Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2159

Search results for: contamination of surface.

2159 Analysis of Electric Field and Potential Distributions along Surface of Silicone Rubber Insulators under Various Contamination Conditions Using Finite Element Method

Authors: B. Marungsri, W. Onchantuek, A. Oonsivilai, T. Kulworawanichpong

Abstract:

This paper presents the simulation results of electric field and potential distributions along surface of silicone rubber polymer insulators under clean and various contamination conditions with/without water droplets. Straight sheds insulator having leakage distance 290 mm was used in this study. Two type of contaminants, playwood dust and cement dust, have been studied the effect of contamination on the insulator surface. The objective of this work is to comparison the effect of contamination on potential and electric field distributions along the insulator surface when water droplets exist on the insulator surface. Finite element method (FEM) is adopted for this work. The simulation results show that contaminations have no effect on potential distribution along the insulator surface while electric field distributions are obviously depended on contamination conditions.

Keywords: electric field distribution, potential distribution, silicone rubber polymer insulator, finite element method

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2158 Use of Caffeine and Human Pharmaceutical Compounds to Identify Sewage Contamination

Authors: Jingming Wu, Junqi Yue, Ruikang Hu, Zhaoguang Yang, Lifeng Zhang

Abstract:

Fecal coliform bacteria are widely used as indicators of sewage contamination in surface water. However, there are some disadvantages in these microbial techniques including time consuming (18-48h) and inability in discriminating between human and animal fecal material sources. Therefore, it is necessary to seek a more specific indicator of human sanitary waste. In this study, the feasibility was investigated to apply caffeine and human pharmaceutical compounds to identify the human-source contamination. The correlation between caffeine and fecal coliform was also explored. Surface water samples were collected from upstream, middle-stream and downstream points respectively, along Rochor Canal, as well as 8 locations of Marina Bay. Results indicate that caffeine is a suitable chemical tracer in Singapore because of its easy detection (in the range of 0.30-2.0 ng/mL), compared with other chemicals monitored. Relative low concentrations of human pharmaceutical compounds (< 0.07 ng/mL) in Rochor Canal and Marina Bay water samples make them hard to be detected and difficult to be chemical tracer. However, their existence can help to validate sewage contamination. In addition, it was discovered the high correlation exists between caffeine concentration and fecal coliform density in the Rochor Canal water samples, demonstrating that caffeine is highly related to the human-source contamination.

Keywords: Caffeine, Human Pharmaceutical Compounds, Chemical Tracer, Sewage Contamination.

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2157 Heavy Metal Contamination of a Dumpsite Environment as Assessed with Pollution Indices

Authors: Olubunmi S. Shittu, Olufemi J. Ayodele, Augustus O. A. Ilori, Abidemi O. Filani, Adetola T. Afuye

Abstract:

Indiscriminate refuse dumping in and around Ado-Ekiti combined with improper management of few available dumpsites, such as Ilokun dumpsite, posed the threat of heavy metals pollution in the surrounding soils and underground water that needs assessment using pollution indices. Surface soils (0-15 cm) were taken from the centre of Ilokun dumpsite (0 m) and environs at different directions and distances during the dry and wet seasons, as well as a background sample at 1000 m away, adjacent to the dumpsite at Ilokun, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. The concentration of heavy metals used to calculate the pollution indices for the soils were determined using Atomic Adsorption Spectrophotometer. The soils recorded high concentrations of all the heavy metals above the background concentrations irrespective of the season with highest concentrations at the 0 m except Ni and Fe at 50 m during the dry and wet season, respectively. The heavy metals concentration were in the order of Ni > Mn > Pb > Cr > Cu > Cd > Fe during the dry season, and Fe > Cr > Cu > Pb > Ni > Cd > Mn during the wet season. Using the Contamination Factor (CF), the soils were classified to be moderately contaminated with Cd and Fe to very high contamination with other metals during the dry season and low Cd contamination (0.87), moderate contamination with Fe, Pb, Mn and Ni and very high contamination with Cr and Cu during the wet season. At both seasons, the Pollution Load Index (PLI) indicates the soils to be generally polluted with heavy metals and the Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) calculated shown the soils to be in unpolluted to moderately polluted levels. Enrichment Factor (EF) implied the soils to be deficiently enriched with all the heavy metals except Cr (7.90) and Cu (6.42) that were at significantly enrichment levels during the wet season. Modified Degree of Contamination (mCd) recorded, indicated the soils to be of very high to extremely high degree of contamination during the dry season and moderate degree of contamination during the wet season except 0 m with high degree of contamination. The concentration of heavy metals in the soils combined with some of the pollution indices indicated the soils in and around the Ilokun Dumpsite are being polluted with heavy metals from anthropogenic sources constituted by the indiscriminate refuse dumping.

