Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3194

Search results for: cost of education

3194 Wafer Fab Operational Cost Monitoring and Controlling with Cost per Equivalent Wafer Out

Authors: Ian Kree, Davina Chin Lee Yien

Abstract:

This paper presents Cost per Equivalent Wafer Out, which we find useful in wafer fab operational cost monitoring and controlling. It removes the loading and product mix effect in the cost variance analysis. The operation heads, therefore, could immediately focus on identifying areas for cost improvement. Without this, they would have to measure the impact of the loading variance and product mix variance between actual and budgeted prior to make any decision on cost improvement. Cost per Equivalent Wafer Out, thereby, increases efficiency in wafer fab operational cost monitoring and controlling.

Keywords: Cost Control, Cost Variance, Operational Expenditure, Semiconductor.

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3193 Reliability-Based Life-Cycle Cost Model for Engineering Systems

Authors: Reza Lotfalian, Sudarshan Martins, Peter Radziszewski

Abstract:

The effect of reliability on life-cycle cost, including initial and maintenance cost of a system is studied. The failure probability of a component is used to calculate the average maintenance cost during the operation cycle of the component. The standard deviation of the life-cycle cost is also calculated as an error measure for the average life-cycle cost. As a numerical example, the model is used to study the average life-cycle cost of an electric motor.

Keywords: Initial Cost, Life-cycle cost, Maintenance Cost, Reliability.

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3192 Private Monetary Rates of Return to Humanities and Education Programs in Public Universities in Osun State, Nigeria

Authors: A. S. Adelokun, O. O. Gambo, A. A. Adegboye

Abstract:

This study estimates the private cost of Humanities and Education programs in public universities in Osun state, Nigeria, as well as the private monetary returns to Humanities and Education programs in public universities in the state. It also estimates the private rates of return to Humanities and Education programmes in public universities in Osun state; with the view of providing information on the relative profitability of investments in Humanities and Education programs in public universities in Osun state. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The population for the study consisted of all Humanities and Education students from public universities in Osun State and all Humanities and Education graduates who are workers in Osun state establishments. The sample was made up of 600 students and 120 workers. The students were selected through simple random sampling technique from the two public universities in the state while the workers were purposively selected from Osun state establishments. These workers were graduates of Humanities and Education programs. The selected programs included Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) in English, Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) in English, B.A. in Religious Studies, B.Ed. in Religious Studies, B.A. in Yoruba and B.Ed. in Yoruba. Two research instruments were used, namely: Private Costs of University Education Questionnaire (PCUEQ) and Age Education Earnings of Workers Questionnaire (AEEWQ). The data were analyzed using compounding and discount cash flow techniques. The results showed that the private costs of Humanities and Education programs in public universities in Osun state were N855,935.59 and N694,269.34 respectively. The private monetary returns to Humanities and Education programs in public universities in the State were N9,052,859.28 and N9,052,859.28, respectively. The private rates of return to Humanities and Education programmes in public universities in Osun state were 27.36% and 34.40% respectively. The study concluded that it was more profitable to invest in Education programs than in Humanities programs at public universities in Osun state, Nigeria.

Keywords: Rates of return, private cost, investment, education.

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3191 Financial Burden of Family for the Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: M. R. Bhuiyan, S. M. M. Hossain, M. Z. Islam

Abstract:

