Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1232

Search results for: concrete damage plasticity.

1232 Modified Plastic-Damage Model for Fiber Reinforced Polymer-Confined Repaired Concrete Columns

Authors: I. A Tijani, Y. F Wu, C.W. Lim

Abstract:

Concrete Damaged Plasticity Model (CDPM) is capable of modeling the stress-strain behavior of confined concrete. Nevertheless, the accuracy of the model largely depends on its parameters. To date, most research works mainly focus on the identification and modification of the parameters for fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) confined concrete prior to damage. And, it has been established that the FRP-strengthened concrete behaves differently to FRP-repaired concrete. This paper presents a modified plastic damage model within the context of the CDPM in ABAQUS for modelling of a uniformly FRP-confined repaired concrete under monotonic loading. The proposed model includes infliction damage, elastic stiffness, yield criterion and strain hardening rule. The distinct feature of damaged concrete is elastic stiffness reduction; this is included in the model. Meanwhile, the test results were obtained from a physical testing of repaired concrete. The dilation model is expressed as a function of the lateral stiffness of the FRP-jacket. The finite element predictions are shown to be in close agreement with the obtained test results of the repaired concrete. It was observed from the study that with necessary modifications, finite element method is capable of modeling FRP-repaired concrete structures.

Keywords: Concrete, FRP, damage, repairing, plasticity, and finite element method.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 405
1231 Numerical Investigation on Load Bearing Capacity of Pervious Concrete Piles as an Alternative to Granular Columns

Authors: Ashkan Shafee, Masoud Ghodrati, Ahmad Fahimifar

Abstract:

Pervious concrete combines considerable permeability with adequate strength, which makes it very beneficial in pavement construction and also in ground improvement projects. In this paper, a single pervious concrete pile subjected to vertical and lateral loading is analysed using a verified three dimensional finite element code. A parametric study was carried out in order to investigate load bearing capacity of a single unreinforced pervious concrete pile in saturated soft soil and also gain insight into the failure mechanism of this rather new soil improvement technique. The results show that concrete damaged plasticity constitutive model can perfectly simulate the highly brittle nature of the pervious concrete material and considering the computed vertical and horizontal load bearing capacities, some suggestions have been made for ground improvement projects.

Keywords: Concrete damaged plasticity, ground improvement, load bearing capacity, pervious concrete pile.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 647
1230 FEM Study of Different Methods of Fiber Reinforcement Polymer Strengthening of a High Strength Concrete Beam-Column Connection

Authors: Talebi Aliasghar, Ebrahimpour Komeleh Hooman, Maghsoudi Ali Akbar

Abstract:

In reinforced concrete (RC) structures, beam-column connection region has a considerable effect on the behavior of structures. Using fiber reinforcement polymer (FRP) for the strengthening of connections in RC structures can be one of the solutions to retrofitting this zone which result in the enhanced behavior of structure. In this paper, these changes in behavior by using FRP for high strength concrete beam-column connection have been studied by finite element modeling. The concrete damage plasticity (CDP) model has been used to analyze the RC. The results illustrated a considerable development in load-bearing capacity but also a noticeable reduction in ductility. The study also assesses these qualities for several modes of strengthening and suggests the most effective mode of strengthening. Using FRP in flexural zone and FRP with 45-degree oriented fibers in shear zone of joint showed the most significant change in behavior.

Keywords: High strength concrete, beam-column connection, FRP, FEM.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 485
1229 Experimental and Numerical Investigations on Flexural Behavior of Macro-Synthetic FRC

Authors: Ashkan Shafee, Ahamd Fahimifar, Sajjad V. Maghvan

Abstract:

Promotion of the Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) as a construction material for civil engineering projects has invoked numerous researchers to investigate their mechanical behavior. Even though there is satisfactory information about the effects of fiber type and length, concrete mixture, casting type and other variables on the strength and deformability parameters of FRC, the numerical modeling of such materials still needs research attention. The focus of this study is to investigate the feasibility of Concrete Damaged Plasticity (CDP) model in prediction of Macro-synthetic FRC structures behavior. CDP model requires the tensile behavior of concrete to be well characterized. For this purpose, a series of uniaxial direct tension and four point bending tests were conducted on the notched specimens to define bilinear tension softening (post-peak tension stress-strain) behavior. With these parameters obtained, the flexural behavior of macro-synthetic FRC beams were modeled and the results showed a good agreement with the experimental measurements.