Keywords: Contamination factor, enrichment factor, geoaccumulation index, modified degree of contamination, pollution load index.

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2156 Effect of Oil Contamination on the Liquefaction Behavior of Sandy

Authors: S. A. Naeini, M. M. Shojaedin

Abstract:

Oil leakage from the pipelines and the tanks carrying them, or during oil extraction, could lead to the changes in the characteristics and properties of the soil. In this paper, conducting a series of experimental cyclic triaxial tests, the effects of oil contamination on the liquefaction potential of sandy soils is investigated. The studied specimens are prepared by mixing the Firoozkuh sand with crude oil in 4, 8 and 12 percent by soil dry weight. The results show that the oil contamination up to 8% causes an increase in the soil liquefaction resistance and then with increase in the contamination, the liquefaction resistance decreases.

Keywords: Cyclic triaxial test, Liquefaction resistance, Oil contamination, Sandy soil.

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2155 Surface Charge Based Rapid Method for Detection of Microbial Contamination in Drinking Water and Food Products

Authors: Kandpal M. , Gundampati R. K , Debnath M.

Abstract:

Microbial contamination, most of which are fecal born in drinking water and food industry is a serious threat to humans. Escherichia coli is one of the most common and prevalent among them. We have developed a sensor for rapid and an early detection of contaminants, taking E.coli as a threat indicator organism. The sensor is based on co-polymerizations of aniline and formaldehyde in form of thin film over glass surface using the vacuum deposition technique. The particular doping combination of thin film with Fe-Al and Fe-Cu in different concentrations changes its non conducting properties to p- type semi conductor. This property is exploited to detect the different contaminants, believed to have the different surface charge. It was found through experiments that different microbes at same OD (0.600 at 600 nm) have different conductivity in solution. Also the doping concentration is found to be specific for attracting microbes on the basis of surface charge. This is a simple, cost effective and quick detection method which not only decreases the measurement time but also gives early warnings for highly contaminated samples.

Keywords: Sensor, Vacuum deposition technique, thin film, E.coli detection, doping concentration.

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2154 Heavy Metal Contamination of the Landscape at the ─¢ubietová Deposit (Slovakia)

Authors: Peter Andráš, Adam Lichý, Jana Rusková, Lenka Matúšková

Abstract:

The heavy metal contamination of the technogenous sediments and soils at the investigated dump-field show irregular planar distribution. Also the heavy metal content in the surface water, drainage water and in the groundwater was studied both in the dry as well as during the rainy periods. The cementation process causes substitution of iron by copper. Natural installation and development of plant species was observed at the old mine waste dumps, specific to the local chemical conditions such as low content of essential nutrients and high content of heavy metals. The individual parts of the plant tissues (roots, branches/stems, leaves/needles, flowers/ fruits) are contaminated by heavy metals and tissues are damaged differently, respectively.

Keywords: Contamination, dump-field, heavy metals, plants, sediment, water.

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2153 Risk of Occupational Exposure to Cytotoxic Drugs: The Role of Handling Procedures of Hospital Workers

Authors: J. Silva, P. Arezes, R. Schierl, N. Costa

Abstract:

In order to study environmental contamination by cytostatic drugs in Portugal hospitals, sampling campaigns were conducted in three hospitals in 2015 (112 samples). Platinum containing drugs and fluorouracil were chosen because both were administered in high amounts. The detection limit was 0.01 pg/cm² for platinum and 0.1 pg/cm² for fluorouracil. The results show that spills occur mainly on the patient`s chair, while the most referenced occurrence is due to an inadequately closed wrapper. Day hospitals facilities were detected as having the largest number of contaminated samples and with higher levels of contamination.

