cn Jacobs, Kogilah Narayanasamy

Abstract:

This article explores the sociological perspectives on social problems and the role of the media which has a delicate role to tread in balancing its duty to the public and the victim Whilst social problems have objective conditions, it is the subjective definition of such problems that ensure which social problem comes to the fore and which doesn-t. Further it explores the roles and functions of policymakers when addressing social problems and the impact of the inception of media profiling as well as the advantages and disadvantages of media profiling towards social problems. It focuses on the inception of media profiling due to its length and a follow up article will explore how current media profiling towards social problems have evolved since its inception.

Keywords: Media Profiling, Policy Response, Social Problems

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52 Deep Learning and Virtual Environment

Authors: Danielle Morin, Jennifer D.E.Thomas, Raafat G. Saade

Abstract:

While computers are known to facilitate lower levels of learning, such as rote memorization of facts, measurable through electronically administered and graded multiple-choice questions, yes/no, and true/false answers, the imparting and measurement of higher-level cognitive skills is more vexing. These require more open-ended delivery and answers, and may be more problematic in an entirely virtual environment, notwithstanding the advances in technologies such as wikis, blogs, discussion boards, etc. As with the integration of all technology, merit is based more on the instructional design of the course than on the technology employed in, and of, itself. With this in mind, this study examined the perceptions of online students in an introductory Computer Information Systems course regarding the fostering of various higher-order thinking and team-building skills as a result of the activities, resources and technologies (ART) used in the course.

Keywords: Critical thinking, deep learning, distance learning, elearning, online learning, virtual environments.

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51 Bi-Directional Evolutionary Topology Optimization Based on Critical Fatigue Constraint

Authors: Khodamorad Nabaki, Jianhu Shen, Xiaodong Huang

Abstract:

This paper develops a method for considering the critical fatigue stress as a constraint in the Bi-directional Evolutionary Structural Optimization (BESO) method. Our aim is to reach an optimal design in which high cycle fatigue failure does not occur for a specific life time. The critical fatigue stress is calculated based on modified Goodman criteria and used as a stress constraint in our topology optimization problem. Since fatigue generally does not occur for compressive stresses, we use the p-norm approach of the stress measurement that considers the highest tensile principal stress in each point as stress measure to calculate the sensitivity numbers. The BESO method has been extended to minimize volume an object subjected to the critical fatigue stress constraint. The optimization results are compared with the results from the compliance minimization problem which shows clearly the merits of our newly developed approach.

Keywords: Topology optimization, BESO method, p-norm, fatigue constraint.

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50 Development of Performance Measures for the Implementation of Total Quality Management in Indian Industry

Authors: Perminderjit Singh, Sukhvir Singh

Abstract:

Total Quality Management (TQM) refers to management methods used to enhance quality and productivity in business organizations. Total Quality Management (TQM) has become a frequently used term in discussions concerning quality. Total Quality management has brought rise in demands on the organizations policy and the customers have gained more importance in the organizations focus. TQM is considered as an important management tool, which helps the organizations to satisfy their customers. In present research critical success factors includes management commitment, customer satisfaction, continuous improvement, work culture and environment, supplier quality management, training and development, employee satisfaction and product/process design are studied. A questionnaire is developed to implement these critical success factors in implementation of total quality management in Indian industry. Questionnaires filled by consulting different industrial organizations. Data collected from questionnaires is analyzed by descriptive and importance indexes. 

Keywords: Total quality management, critical success factor, employee satisfaction.

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49 Thermo-Sensitive Hydrogel: Control of Hydrophilic-Hydrophobic Transition

Authors: Wanwipa Siriwatwechakul, Nutte Teraphongphom, Vatcharani Ngaotheppitak, Sureeporn Kunataned

Abstract:

The study investigated the hydrophilic to hydrophobic transition of modified polyacrylamide hydrogel with the inclusion of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIAM). The modification was done by mimicking micellar polymerization, which resulted in better arrangement of NIAM chains in the polyacrylamide network. The degree of NIAM arrangement is described by NH number. The hydrophilic to hydrophobic transition was measured through the partition coefficient, K, of Orange II and Methylene Blue in hydrogel and in water. These dyes were chosen as a model for solutes with different degree of hydrophobicity. The study showed that the hydrogel with higher NH values resulted in better solubility of both dyes. Moreover, in temperature above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIAM)also caused the collapse of NIPAM chains which results in a more hydrophobic environment that increases the solubility of Methylene Blue and decreases the solubility of Orange II in the hydrogels with NIPAM present.