Keywords: Concrete damaged plasticity, fiber reinforced concrete, finite element modeling, macro-synthetic fibers, direct tensile test.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1407
1228 Principal Type of Water Responsible for Damage of Concrete Repeated Freeze-Thaw Cycles

Authors: L. Dahmani

Abstract:

The first and basic cause of the failure of concrete is repeated freezing (thawing) of moisture contained in the pores, microcracks, and cavities of the concrete. On transition to ice, water existing in the free state in cracks increases in volume, expanding the recess in which freezing occurs. A reduction in strength below the initial value is to be expected and further cycle of freezing and thawing have a further marked effect. By using some experimental parameters like nuclear magnetic resonance variation (NMR), enthalpy-temperature (or heat capacity) variation, we can resolve between the various water states and their effect on concrete properties during cooling through the freezing transition temperature range. The main objective of this paper is to describe the principal type of water responsible for the reduction in strength and structural damage (frost damage) of concrete following repeated freeze –thaw cycles. Some experimental work was carried out at the institute of cryogenics to determine what happens to water in concrete during the freezing transition. 

Keywords: Concrete, frost proof, strength, water diffusion.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1594
1227 Numerical Model of Low Cost Rubber Isolators for Masonry Housing in High Seismic Regions

Authors: Ahmad B. Habieb, Gabriele Milani, Tavio Tavio, Federico Milani

Abstract:

Housings in developing countries have often inadequate seismic protection, particularly for masonry. People choose this type of structure since the cost and application are relatively cheap. Seismic protection of masonry remains an interesting issue among researchers. In this study, we develop a low-cost seismic isolation system for masonry using fiber reinforced elastomeric isolators. The elastomer proposed consists of few layers of rubber pads and fiber lamina, making it lower in cost comparing to the conventional isolators. We present a finite element (FE) analysis to predict the behavior of the low cost rubber isolators undergoing moderate deformations. The FE model of the elastomer involves a hyperelastic material property for the rubber pad. We adopt a Yeoh hyperelasticity model and estimate its coefficients through the available experimental data. Having the shear behavior of the elastomers, we apply that isolation system onto small masonry housing. To attach the isolators on the building, we model the shear behavior of the isolation system by means of a damped nonlinear spring model. By this attempt, the FE analysis becomes computationally inexpensive. Several ground motion data are applied to observe its sensitivity. Roof acceleration and tensile damage of walls become the parameters to evaluate the performance of the isolators. In this study, a concrete damage plasticity model is used to model masonry in the nonlinear range. This tool is available in the standard package of Abaqus FE software. Finally, the results show that the low-cost isolators proposed are capable of reducing roof acceleration and damage level of masonry housing. Through this study, we are also capable of monitoring the shear deformation of isolators during seismic motion. It is useful to determine whether the isolator is applicable. According to the results, the deformations of isolators on the benchmark one story building are relatively small.

Keywords: Masonry, low cost elastomeric isolator, finite element analysis, hyperelasticity, damped non-linear spring, concrete damage plasticity.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 806
1226 Detection of Concrete Reinforcement Damage Using Piezoelectric Materials - Analytical and Experimental Study

Authors: C. P. Providakis, G. M. Angeli, M. J. Favvata, N. A. Papadopoulos, C. E. Chalioris, C. G. Karayannis

Abstract:

An effort for the detection of damages in the  reinforcement bars of reinforced concrete members using PZTs is  presented. The damage can be the result of excessive elongation of  the steel bar due to steel yielding or due to local steel corrosion. In  both cases the damage is simulated by considering reduced diameter  of the rebar along the damaged part of its length. An integration  approach based on both electromechanical admittance methodology  and guided wave propagation technique is used to evaluate the  artificial damage on the examined longitudinal steel bar. Two  actuator PZTs and a sensor PZT are considered to be bonded on the  examined steel bar. The admittance of the Sensor PZT is calculated  using COMSOL 3.4a. Fast Furrier Transformation for a better  evaluation of the results is employed. An effort for the quantification  of the damage detection using the root mean square deviation  (RMSD) between the healthy condition and damage state of the  sensor PZT is attempted. The numerical value of the RSMD yields a  level for the difference between the healthy and the damaged  admittance computation indicating this way the presence of damage  in the structure. Experimental measurements are also presented.