Keywords: Antineoplastic, drugs, exposure, surface.

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2152 Residue and Temporal Trend of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Surface Soils from Bacninh, Vietnam

Authors: Toan Vu Duc, Son Ha Viet

Abstract:

An evaluation of the PCBs residues in the surface soils from Bacninh, Vietnam was carried out. Sixty representative soil samples were collected from the centre of Bacninh and three surrounding districts. The analyzed results indicated the wide extent of contamination of total PCBs in Bacninh. In industrial and urban zones, total PCBs concentrations ranged from ranged from <0.02 to 32.68ng g-1 (mean 19.89 ±15.64ng g-1) dry weight, while those in agricultural zones ranged from <0.02 to 13.26ng g-1 (mean 8.14 ± 4.89ng g-1) dry weight. The mean percentages of PCB28, PCB52, PCB101, PCB138, PCB153 and PCB180 compared with Σ6PCBs in the analyzed soil samples are 3.1%, 13.9%, 21.7%, 30.7%, 25.8% and 4.8%, respectively. These values can be explained by the chemical properties as well as the compositions of PCBs mixture which probably escaped from dielectric oil. An increasing trend and the long-time release of PCBs are observed.

Keywords: Contamination, PCBs, soil, temporal trend.

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2151 The Optimization of Sun Collector Parameters

Authors: István Patkó, Hosam Bayoumi Hamuda, András Medve, András Szeder

Abstract:

In order to efficiently solve the problems created by the deepening energy crisis affecting Europe and the world, governments cannot neglect the opportunities of using the energy produced by sun collectors. In many of the EU countries there are sun collectors producing heat energy, e.g. in 2011 in the area of EU27 (countries which belong to European Union) + Switzerland altogether 37519126 m2 were operated, which are capable of producing 26.3 GWh heat energy. The energy produced by these sun collectors is utilized at the place of production. In the near future governments will have to focus more on spreading and using sun collectors. Among the complex problems of operating sun collectors, this article deals with determining the optimal tilt angle, directions of sun collectors. We evaluate the contamination of glass surface of sun collector to the produced energy. Our theoretically results are confirmed by laboratory measurements. The purpose of our work is to help users and engineers in determination of optimal operation parameters of sun collectors.

Keywords: Heat energy, tilt angle, direction of sun collector, contamination of surface.

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2150 Lead in The Soil-Plant System Following Aged Contamination from Ceramic Wastes

Authors: F. Pedron, M. Grifoni, G. Petruzzelli, M. Barbafieri, I. Rosellini, B. Pezzarossa

Abstract:

Lead contamination of agricultural land mainly vegetated with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) has been investigated. The metal derived from the discharge of sludge from a ceramic industry in the past had used lead paints. The results showed very high values of lead concentration in many soil samples. In order to assess the lead soil contamination, a sequential extraction with H2O, KNO3, EDTA was performed, and the chemical forms of lead in the soil were evaluated. More than 70% of lead was in a potentially bioavailable form. Analysis of Lolium perenne showed elevated lead concentration. A Freundlich-like model was used to describe the transferability of the metal from the soil to the plant.

Keywords: Bioavailability, Freundlich-like equation, sequential extraction, soil lead contamination.

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2149 Mathematical Modeling of the AMCs Cross-Contamination Removal in the FOUPs: Finite Element Formulation and Application in FOUP’s Decontamination

Authors: N. Santatriniaina, J. Deseure, T.Q. Nguyen, H. Fontaine, C. Beitia, L. Rakotomanana

Abstract:

Nowadays, with the increasing of the wafer's size and the decreasing of critical size of integrated circuit manufacturing in modern high-tech, microelectronics industry needs a maximum attention to challenge the contamination control. The move to 300 [mm] is accompanied by the use of Front Opening Unified Pods for wafer and his storage. In these pods an airborne cross contamination may occur between wafers and the pods. A predictive approach using modeling and computational methods is very powerful method to understand and qualify the AMCs cross contamination processes. This work investigates the required numerical tools which are employed in order to study the AMCs cross-contamination transfer phenomena between wafers and FOUPs. Numerical optimization and finite element formulation in transient analysis were established. Analytical solution of one dimensional problem was developed and the calibration process of physical constants was performed. The least square distance between the model (analytical 1D solution) and the experimental data are minimized. The behavior of the AMCs intransient analysis was determined. The model framework preserves the classical forms of the diffusion and convection-diffusion equations and yields to consistent form of the Fick's law. The adsorption process and the surface roughness effect were also traduced as a boundary condition using the switch condition Dirichlet to Neumann and the interface condition. The methodology is applied, first using the optimization methods with analytical solution to define physical constants, and second using finite element method including adsorption kinetic and the switch of Dirichlet to Neumann condition.

Keywords: AMCs, FOUP, cross-contamination, adsorption, diffusion, numerical analysis, wafers, Dirichlet to Neumann, finite elements methods, Fick’s law, optimization.

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2148 Honey Contamination in the Republic of Kazakhstan

Authors: B. Sadepovich Maikanov, Z. Shabanbayevich Adilbekov, R. Husainovna Mustafina, L. Tyulegenovna Auteleyeva

Abstract:

This study involves detailed information about contaminants of honey in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The requirements of the technical regulation ‘Requirements to safety of honey and bee products’ and GOST 19792-2001 were taken into account in this research. Contamination of honey by antibiotics wqs determined by the IEA (immune-enzyme analysis), Ridder analyzer and Tecna produced test systems. Voltammetry (TaLab device) was used to define contamination by salts of heavy metals and gamma-beta spectrometry, ‘Progress BG’ system, with preliminary ashing of the sample of honey was used to define radioactive contamination. This article pointed out that residues of chloramphenicol were detected in 24% of investigated products, in 22% of them –streptomycin, in 7.3% - sulfanilamide, in 2.4% - tylosin, and in 12% - combined contamination was noted. Geographically, the greatest degree of contamination of honey with antibiotics occurs in the Northern Kazakhstan – 54.4%, and Southern Kazakhstan - 50%, and the lowest in Central and Eastern Kazakhstan with 30% and 25%, respectively. Generally, pollution by heavy metals is within acceptable limits, but the contamination from lead is highest in the Akmola region. The level of radioactive cesium and strontium is also within acceptable concentrations. The highest radioactivity in terms of cesium was observed in the East Kazakhstan region - 49.00±10 Bq/kg, in Akmola, North Kazakhstan and Almaty - 12.00±5, 11.05±3 and 19.0±8 Bq/kg, respectively, while the norm is 100 Bq/kg. In terms of strontium, the radioactivity in the East Kazakhstan region is 25.03±15 Bq/kg, while in Akmola, North Kazakhstan and Almaty regions it is 12.00±3, 10.2±4 and 1.0±2 Bq/kg, respectively, with the norm of 80 Bq/kg. This accumulation is mainly associated with the environmental degradation, feeding and treating of bees. Moreover, in the process of collecting nectar, external substances can penetrate honey. Overall, this research determines factors and reasons of honey contamination.

Keywords: Antibiotics, contamination of honey, honey, radionuclides.

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2147 Electroremediation of Cu-Contaminated Soil

Authors: Darius Jay R. Bongay, Roberto L. Ngo

Abstract:

This study investigated the removal efficiency of electrokinetic remediation of copper-contaminated soil at different combinations of enhancement reagents used as anolyte and catholyte. Sodium hydroxide (at 0.1, 0.5, and 1.0 M concentrations) and distilled water were used as anolyte, while lactic acid (at 0.01, 0.1, and 0.5 M concentrations), ammonium citrate (also at 0.01, 0.1, and 0.5 M concentrations) and distilled water were used as catholyte. A continuous voltage application (1.0 VDC/cm) was employed for 240 hours for each experiment. The copper content of the catholyte was determined at the end of the 240-hour period. Optimization was carried out with a Response Surface Methodology - Optimal Design, including F test, and multiple comparison method, to determine which pair of anolyte-catholyte was the most significant for the removal efficiency. "1.0 M NaOH" was found to be the most significant anolyte while it was established that lactic acid was the most significant type of catholyte to be used for the most successful electrokinetic experiments. Concentrations of lactic acid should be at the range of 0.1 M to 0.5 M to achieve maximum percent removal values.