Keywords: Thermo-sensitive hydrogel, partition coefficient, the lower critical solution temperature (LCST), micellar polymerization.

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48 Direct Transient Stability Assessment of Stressed Power Systems

Authors: E. Popov, N. Yorino, Y. Zoka, Y. Sasaki, H. Sugihara

Abstract:

This paper discusses the performance of critical trajectory method (CTrj) for power system transient stability analysis under various loading settings and heavy fault condition. The method obtains Controlling Unstable Equilibrium Point (CUEP) which is essential for estimation of power system stability margins. The CUEP is computed by applying the CTrjto the boundary controlling unstable equilibrium point (BCU) method. The Proposed method computes a trajectory on the stability boundary that starts from the exit point and reaches CUEP under certain assumptions. The robustness and effectiveness of the method are demonstrated via six power system models and five loading conditions. As benchmark is used conventional simulation method whereas the performance is compared with and BCU Shadowing method.

Keywords: Power system, Transient stability, Critical trajectory method, Energy function method.

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47 Software Architecture and Support for Patient Tracking Systems in Critical Scenarios

Authors: Gianluca Cornetta, Abdellah Touhafi, David J. Santos, Jose Manuel Vazquez

Abstract:

In this work a new platform for mobile-health systems is presented. System target application is providing decision support to rescue corps or military medical personnel in combat areas. Software architecture relies on a distributed client-server system that manages a wireless ad-hoc networks hierarchy in which several different types of client operate. Each client is characterized for different hardware and software requirements. Lower hierarchy levels rely in a network of completely custom devices that store clinical information and patient status and are designed to form an ad-hoc network operating in the 2.4 GHz ISM band and complying with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard (ZigBee). Medical personnel may interact with such devices, that are called MICs (Medical Information Carriers), by means of a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) or a MDA (Medical Digital Assistant), and transmit the information stored in their local databases as well as issue a service request to the upper hierarchy levels by using IEEE 802.11 a/b/g standard (WiFi). The server acts as a repository that stores both medical evacuation forms and associated events (e.g., a teleconsulting request). All the actors participating in the diagnostic or evacuation process may access asynchronously to such repository and update its content or generate new events. The designed system pretends to optimise and improve information spreading and flow among all the system components with the aim of improving both diagnostic quality and evacuation process.

Keywords: IEEE 802.15.4 (ZigBee), IEEE 802.11 a/b/g (WiFi), distributed client-server systems, embedded databases, issue trackers, ad-hoc networks.

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46 Opposition Parties and the Politics of Opposition in Africa: A Critical Analysis

Authors: Wondwosen Teshome B.

Abstract:

The major aim of this paper is to investigate the opposition politics in Africa. The paper also examines the status and the role, the contributions and the weaknesses of opposition1 political parties in Africa, particularly in transitional democracies that emerged in the 1990s. In Africa, many of the opposition parties appear or become active only during an election, and disappear when the election is over. It is found out that most of the opposition parties in Africa are established around the personalities of individuals, lack internal democracy, suffer from inter-party and intra-party conflicts, have severe shortage of finance, and lack strong base and experience. Their weaknesses also include bad organization and weak connection with the popular constituencies. The paper concludes that most of the weaknesses of the African opposition parties emanate from the incumbents- hostile policies, which are mostly aimed at fragmenting and weakening the opposition groups.

Keywords: Africa, Hybrid regime, Incumbent party, Neopatrimonialsim, Opposition party, Political party, Pseudo-democracy.

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45 A Subjective Scheduler Based on Backpropagation Neural Network for Formulating a Real-life Scheduling Situation

Authors: K. G. Anilkumar, T. Tanprasert

Abstract:

This paper presents a subjective job scheduler based on a 3-layer Backpropagation Neural Network (BPNN) and a greedy alignment procedure in order formulates a real-life situation. The BPNN estimates critical values of jobs based on the given subjective criteria. The scheduler is formulated in such a way that, at each time period, the most critical job is selected from the job queue and is transferred into a single machine before the next periodic job arrives. If the selected job is one of the oldest jobs in the queue and its deadline is less than that of the arrival time of the current job, then there is an update of the deadline of the job is assigned in order to prevent the critical job from its elimination. The proposed satisfiability criteria indicates that the satisfaction of the scheduler with respect to performance of the BPNN, validity of the jobs and the feasibility of the scheduler.

Keywords: Backpropagation algorithm, Critical value, Greedy alignment procedure, Neural network, Subjective criteria, Satisfiability.