 

Keywords: Concrete reinforcement, damage detection, electromechanical admittance, experimental measurements, finite element method, guided waves, PZT.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2415
1225 Experimental Evaluation of Drilling Damage on the Strength of Cores Extracted from RC Buildings

Authors: A. Masi, A. Digrisolo, G. Santarsiero

Abstract:

Concrete strength evaluated from compression tests on cores is affected by several factors causing differences from the in-situ strength at the location from which the core specimen was extracted. Among the factors, there is the damage possibly occurring during the drilling phase that generally leads to underestimate the actual in-situ strength. In order to quantify this effect, in this study two wide datasets have been examined, including: (i) about 500 core specimens extracted from Reinforced Concrete existing structures, and (ii) about 600 cube specimens taken during the construction of new structures in the framework of routine acceptance control. The two experimental datasets have been compared in terms of compression strength and specific weight values, accounting for the main factors affecting a concrete property, that is type and amount of cement, aggregates' grading, type and maximum size of aggregates, water/cement ratio, placing and curing modality, concrete age. The results show that the magnitude of the strength reduction due to drilling damage is strongly affected by the actual properties of concrete, being inversely proportional to its strength. Therefore, the application of a single value of the correction coefficient, as generally suggested in the technical literature and in structural codes, appears inappropriate. A set of values of the drilling damage coefficient is suggested as a function of the strength obtained from compressive tests on cores.

Keywords: RC Buildings, Assessment, In-situ concrete strength, Core testing, Drilling damage.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1827
1224 Concrete Gravity Dams and Traveling Wave Effect along Reservoir Bottom

Authors: H. Mirzabozorg, M. Varmazyari

Abstract:

In the present article, effect of non-uniform excitation of reservoir bottom on nonlinear response of concrete gravity dams is considered. Anisotropic damage mechanics approach is used to model nonlinear behavior of mass concrete in 2D space. The tallest monolith of Pine Flat dam is selected as a case study. The horizontal and vertical components of 1967 Koyna earthquake is used to excite the system. It is found that crest response and stresses within the dam body decrease significantly when the reservoir is excited nonuniformly. In addition, the crack profiles within the dam body and in vicinity of the neck decreases.

Keywords: Concrete gravity dam, dam-reservoir-foundation interaction, traveling wave, damage mechanics.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1510
1223 An Anisotropic Model of Damage and Unilateral Effect for Brittle Materials

Authors: José Julio de C. Pituba

Abstract:

This work deals with the initial applications and formulation of an anisotropic plastic-damage constitutive model proposed for non-linear analysis of reinforced concrete structures submitted to a loading with change of the sign. The original constitutive model is based on the fundamental hypothesis of energy equivalence between real and continuous medium following the concepts of the Continuum Damage Mechanics. The concrete is assumed as an initial elastic isotropic medium presenting anisotropy, permanent strains and bimodularity (distinct elastic responses whether traction or compression stress states prevail) induced by damage evolution. In order to take into account the bimodularity, two damage tensors governing the rigidity in tension or compression regimes are introduced. Then, some conditions are introduced in the original version of the model in order to simulate the damage unilateral effect. The three-dimensional version of the proposed model is analyzed in order to validate its formulation when compared to micromechanical theory. The one-dimensional version of the model is applied in the analyses of a reinforced concrete beam submitted to a loading with change of the sign. Despite the parametric identification problems, the initial applications show the good performance of the model.

Keywords: Damage model, plastic strain, unilateral effect.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1621
1222 Time-Dependent Behavior of Damaged Reinforced Concrete Shear Walls Strengthened with Composite Plates Having Variable Fibers Spacing

Authors: R. Yeghnem, L. Boulefrakh, S. A. Meftah, A. Tounsi, E. A. Adda Bedia

Abstract:

In this study, the time-dependent behavior of damaged reinforced concrete shear wall structures strengthened with composite plates having variable fibers spacing was investigated to analyze their seismic response. In the analytical formulation, the adherent and the adhesive layers are all modeled as shear walls, using the mixed Finite Element Method (FEM). The anisotropic damage model is adopted to describe the damage extent of the Reinforced Concrete shear walls. The phenomenon of creep and shrinkage of concrete has been determined by Eurocode 2. Large earthquakes recorded in Algeria (El-Asnam and Boumerdes) have been tested to demonstrate the accuracy of the proposed method. Numerical results are obtained for non-uniform distributions of carbon fibers in epoxy matrices. The effects of damage extent and the delay mechanism creep and shrinkage of concrete are highlighted. Prospects are being studied.

Keywords: RC shear wall structures, composite plates, creep and shrinkage, damaged reinforced concrete structures, finite element method.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1394
1221 Effect of Stirrup Corrosion on Concrete Confinement Strength

Authors: Mucip Tapan, Ali Ozvan, Ismail Akkaya

Abstract:

This study investigated how the concrete confinement strength and axial load carrying capacity of reinforced concrete columns are affected by corrosion damage to the stirrups. A total of small-scale 12 test specimens were cast for evaluating the effect of stirrup corrosion on confinement strength of concrete. The results of this study show that the stirrup corrosion alone dramatically decreases the axial load carrying capacity of corroded reinforced concrete columns. Recommendations were presented for improved inspection practices which will allow estimating concrete confinement strength of corrosion-damaged reinforced concrete bridge columns.