Keywords: Electrokinetic remediation, copper contamination, heavy metal contamination, soil remediation

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2146 Assessment of Risk of Ground Water Resources for the Emergency Supply in Relation to Their Contamination by Metals

Authors: Frantisek Bozek, Alexandr Bozek, Alena Bumbova, Jiri Dvorak, Lenka Jesonkova

Abstract:

The contamination of 15 ground water resources of a selected region earmarked for the emergency supply of population has been monitored. The resources have been selected on the basis of previous assessment of natural conditions and the exploitation of territory in their surroundings and infiltration area. Two resources out of 15 have been excluded from further exploitation, because they have not met some of the 72 assessed hygienic indicators of extended analysis. The remaining 13 resources have been the subject of health risk analysis in relation to the contamination by arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, nickel and manganese. The risk analysis proved that all 13 resources meet health standards with regard to the above mentioned purposefully selected elements and may thus be included into crisis plans. Water quality of ground resources may be assessed in the same way with regard to other contaminants.

Keywords: Contamination, drinking water, emergency supply, health risk, hygienic limits, metals, risk assessment.

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2145 Contamination in Industrial Areas and Environmental Management in Latvia

Authors: Juris Burlakovs, Maris Klavins, Raimonds Ernsteins, Armands Ruskulis

Abstract:

Environmental contamination is a common problem in ex-industrial and industrial sites. This article gives a brief description of general applied environmental investigation methodologies and possible remediation applications in Latvia. Most of contaminated areas are situated in former and active industrial, military areas and ports. Industrial and logistic activities very often have been with great impact for more than hundred years thus the contamination level with heavy metals, hydrocarbons, pesticides, persistent organic pollutants is high and is threatening health and environment in general. 242 territories now are numbered as contaminated and fixed in the National Register of contaminated territories in Latvia. Research and remediation of contamination in densely populated areas are of important environmental policy domain. Four different investigation case studies of contaminated areas are given describing the history of use, environmental quality assessment as well as planned environmental management actions. All four case study locations are situated in Riga - the capital of the Republic of Latvia. The aim of this paper is to analyze the situation and problems with management of contaminated areas in Latvia, give description of field research methods and recommendations for remediation industry based on scientific data and innovations.

Keywords: Remediation technology, environmental quality assessment, heavy metals, hydrocarbon contamination, environmental management.

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2144 Analysis and Measuring Surface Roughness of Nonwovens Using Machine Vision Method

Authors: Dariush Semnani, Javad Yekrang, Hossein Ghayoor

Abstract:

Concerning the measurement of friction properties of textiles and fabrics using Kawabata Evaluation System (KES), whose output is constrained to the surface friction factor of fabric, and no other data would be generated; this research has been conducted to gain information about surface roughness regarding its surface friction factor. To assess roughness properties of light nonwovens, a 3-dimensional model of a surface has been simulated with regular sinuous waves through it as an ideal surface. A new factor was defined, namely Surface Roughness Factor, through comparing roughness properties of simulated surface and real specimens. The relation between the proposed factor and friction factor of specimens has been analyzed by regression, and results showed a meaningful correlation between them. It can be inferred that the new presented factor can be used as an acceptable criterion for evaluating the roughness properties of light nonwoven fabrics.

Keywords: Surface roughness, Nonwoven, Machine vision, Image processing.

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2143 Comparison Ageing Deterioration of Silicone Rubber Outdoor Polymer Insulators in Artificial Accelerated Salt Fog Ageing Test

Authors: S.Thong-Om, W. Payakcho, J. Grasaesom, A. Oonsivilai, B. Marungsri

Abstract:

This paper presents the experimental results of silicone rubber outdoor polymer insulators in salt fog ageing test based on IEC 61109. Specimens made ofHTV silicone rubber with ATH content having three different configurations, straight shedsalternated sheds, and incline and alternate sheds, were tested continuously 1000 hrs.in artificial salt fog chamber. Contamination level, reduction of hydrophobicity and hardness measurement were used as physical damaged inspection techniques to evaluate degree of surface deterioration. In addition, chemical changing of tested specimen surface was evaluated by ATR-FTIRto confirm physical damaged inspection. After 1000 hrs.of salt fog test, differences in degree of surface deterioration were observed on all tested specimens. Physical damaged inspection and chemical analysis results confirmed the experimental results as well.