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is the fastest growing serious developmental disorder characterized by social deficits, communicative difficulties, and repetitive behaviors. ASD is an emerging public health issue globally which is associated with huge financial burden to the family, community and the nation. The aim of this study was to assess the financial burden of family for the children with Autism spectrum Disorder. This cross-sectional study was carried out from July 2015 to June 2016 among 154 children with ASD to assess the financial burden of family. Data were collected by face-to-face interview with semi-structured questionnaire following systematic random sampling technique. Majority (73.4%) children were male and mean (±SD) age was 6.66 ± 2.97 years. Most (88.8%) of the children were from urban areas with average monthly family income Tk. 41785.71±23936.45. Average monthly direct cost of the children was Tk.17656.49 ± 9984.35, while indirect cost was Tk. 13462.90 ± 9713.54 and total treatment cost was Tk. 23076.62 ± 15341.09. Special education cost (Tk. 4871.00), cost of therapy (Tk. 4124.07) and travel cost (Tk. 3988.31) were the major types of direct cost, while loss of income (Tk.14570.18) was the chief indirect cost incurred by the families. The study found that majority (59.8%) of the children attended special schools were incurred Tk.20001-78700 as total treatment cost, which were statistically significant (p<0.001). Again, families with higher monthly family income incurred higher treatment cost (r=0.526, p<0.05). Difference between mean direct and indirect cost was found significant (t=4.190, df=61, p<0.001). According to the analysis of variance, mean difference of father’s educational status among direct cost (F=10.337, p<0.001) and total treatment cost (F=7.841, p<0.001), which were statistically significant. The study revealed that maximum children with ASD were under five years, three-fourth were male. According to monthly family income, maximum family were in middle class. The study recommends cost effective interventions and financial safety-net measures to reduce the financial burden of families for the children with ASD.

Keywords: Autism spectrum disorder, financial burden, direct cost, indirect cost, Special education.

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3190 E-Education in Multicultural Setting: The Success of Mobile Learning

Authors: Subramaniam Chandran

Abstract:

This paper explains how mobile learning assures sustainable e-education for multicultural group of students. This paper reports the impact of mobile learning on distance education in multicultural environment. The emergence of learning technologies through CD, internet, and mobile is increasingly adopted by distance institutes for quick delivery and cost-effective purposes. Their sustainability is conditioned by the structure of learners as well as the teaching community. The experimental study was conducted among the distant learners of Vinayaka Missions University located at Salem in India. Students were drawn from multicultural environment based on different languages, religions, class and communities. During the mobile learning sessions, the students, who are divided on language, religion, class and community, were dominated by play impulse rather than study anxiety or cultural inhibitions. This study confirmed that mobile learning improved the performance of the students despite their division based on region, language or culture. In other words, technology was able to transcend the relative deprivation in the multicultural groups. It also confirms sustainable e-education through mobile learning and cost-effective system of instruction. Mobile learning appropriates the self-motivation and play impulse of the young learners in providing sustainable e-education to multicultural social groups of students.

Keywords: E-Education, mobile learning, multiculturalism.

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3189 Scheduled Maintenance and Downtime Cost in Aircraft Maintenance Management

Authors: Remzi Saltoglu, Nazmia Humaira, Gokhan Inalhan

Abstract:

During aircraft maintenance scheduling, operator calculates the budget of the maintenance. Usually, this calculation includes only the costs that are directly related to the maintenance process such as cost of labor, material, and equipment. In some cases, overhead cost is also included. However, in some of those, downtime cost is neglected claiming that grounding is a natural fact of maintenance; therefore, it is not considered as part of the analytical decision-making process. Based on the normalized data, we introduce downtime cost with its monetary value and add its seasonal character. We envision that the rest of the model, which works together with the downtime cost, could be checked with the real life cases, through the review of MRO cost and airline spending in the particular and scheduled maintenance events.

Keywords: Aircraft maintenance, downtime, downtime cost, maintenance cost.

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3188 Economics of Open and Distance Education in the University of Ibadan, Nigeria

Authors: Babatunde Kasim Oladele

Abstract:

One of the major objectives of the Nigeria national policy on education is the provision of equal educational opportunities to all citizens at different levels of education. With regards to higher education, an aspect of the policy encourages distance learning to be organized and delivered by tertiary institutions in Nigeria. This study therefore, determines how much of the Government resources are committed, how the resources are utilized and what alternative sources of funding are available for this system of education. This study investigated the trends in recurrent costs between 2004/2005 and 2013/2014 at University of Ibadan Distance Learning Centre (DLC). A descriptive survey research design was employed for the study. Questionnaire was the research instrument used for the collection of data. The population of the study was 280 current distance learning education students, 70 academic staff and 50 administrative staff. Only 354 questionnaires were correctly filled and returned. Data collected were analyzed and coded using the frequencies, ratio, average and percentages were used to answer all the research questions. The study revealed that staff salaries and allowances of academic and non-academic staff represent the most important variable that influences the cost of education. About 55% of resources were allocated to this sector alone. The study also indicates that costs rise every year with increase in enrolment representing a situation of diseconomies of scale. This study recommends that Universities who operates distance learning program should strive to explore other internally generated revenue option to boost their revenue. University of Ibadan, being the premier university in Nigeria, should be given foreign aid and home support, both financially and materially, to enable the institute to run a formidable distance education program that would measure up in planning and implementation with those of developed nation.