Keywords: Bridge, column, concrete, corrosion, inspection, stirrup reinforcement.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1030
1220 A Study of Grounding Grid Characteristics with Conductive Concrete

Authors: Chun-Yao Lee, Siang-Ren Wang

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to improve electromagnetic characteristics on grounding grid by applying the conductive concrete. The conductive concrete in this study is under an extra high voltage (EHV, 345kV) system located in a high-tech industrial park or science park. Instead of surrounding soil of grounding grid, the application of conductive concrete can reduce equipment damage and body damage caused by switching surges. The focus of the two cases on the EHV distribution system in a high-tech industrial park is presented to analyze four soil material styles. By comparing several soil material styles, the study results have shown that the conductive concrete can effectively reduce the negative damages caused by electromagnetic transient. The adoption of the style of grounding grid located 1.0 (m) underground and conductive concrete located from the ground surface to 1.25 (m) underground can obviously improve the electromagnetic characteristics so as to advance protective efficiency.

Keywords: Switching surges, grounding gird, electromagnetic transient, conductive concrete.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1583
1219 Investigation of Fire Damaged Concrete Using Nonlinear Resonance Vibration Method

Authors: Kang-Gyu Park, Sun-Jong Park, Hong Jae Yim, Hyo-Gyung Kwak

Abstract:

This paper attempts to evaluate the effect of fire damage on concrete by using nonlinear resonance vibration method, one of the nonlinear nondestructive method. Concrete exhibits not only nonlinear stress-strain relation but also hysteresis and discrete memory effect which are contained in consolidated materials. Hysteretic materials typically show the linear resonance frequency shift. Also, the shift of resonance frequency is changed according to the degree of micro damage. The degree of the shift can be obtained through nonlinear resonance vibration method. Five exposure scenarios were considered in order to make different internal micro damage. Also, the effect of post-fire-curing on fire-damaged concrete was taken into account to conform the change in internal damage. Hysteretic nonlinearity parameter was obtained by amplitudedependent resonance frequency shift after specific curing periods. In addition, splitting tensile strength was measured on each sample to characterize the variation of residual strength. Then, a correlation between the hysteretic nonlinearity parameter and residual strength was proposed from each test result.

Keywords: Fire damaged concrete, nonlinear resonance vibration method, nonlinearity parameter, post-fire-curing, splitting tensile strength.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1821
1218 Experimental and Numerical Study of Ultra-High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Column Subjected to Axial and Eccentric Loads

Authors: Chengfeng Fang, Mohamed Ali Sadakkathulla, Abdul Sheikh

Abstract:

Ultra-high-performance fiber reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) is a specially formulated cement-based composite characterized with an ultra-high compressive strength (fc = 240 MPa) and a low water-cement ratio (W/B= 0.2). With such material characteristics, UHPFRC is favored for the design and constructions of structures required high structural performance and slender geometries. Unlike conventional concrete, the structural performance of members manufactured with UHPFRC has not yet been fully studied, particularly, for UHPFRC columns with high slenderness. In this study, the behaviors of slender UHPFRC columns under concentric or eccentric load will be investigated both experimentally and numerically. Four slender UHPFRC columns were tested under eccentric loads with eccentricities, of 0 mm, 35 mm, 50 mm, and 85 mm, respectively, and one UHPFRC beam was tested under four-point bending. Finite element (FE) analysis was conducted with concrete damage plasticity (CDP) modulus to simulating the load-middle height or middle span deflection relationships and damage patterns of all UHPFRC members. Simulated results were compared against the experimental results and observation to gain the confidence of FE model, and this model was further extended to conduct parametric studies, which aim to investigate the effects of slenderness regarding failure modes and load-moment interaction relationships. Experimental results showed that the load bearing capacities of the slender columns reduced with an increase in eccentricity. Comparisons between load-middle height and middle span deflection relationships as well as damage patterns of all UHPFRC members obtained both experimentally and numerically demonstrated high accuracy of the FE simulations. Based on the available FE model, the following parametric study indicated that a further increase in the slenderness of column resulted in significant decreases in the load-bearing capacities, ductility index, and flexural bending capacities.