Keywords: Ageing deterioration, Silicone rubber, Polymer Insulator, Salt fog ageing test.

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2142 Surface Roughness Analysis, Modelling and Prediction in Fused Deposition Modelling Additive Manufacturing Technology

Authors: Yusuf S. Dambatta, Ahmed A. D. Sarhan

Abstract:

Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is one of the most prominent rapid prototyping (RP) technologies which is being used to efficiently fabricate CAD 3D geometric models. However, the process is coupled with many drawbacks, of which the surface quality of the manufactured RP parts is among. Hence, studies relating to improving the surface roughness have been a key issue in the field of RP research. In this work, a technique of modelling the surface roughness in FDM is presented. Using experimentally measured surface roughness response of the FDM parts, an ANFIS prediction model was developed to obtain the surface roughness in the FDM parts using the main critical process parameters that affects the surface quality. The ANFIS model was validated and compared with experimental test results.

Keywords: Surface roughness, fused deposition modelling, adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system, ANFIS, orientation.

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2141 Electric Field and Potential Distributions along Surface of Silicone Rubber Polymer Insulators Using Finite Element Method

Authors: B. Marungsri, W. Onchantuek, A. Oonsivilai

Abstract:

This paper presents the simulation the results of electric field and potential distributions along surface of silicone rubber polymer insulators. Near the same leakage distance subjected to 15 kV in 50 cycle salt fog ageing test, alternate sheds silicone rubber polymer insulator showed better contamination performance than straight sheds silicone rubber polymer insulator. Severe surface ageing was observed on the straight sheds insulator. The objective of this work is to elucidate that electric field distribution along straight sheds insulator higher than alternate shed insulator in salt fog ageing test. Finite element method (FEM) is adopted for this work. The simulation results confirmed the experimental data, as well.

Keywords: Electric field distribution, potential distribution, silicone rubber polymer insulator, finite element method.

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2140 Effect of Jet Diameter on Surface Quenching at Different Spatial Locations

Authors: C. Agrawal, R. Kumar, A. Gupta, B. Chatterjee

Abstract:

An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the cooling of a hot horizontal Stainless Steel surface of 3 mm thickness, which has 800±10 C initial temperature. A round water jet of 22 ± 1 oC temperature was injected over the hot surface through straight tube type nozzles of 2.5- 4.8 mm diameter and 250 mm length. The experiments were performed for the jet exit to target surface spacing of 4 times of jet diameter and jet Reynolds number of 5000 -24000. The effect of change in jet Reynolds number on the surface quenching has been investigated form the stagnation point to 16 mm spatial location.  

Keywords: Hot-Surface, Jet Impingement, Quenching, Stagnation Point.

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2139 Mathematical Modeling of Surface Roughness in Surface Grinding Operation

Authors: M.A. Kamely, S.M. Kamil, C.W. Chong

Abstract:

A mathematical model of the surface roughness has been developed by using response surface methodology (RSM) in grinding of AISI D2 cold work tool steels. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to check the validity of the model. Low and high value for work speed and feed rate are decided from design of experiment. The influences of all machining parameters on surface roughness have been analyzed based on the developed mathematical model. The developed prediction equation shows that both the feed rate and work speed are the most important factor that influences the surface roughness. The surface roughness was found to be the lowers with the used of low feed rate and low work speed. Accuracy of the best model was proved with the testing data.

Keywords: Mathematical Modeling, Response surfacemethodology, Surface roughness, Cylindrical Grinding.