Keywords: Open education, distance education, University of Ibadan, cost of education, Nigeria.

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3187 Main Elements of Soft Cost in Green Buildings

Authors: Nurul Zahirah M.A., N. Zainul Abidin

Abstract:

Green buildings have been commonly cited to be more expensive than conventional buildings. However, limited research has been conducted to clearly identify elements that contribute to this cost differential. The construction cost of buildings can be typically divided into “hard" costs and “soft" cost elements. Using a review analysis of existing literature, the study identified six main elements in green buildings that contribute to the general cost elements that are “soft" in nature. The six elements found are insurance, developer-s experience, design cost, certification, commissioning and energy modeling. Out of the six elements, most literatures have highlighted the increase in design cost for green design as compared to conventional design due to additional architectural and engineering costs, eco-charettes, extra design time, and the further need for a green consultant. The study concluded that these elements of soft cost contribute to the green premium or cost differential of green buildings.

Keywords: Green building, cost differential, soft cost, intangible cost.

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3186 The Impact of Web Based Education on Cancer Patients’ Clinical Outcomes

Authors: F. Arıkan, Z. Karakus

Abstract:

Cancer is a widespread disease in the world and is the third reason of deaths among the chronic diseases. Educating patients and caregivers has a vital role for empowering them in managing disease and treatment's symptoms. Informing of the patients about their disease and treatment process decreases patient's distress and decisional conflicts, improves wellbeing of them, increase success of the treatment and survival. In this era, technological education methods are used for patients that have different chronic disease. Many studies indicated that especially web based patient education such as chronic obstructive lung disease; heart failure is more effective than printed materials. Web based education provide easiness to patients while they are reaching health services. It also has more advantages because of it decreases health cost and requirement of staff. It is thought that web based education may be beneficial method for cancer patient's empowerment in coping with the disease's symptoms. The aim of the study is evaluate the effectiveness of web based education for cancer patients' clinical outcomes.

Keywords: Cancer Patients, E-Learning, Nursing, Web Based Education.

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3185 Methodology of Estimating Assembly Cost by MODAPTS

Authors: Heung Jae Cho, Jae Il Park

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of an MODAPTS based cost estimating system to help designers in estimating the manufacturing cost of a assembly products which is belonged from the workers in working fields. Competitiveness of manufacturing cost is getting harder because of the development of Information and telecommunication, but also globalization. Therefore, the accuracy of the assembly cost estimation is getting important. DFA and MODAPTS is useful method for measuring the working hour. But these two methods are used just as a timetable. Therefore, in this paper, we suggest the process of measuring the working hours by MODAPTS which includes the working field-s accurate information. In addition, we adduce the estimation method of accuracy assembly cost with the real information. This research could be useful for designers that can estimate the assembly cost more accurately, and also effective for the companies that which are concerned to reduce the product cost.

Keywords: Cost estimation, DFA, MODAPTS, Assembly cost

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3184 Selection of Extracurricular Education Facilities and Organizational Performance Analysis of Meg-city Spatial System

Authors: Chen Zhang, Wei Yaping

Abstract:

With the rapid expansion of city scale and the excessive concentration of population, achieving relative equality of extracurricular education resources and improving spatial service performance of relevant facilities become necessary arduous tasks. In urban space, extracurricular education facilities should offer better service to its targeted area and promote the equality and efficiency of education, which is accomplished by the allocation of facilities. Based on questionnaire and survey for local students in Hangzhou City in 2009, this study classifies extracurricular education facilities in meg-city and defines the equalization of these facilities. Then it is suggested to establish extracurricular education facilities system according to the development level of city and demands of local students, and to introduce a spatial analysis method into urban planning through the aspects of spatial distribution, travel cost and spatial service scope. Finally, the practice of nine sub-districts of Hangzhou is studied.