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44 Torsional Rigidities of Reinforced Concrete Beams Subjected to Elastic Lateral Torsional Buckling

Authors: Ilker Kalkan, Saruhan Kartal

Abstract:

Reinforced concrete (RC) beams rarely undergo lateral-torsional buckling (LTB), since these beams possess large lateral bending and torsional rigidities owing to their stocky cross-sections, unlike steel beams. However, the problem of LTB is becoming more and more pronounced in the last decades as the span lengths of concrete beams increase and the cross-sections become more slender with the use of pre-stressed concrete. The buckling moment of a beam mainly depends on its lateral bending rigidity and torsional rigidity. The nonhomogeneous and elastic-inelastic nature of RC complicates estimation of the buckling moments of concrete beams. Furthermore, the lateral bending and torsional rigidities of RC beams and the buckling moments are affected from different forms of concrete cracking, including flexural, torsional and restrained shrinkage cracking. The present study pertains to the effects of concrete cracking on the torsional rigidities of RC beams prone to elastic LTB. A series of tests on rather slender RC beams indicated that torsional cracking does not initiate until buckling in elastic LTB, while flexural cracking associated with lateral bending takes place even at the initial stages of loading. Hence, the present study clearly indicated that the un-cracked torsional rigidity needs to be used for estimating the buckling moments of RC beams liable to elastic LTB.

Keywords: Lateral stability, post-cracking torsional rigidity, uncracked torsional rigidity, critical moment.

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43 Buckling Analysis of a Five-walled CNT with Nonlocal Theory

Authors: Alireza Bozorgian, Navid Majdi Nasab, Abdolreza Memari

Abstract:

A continuum model is presented to study vdW interaction on buckling analysis of multi-walled walled carbon nanotube. In previous studies, only the vdW interaction between adjacent two layers was considered and the vdW interaction between the other two layers was neglected. The results show that the vdW interaction cofficients are dependent on the change of interlayer spacing and the radii of tubes. With increase of radii the vdW coefficients approach a constant value. The numerical results show that the effect of vdW interaction on the critical strain for a doublewalled CNT is negligible when the radius is large enough for the both the cases of before and after buckling.

Keywords: Buckling, Carbon nanotube, van der Waals interaction, Multi-walled Carbon nanotube, Critical Strain, Prebuckling Pressure

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42 In Search of a Suitable Neural Network Capable of Fast Monitoring of Congestion Level in Electric Power Systems

Authors: Pradyumna Kumar Sahoo, Prasanta Kumar Satpathy

Abstract:

This paper aims at finding a suitable neural network for monitoring congestion level in electrical power systems. In this paper, the input data has been framed properly to meet the target objective through supervised learning mechanism by defining normal and abnormal operating conditions for the system under study. The congestion level, expressed as line congestion index (LCI), is evaluated for each operating condition and is presented to the NN along with the bus voltages to represent the input and target data. Once, the training goes successful, the NN learns how to deal with a set of newly presented data through validation and testing mechanism. The crux of the results presented in this paper rests on performance comparison of a multi-layered feed forward neural network with eleven types of back propagation techniques so as to evolve the best training criteria. The proposed methodology has been tested on the standard IEEE-14 bus test system with the support of MATLAB based NN toolbox. The results presented in this paper signify that the Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation algorithm gives best training performance of all the eleven cases considered in this paper, thus validating the proposed methodology.

Keywords: Line congestion index, critical bus, contingency, neural network.

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41 Legal Regulation and Critical Analysis for an Effectively Treatment of Pharmaceutical Waste

Authors: Merita Dauti, Edita Alili-Idrizi, Sihana Ahmeti–Lika, Ledjan Malaj

Abstract:

The extermination and proper disposal of pharmaceutical wastes from expired and unused medications remains a disputable issue due to their specific nature and characteristics. Even though the hazards from these wastes are already well known in terms of environment and human health, people still treat them as usual wastes. At a national level, in many countries the management of pharmaceutical and medical wastes has been one of the main objectives in order to protect people’s health and the environment. Even though many legal regulations exist in this respect, there has not been a single law that would clearly explain the procedures of returning medicines, ways of selection, treatment and extermination of pharmaceutical wastes. This paper aims at analyzing the practices of pharmaceutical waste management and treatment in some European countries as well as a review of the legislation and official guidelines in managing these kinds of wastes and protecting the environment and human health. A suitable treatment and management of expired medications and other similar wastes would be in the interest of public health in the first place, as well as in the interest of healthcare institutions and other bodies engaged in environment protection.

Keywords: Pharmaceutical waste, legal regulation, proper disposal, environment pollution.

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