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2138 Influence of Machining Process on Surface Integrity of Plasma Coating

Authors: T. Zlámal, J. Petrů, M. Pagáč, P. Krajkovič

Abstract:

For the required function of components with the thermal spray coating, it is necessary to perform additional machining of the coated surface. The paper deals with assessing the surface integrity of Metco 2042, a plasma sprayed coating, after its machining. The selected plasma sprayed coating serves as an abradable sealing coating in a jet engine. Therefore, the spray and its surface must meet high quality and functional requirements. Plasma sprayed coatings are characterized by lamellar structure, which requires a special approach to their machining. Therefore, the experimental part involves the set-up of special cutting tools and cutting parameters under which the applied coating was machined. For the assessment of suitably set machining parameters, selected parameters of surface integrity were measured and evaluated during the experiment. To determine the size of surface irregularities and the effect of the selected machining technology on the sprayed coating surface, the surface roughness parameters Ra and Rz were measured. Furthermore, the measurement of sprayed coating surface hardness by the HR 15 Y method before and after machining process was used to determine the surface strengthening. The changes of strengthening were detected after the machining. The impact of chosen cutting parameters on the surface roughness after the machining was not proven.

Keywords: Machining, plasma sprayed coating, surface integrity, strengthening.

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2137 Determination of Surface Roughness by Ball Burnishing Process Using Factorial Techniques

Authors: P. S. Dabeer, G. K. Purohit

Abstract:

Burnishing is a method of finishing and hardening machined parts by plastic deformation of the surface. Experimental work based on central composite second order rotatable design has been carried out on a lathe machine to establish the effects of ball burnishing parameters on the surface roughness of brass material. Analysis of the results by the analysis of variance technique and the F-test show that the parameters considered, have significant effects on the surface roughness.

Keywords: Ball burnishing, Response surface Methodology.

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2136 Surface Roughness Evaluation for EDM of En31 with Cu-Cr-Ni Powder Metallurgy Tool

Authors: Amoljit S. Gill, Sanjeev Kumar

Abstract:

In this study, Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) is used to modify the surface of high carbon steel En31 with the help of tool electrode (Copper-Chromium-Nickel) manufactured by powder metallurgy (PM) process. The effect of EDM on surface roughness during surface alloying is studied. Taguchi’s Design of experiment (DOE) and L18 orthogonal array is used to find the best level of input parameters in order to achieve high surface finish. Six input parameters are considered and their percentage contribution towards surface roughness is investigated by analysis of variances (ANOVA). Experimental results show that an hard alloyed surface (1.21% carbon, 2.14% chromium and 1.38% nickel) with surface roughness of 3.19µm can be generated using EDM with PM tool. Additionally, techniques like Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) are used to analyze the machined surface and EDMed layer composition, respectively. The increase in machined surface micro-hardness (101%) may be related to the formation of carbides containing chromium.

Keywords: Electrical Discharge Machining, Surface Roughness, Powder metallurgy compact tools, Taguchi DOE technique.

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2135 Translation Surfaces in Euclidean 3-Space

Authors: Muhammed Çetin, Yılmaz Tunçer, Nejat Ekmekçi

Abstract:

In this paper, the translation surfaces in 3-dimensional Euclidean space generated by two space curves have been investigated. It has been indicated that Scherk surface is not only minimal translation surface.

Keywords: Minimal surface, Surface of Scherk, Translationsurface

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2134 The Interaction between Hydrogen and Surface Stress in Stainless Steel

Authors: O. Takakuwa, Y. Mano, H. Soyama

Abstract:

This paper reveals the interaction between hydrogen and surface stress in austenitic stainless steel by X-ray diffraction stress measurement and thermal desorption analysis before and after being charged with hydrogen. The surface residual stress was varied by surface finishing using several disc polishing agents. The obtained results show that the residual stress near surface had a significant effect on hydrogen absorption behavior, that is, tensile residual stress promoted the hydrogen absorption and compressive one did opposite. Also, hydrogen induced equi-biaxial stress and this stress has a linear correlation with hydrogen content.

Keywords: Hydrogen embrittlement, Residual stress, Surface finishing, Stainless steel.