Keywords: extracurricular education facilities, equalization, spatial service performance, meg-city

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3183 Between Policy Options and Technology Applications: Measuring the Sustainable Impacts on Distance Learning

Authors: Subramaniam Chandran

Abstract:

This paper examines the interplay of policy options and cost-effective technology in providing sustainable distance education. A case study has been conducted among the learners and teachers. The emergence of learning technologies through CD, internet, and mobile is increasingly adopted by distance institutes for quick delivery and cost-effective factors. Their sustainability is conditioned by the structure of learners and well as the teaching community. The structure of learners in terms of rural and urban background revealed similarity in adoption and utilization of mobile learning. In other words, the technology transcended the rural-urban dichotomy. The teaching community was divided into two groups on policy issues. This study revealed both cost-effective as well as sustainability impacts on different learners groups divided by rural and urban location.

Keywords: Distance Education, Mobile Learning, Policy, Technology

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3182 Chaotic Dynamics of Cost Overruns in Oil and Gas Megaprojects: A Review

Authors: O. J. Olaniran, P. E. D. Love, D. J. Edwards, O. Olatunji, J. Matthews

Abstract:

Cost overruns are a persistent problem in oil and gas megaprojects. Whilst the extant literature is filled with studies on incidents and causes of cost overruns, underlying theories to explain their emergence in oil and gas megaprojects are few. Yet, a way to contain the syndrome of cost overruns is to understand the bases of ‘how and why’ they occur. Such knowledge will also help to develop pragmatic techniques for better overall management of oil and gas megaprojects. The aim of this paper is to explain the development of cost overruns in hydrocarbon megaprojects through the perspective of chaos theory. The underlying principles of chaos theory and its implications for cost overruns are examined and practical recommendations proposed. In addition, directions for future research in this fertile area provided.

Keywords: Chaos theory, oil and gas, cost overruns, megaprojects.

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3181 Identification of Factors Influencing Costs in Green Projects

Authors: Nazirah Zainul Abidin, Nurul Zahirah Mokhtar Azizi

Abstract:

Cost has always been the leading concern in green building development. The perception that construction cost for green building is higher than conventional buildings has only made the discussion of green building cost more difficult. Understanding the factors that will influence the cost of green construction is expected to shed light into what makes green construction more or at par with conventional projects, or perhaps, where cost can be optimised. This paper identifies the elements of cost before shifting the attention to the influencing factors. Findings from past studies uncovered various factors related to cost which are grouped into five focal themes i.e. awareness, knowledge, financial, technical, and government support. A conceptual framework is produced in a form of a flower diagram indicating the cost influencing factors of green building development. These factors were found to be both physical and non-physical aspects of a project. The framework provides ground for the next stage of research that is to further explore how these factors influence the project cost and decision making.

Keywords: Green project, factors influencing cost, hard cost, soft cost.

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3180 Curriculum of Ethical Education in Slovakia

Authors: Petra Fridrichová, Eva Balážová

Abstract:

Ethical Education is a compulsorily optional subject in primary and secondary schools. The Ethical Education objective is the education of a personality with one´s own identity, with interiorized ethical standards, with mature moral judgement and therefore with the behaviour determined by one´s own beliefs; with a positive attitude to himself/herself and other people and that is why he/she is able to cooperate and to initiate cooperation. In the paper we describe the contents and the principles of Ethical education. We also shows that Ethical education is subject supported primary socialpathological prevention and education to citizenship. In this context we try to show that ethical education contributes to the education of good people who are aware of the necessity to respect social norms and are able to assume responsibility for their own behaviour in any situation at present and in the future.

Keywords: Ethical education, Curriculum of Ethical education, The Contents of Ethical education in Slovakia, The principles of Ethical education

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3179 Home Education in the Australian Context

Authors: A. Karaali

Abstract:

This paper will seek to clarify important key terms such as home schooling and home education as well as the legalities attached to such terms. It will reflect on the recent proposed changes to terminology in NSW, Australia. The various pedagogical approaches to home education will be explored including their prominence in the Australian context. There is a strong focus on literature from Australia. The historical background of home education in Australia will be explained as well as the difference between distance education and home education. The future of home education in Australia will be discussed.