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2133 Surface Water Pollution by Open Refuse Dumpsite in North Central of Nigeria

Authors: Abimbola Motunrayo Folami, Ibironke Titilayo Enitan, Feroz Mohomed Swalaha

Abstract:

Water is a vital resource that is important in ensuring the growth and development of any country. To sustain the basic human needs and the demands for agriculture, industry, conservational and ecosystem, enough quality and quantity water is needed. Contamination of water resources is now a global and public health concern. Hence, this study assessed the water quality of Ndawuse River by measuring the physicochemical parameters and heavy metals concentrations of the river using standard methods. In total, 16 surface water samples were obtained from five locations along the river, from upstream to downstream as well as samples from the dumpsite. The results obtained were compared with the standard limits set by both the World Health Organization and the Federal Environmental Protection Agency for domestic purposes. The results of the measured parameters indicated that biological oxygen demand (85.88 mg/L), turbidity (44.51 NTU), Iron (0.014 - 3.511 mg /L) and chromium (0.078 - 0.14 mg /L) were all above the standard limits. The results further showed that the quality of surface water is being significantly affected by human activities around the Ndawuse River which could pose an adverse health risk to several communities that rely on this river as their primary source of water. Therefore, there is a need for strict enforcement of environmental laws to protect the aquatic ecosystem and to avoid long term cumulative exposure risk that heavy metals may pose on human health.

Keywords: Abuja, contaminants, heavy metals, Ndawuse River, Nigeria, surface water.

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2132 The Influence of Surface Potential on the Kinetics of Bovine Serum Albumin Adsorption on a Biomedical Grade 316LVM Stainless Steel Surface

Authors: Khawtar Hasan Ahmed, Sasha Omanovic

Abstract:

Polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) in combination with electrochemistry, was employed to study the influence of surface charge (potential) on the kinetics of bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption on a biomedical-grade 316LVM stainless steel surface is discussed. The BSA adsorption kinetics was found to greatly depend on the surface potential. With an increase in surface potential towards more negative values, both the BSA initial adsorption rate and the equilibrium (saturated) surface concentration also increased. Both effects were explained on the basis of replacement of well-ordered water molecules at the 316LVM / solution interface, i.e. by the increase in entropy of the system.

Keywords: adsorption, biomedical grade stainless steel, bovine serum albumin (BSA), electrode surface potential / charge, kinetics, PM-IRRAS, protein/surface interactions

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2131 Burnishing of Aluminum-Magnesium-Graphite Composites

Authors: Mohammed T. Hayajneh, Adel Mahmood Hassan, Moath AL-Qudah

Abstract:

Burnishing is increasingly used as a finishing operation to improve surface roughness and surface hardness. This can be achieved by applying a hard ball or roller onto metallic surfaces under pressure, in order to achieve many advantages in the metallic surface. In the present work, the feed rate, speed and force have been considered as the basic burnishing parameters to study the surface roughness and surface hardness of metallic matrix composites. The considered metal matrix composites were made from Aluminum-Magnesium-Graphite with five different weight percentage of graphite. Both effects of burnishing parameters mentioned above and the graphite percentage on the surface hardness and surface roughness of the metallic matrix composites were studied. The results of this investigation showed that the surface hardness of the metallic composites increases with the increase of the burnishing force and decreases with the increase in the burnishing feed rate and burnishing speed. The surface roughness of the metallic composites decreases with the increasing of the burnishing force, feed rate, and speed to certain values, then it starts to increase. On the other hand, the increase in the weight percentage of the graphite in the considered composites causes a decrease in the surface hardness and an increase in the surface roughness.

Keywords: Burnishing process, Al-Mg-Graphite composites, Surface hardness, Surface roughness.

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2130 Enhancement and Characterization of Titanium Surfaces with Sandblasting and Acid Etching for Dental Implants

Authors: Busra Balli, Tuncay Dikici, Mustafa Toparli

Abstract:

Titanium and its alloys have been used extensively over the past 25 years as biomedical materials in orthopedic and dental applications because of their good mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. It is known that the surface properties of titanium implants can enhance the cellular response and play an important role in Osseo integration. The rate and quality of Osseo integration in titanium implants are related to their surface properties. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of sandblasting and acid etching on surface morphology, roughness, the wettability of titanium. The surface properties will be characterized by scanning electron microscopy and contact angle and roughness measurements. The results show that surface morphology, roughness, and wettability were changed and enhanced by these treatments.

Keywords: Dental implant, etching, surface modifications, surface morphology, surface roughness.

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