Keywords: Alternative education, e-learning, home education, home schooling, online resources, technology.

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3178 Soft Cost Elements That Affect Developers’ Decision to Build Green

Authors: Nurul Zahirah M.A., N. Zainul Abidin, Azlan Raofuddin Nuruddin

Abstract:

Despite all the hype about green building, many developers are still resistant to the idea of building green due to the common perception that green building construction is expensive. This contradicts with scholarly findings that identify only a marginal cost premium or none at all given that green design is considered during the design process and planning stage. Nevertheless, cost implications continue to become an issue when deciding to build green. The planning stage is of strategic importance as decisions made at this early stage would influence the project cost thereafter. Using analysis of existing literature, the paper identifies six elements of soft cost that are considered in the planning stage. The elements include consultants, green building consultant, certification, commissioning, market, and tax. Out of the six elements, commissioning represents the bulk of soft cost for buildings seeking green certification. The study concluded that, although hard cost may have a bigger impact on the project cost, but soft cost is the hidden cost which people tend to ignore. Poor consideration of soft cost during planning stage may lead to over-realistic expectations and ultimately, overlooked cost additions.

Keywords: Green building, cost element, soft cost, developer decision.

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3177 Modeling Cost Structure for Assessment Production Cost of Algal - Biofue

Authors: A. Eman Mohammed

Abstract:

Algae-based fuel are considered a promising sources of clean energy, and because it has many advantages over traditional biofuel, research and business ventures have driven into developing and producing Algal-biofuel. But its production stages create a cost structure that it is not competitive with traditional fuels. Therefore, cost becomes the main obstacle in commercial production purpose. However, the present research which aims at using cost structure model, and designed MS-Dose program, to investigate the a mount of production cost and determined the parameter had great effect on it, second to measured the amount of contribution rate of algae in process the pollution by capturing Co2 from air . The result generated from the model shows that the production cost of biomass is between $0.137 /kg for 100 ha and $0.132 /kg for 500 ha which was less than cost of other studies, while gallon costs between $3.4 - 3.5, more than traditional sources of oil about $1 ,which regarded as a rate of contribution of algal in capturing CO2 from air.

Keywords: Cost Structure Model, Operation Costs(Production Cost), Capital Costs, Algae.

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3176 Maintenance Alternatives Related to Costs of Wind Turbines Using Finite State Markov Model

Authors: Boukelkoul Lahcen

Abstract:

The cumulative costs for O&M may represent as much as 65%-90% of the turbine's investment cost. Nowadays the cost effectiveness concept becomes a decision-making and technology evaluation metric. The cost of energy metric accounts for the effect replacement cost and unscheduled maintenance cost parameters. One key of the proposed approach is the idea of maintaining the WTs which can be captured via use of a finite state Markov chain. Such a model can be embedded within a probabilistic operation and maintenance simulation reflecting the action to be done. In this paper, an approach of estimating the cost of O&M is presented. The finite state Markov model is used for decision problems with number of determined periods (life cycle) to predict the cost according to various options of maintenance.

Keywords: Cost, finite state, Markov model, operation, maintenance.

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3175 Teaching College Classes with Virtual Reality

Authors: Penn P. Wu

Abstract:

Recent advances in virtual reality (VR) technologies have made it possible for students to experience a virtual on-the-scene or virtual in-person observation of an educational event. In an experimental class, the author uses VR, particularly 360° videos, to virtually engage students in an event, through a wide spectrum of educational resources, such s a virtual “bystander.” Students were able to observe the event as if they were physically on site, although they could not intervene with the scene. The author will describe the adopted equipment, specification, and cost of building them as well as the quality of VR. The author will discuss (a) feasibility, effectiveness, and efficiency of using VR as a supplemental technology to teach college students and criteria and methodologies used by the authors to evaluate them; (b) barriers and issues of technological implementation; and (c) pedagogical practices learned through this experiment. The author also attempts to explore (a) how VR could provide an interactive virtual in-person learning experience; (b) how VR can possibly change traditional college education and online education; (c) how educators and balance six critical factors: cost, time, technology, quality, result, and content.

Keywords: Learning with VR, virtual experience of learning, virtual in-person learning, virtual reality for education.

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3174 Case Study: Linking Career Education to University Education in Japan

Authors: Kumiko Inagaki

Abstract:

Japanese society is experiencing an aging population and declining birth rate along with the popularization of higher education, spread of economic globalization, rapid progress in technical innovation, changes in employment conditions, and emergence of a knowledge-based society. Against this background, interest in career education at Japanese universities has increased in recent years. This paper describes how the government has implemented career education policies in Japan, and introduces the cases of two universities that have successfully linked career education to university education in Japan.

Keywords: Career Education, Employability, Higher Education, Japanese University, University Education.

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3173 Computer-Based Assessment of Pre-assigned Individual Education Plans in Special Education

Authors: Yasar Guneri Sahin, Mehmet Cudi Okur

Abstract:

Assessment of IEP (Individual Education Plan) is an important stage in the area of special education. This paper deals with this problem by introducing computer software which process the data gathered from application of IEP. The software is intended to be used by special education institution in Turkey and allows assessment of school and family trainings. The software has a user friendly interface and its design includes graphical developer tools.

Keywords: Disabled individual, software for education, assessment of education, special education.

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3172 Harnessing the Opportunities of E-Learning and Education in Promoting Literacy in Nigeria

Authors: Victor Oluwaseyi Olowonisi

Abstract:

The paper aimed at presenting an overview on the concept of e-learning as it relates to higher education and how it provides opportunities for students, instructors and the government in developing the educational sector. It also touched on the benefits and challenges attached to e-learning as a new medium of reaching more students especially in the Nigerian context. The opportunities attributed to e-learning in the paper includes breaking boundaries barriers, reaching a larger number of students, provision of jobs for ICT experts, etc. In contrary, poor power supply, cost of implementation, poor computer literacy, technophobia (fear of technology), computer crime and system failure were some of the challenges of e-learning discussed in the paper. The paper proffered that the government can help the people gain more from e-learning through its financing. Also, it was stated that instructors/lecturers and students need to undergo training on computer application in order for e-learning to be more effective in developing higher education in Nigeria.

Keywords: E-Learning, education, higher education, increasing literacy.

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3171 Structural Cost of Optimized Reinforced Concrete Isolated Footing

Authors: Mohammed S. Al-Ansari

Abstract:

This paper presents an analytical model to estimate the cost of an optimized design of reinforced concrete isolated footing base on structural safety. Flexural and optimized formulas for square and rectangular footingare derived base on ACI building code of design, material cost and optimization. The optimization constraints consist of upper and lower limits of depth and area of steel. Footing depth and area of reinforcing steel are to be minimized to yield the optimal footing dimensions. Optimized footing materials cost of concrete, reinforcing steel and formwork of the designed sections are computed. Total cost factor TCF and other cost factors are developed to generalize and simplify the calculations of footing material cost. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the model capability of estimating the material cost of the footing for a desired axial load.

Keywords: Footing, Depth, Concrete, Steel, Formwork, Optimization, Material cost, Cost Factors.

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3170 Low Cost Chip Set Selection Algorithm for Multi-way Partitioning of Digital System

Authors: Jae Young Park, Soongyu Kwon, Kyu Han Kim, Hyeong Geon Lee, Jong Tae Kim

Abstract:

This paper considers the problem of finding low cost chip set for a minimum cost partitioning of a large logic circuits. Chip sets are selected from a given library. Each chip in the library has a different price, area, and I/O pin. We propose a low cost chip set selection algorithm. Inputs to the algorithm are a netlist and a chip information in the library. Output is a list of chip sets satisfied with area and maximum partitioning number and it is sorted by cost. The algorithm finds the sorted list of chip sets from minimum cost to maximum cost. We used MCNC benchmark circuits for experiments. The experimental results show that all of chip sets found satisfy the multiple partitioning constraints.

Keywords: lowest cost chip set, MCNC benchmark, multi-way partitioning.

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3169 Development Prospects of Education System in Modernization

Authors: Akbar Seraly, Kazbek Primbetov, Gulmira Abdiraiymova, Gulnapis Abdikerova

Abstract:

the article analyzes the development prospects of education system in Kazakhstan. Education is among key sources of culture and social mobility. Modern education must become civic which means availability of high quality education to all people irrespective of their racial, ethnic, religious, social, gender and any other differences. Socially focused nature of modernization of Kazakhstan-s society is predicated upon formation of a civic education model in the future. Kazakhstan-s education system undergoes intensive reforms first of all intended to achieve international education standards and integration into the global educational and information space.

Keywords: Education system, Kazakhstan , Modernization

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3168 From Mother Tongue Education to Multilingual Higher Education

Authors: Mario R. Acevedo Amaya, Fernanda M. Martinez Reyes

Abstract:

Through the time, the higher education has changed the learning system since mother tongue to bilingual, and in this new century has been coming develop a multilingual education. All as part of globalization process of the countries and the education. Nevertheless, this change only has been effectively in countries of the first world, the rest have been lagging. Therefore, these countries require strengthen their higher education systems through models that give way to multilingual and bilingual education. In this way, shows a new model adapted from a systemic form to allow a higher bilingual and multilingual education in Latin America. This systematization aims to increase the skills and competencies student’s, decrease the time learning of a second tongue, add to multilingualism in the American Latin Universities, also, contribute to position the region´s countries in a better global status, and stimulate the development of new research in this area.

Keywords: Bilingual Education, Higher Education, Multilingual Education, Multilingual Education Model

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3167 Cost of Road Traffic Accidents in Egypt

Authors: Mohamed A. Ismail, Samar M. M. Abdelmageed

Abstract:

The main objective of this paper is to estimate the cost of road traffic accidents in Egypt. The Human Capital (HC) approach, specifically the Gross-Loss-of-Output methodology, is adopted for estimation. Moreover, cost values obtained by previous national literature are updated using the inflation rates. The results indicate an estimated cost of road traffic accidents in Egypt of approximately 10 billion Egyptian Pounds (about $US 1.8 billion) for the year 2008. In addition, it is expected that this cost will rise in 2009 to 11.8 billion Egyptian Pounds (about $US 2.1 billion).

Keywords: Cost, Gross-Loss-of-Output, Human CapitalApproach, Road Traffic Accidents.

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3166 Emergence of New Capitalist Class and Issues of Market, Merit and Social Justice: The Business and Economics of Higher Education in India

Authors: Subramaniam Chandran

Abstract:

This paper analyses the structural changes in education sector since the introduction of liberalization policy in India. This paper explains how the so-called non-profit trusts and societies appropriated the liberalization policy and enhanced themselves as new capitalist class in higher education sector. Over the decades, the policy witnessed the role of private sector in terms of maintaining market equilibrium. The state also witnessed the incompatibility of the private sector in inculcating the values of social justice. The most important consequence of the policy is to witness the rise of new capitalist class and academic capitalism. When the state came to realize that it no longer cope up with market demands, it opens the entry of private sector in higher education. Concessions and tax exemptions were provided to the trusts and societies to establish higher education institutions. There is a basic difference between western countries and India in providing higher education by the trusts and societies. In western countries the big business houses contributed their surplus revenues to promote higher education and research as a complementary service to society and nation. In India, several entrepreneurs came up with business motive using education sector. Over the period, they accumulated wealth at the cost of students and concessions from the government. Four major results can now be identified: production of manpower in view of market demands; reduction of standards in higher education; bypassing the values of social justice; and the rise of new capitalist class from the business of education. This paper tries to substantiate these issues with the inputs from case studies.

Keywords: New capitalism, market, social justice, higher education

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3165 Genetic Algorithms Multi-Objective Model for Project Scheduling

Authors: Elsheikh Asser

Abstract:

Time and cost are the main goals of the construction project management. The first schedule developed may not be a suitable schedule for beginning or completing the project to achieve the target completion time at a minimum total cost. In general, there are trade-offs between time and cost (TCT) to complete the activities of a project. This research presents genetic algorithms (GAs) multiobjective model for project scheduling considering different scenarios such as least cost, least time, and target time.

Keywords: Genetic algorithms, Time-cost trade-off.

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