Keywords: Eccentric loads, ductility index, RC column, slenderness, UHPFRC.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 614
1217 Calculating Strain Energy in Multi-Surface Models of Cyclic Plasticity

Authors: S. Shahrooi, I. H. Metselaar, Z. Huda

Abstract:

When considering the development of constitutive equations describing the behavior of materials under cyclic plastic strains, different kinds of formulations can be adopted. The primary intention of this study is to develop computer programming of plasticity models to accurately predict the life of engineering components. For this purpose, the energy or cyclic strain is computed in multi-surface plasticity models in non-proportional loading and to present their procedures and codes results.

Keywords: Strain energy, cyclic plasticity model, multi-surface model, codes result.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1821
1216 Three-Dimensional Numerical Investigation for Reinforced Concrete Slabs with Opening

Authors: Abdelrahman Elsehsah, Hany Madkour, Khalid Farah

Abstract:

This article presents a 3-D modified non-linear elastic model in the strain space. The Helmholtz free energy function is introduced with the existence of a dissipation potential surface in the space of thermodynamic conjugate forces. The constitutive equation and the damage evolution were derived as well. The modified damage has been examined to model the nonlinear behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) slabs with an opening. A parametric study with RC was carried out to investigate the impact of different factors on the behavior of RC slabs. These factors are the opening area, the opening shape, the place of opening, and the thickness of the slabs. And the numerical results have been compared with the experimental data from literature. Finally, the model showed its ability to be applied to the structural analysis of RC slabs.

Keywords: 3-D numerical analysis, damage mechanics, RC slab with opening.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 496
1215 Implementation of Generalized Plasticity in Load-Deformation Behavior of Foundation with Emphasis on Localization Problem

Authors: A. H. Akhaveissy

Abstract:

Nonlinear finite element method with eight noded isoparametric quadrilateral element is used for prediction of loaddeformation behavior including bearing capacity of foundations. Modified generalized plasticity model with non-associated flow rule is applied for analysis of soil-footing system. Also Von Mises and Tresca criterions are used for simulation of soil behavior. Modified generalized plasticity model is able to simulate load-deformation including softening behavior. Localization phenomena are considered by different meshes. Localization phenomena have not been seen in the examples. Predictions by modified generalized plasticity model show good agreement with laboratory data and theoretical prediction in comparison the other models.

Keywords: Localization phenomena, Generalized plasticity, Non-associated Flow Rule

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1347
1214 Structural Engineering Forensic Evaluation of Misdiagnosed Concrete Masonry Wall Cracking

Authors: W. C. Bracken

Abstract:

Given that concrete masonry walls are expected to experience shrinkage combined with thermal expansion and contraction, and in some cases even carbonation, throughout their service life, cracking is to be expected. However, after concrete masonry walls have been placed into service, originally anticipated and accounted for cracking is often misdiagnosed as a structural defect. Such misdiagnoses often result in or are used to support litigation. This paper begins by discussing the causes and types of anticipated cracking within concrete masonry walls followed by a discussion on the processes and analyses that exists for properly evaluating them and their significance. From here, the paper then presents a case of misdiagnosed concrete masonry cracking and the flawed logic employed to support litigation.

Keywords: Concrete masonry, masonry wall cracking, structural defect, structural damage, construction defect, forensic investigation.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1002
1213 Experimental Inspection of Damage and Performance Evaluation after Repair and Strengthening of Jiamusi Highway Prestressed Concrete Bridge in China

Authors: Ali Fadhil Naser, Wang Zonglin

Abstract:

The main objectives of this study are to inspect and identify any damage of jaimusi highway prestressed concrete bridge after repair and strengthening of damaged structural members and to evaluate the performance of the bridge structural members by adopting static load test. Inspection program after repair and strengthening includes identifying and evaluating the structural members of bridge such as T-shape cantilever structure, hanging beams, corbels, external tendons, anchor beams, sticking steel plate, and piers. The results of inspection show that the overall state of the bridge structural member after repair and strengthening is good. The results of rebound test of concrete strength show that the average strength of concrete is 46.31Mpa. Whereas, the average value of concrete strength of anchor beam is 49.82Mpa. According to the results of static load test, the experimental values are less than theoretical values of internal forces, deflection, and strain, indicating that the stiffness of the experimental structure, overall deformation and integrity satisfy the designed standard and the working performance is good, and the undertaking capacity has a certain surplus. There is not visible change in the length and width of cracks and there are not new cracks under experimental load.

Keywords: Jiamusi Bridge, Damage inspection, deflection, strain.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1550
1212 Seismic Behavior of Thin Shear Wall under the Exerted Loads

Authors: Ali A. Ofoghi

Abstract:

While the shear walls are not economical in buildings, thin shear walls are widely used in the buildings. In the present study, the ratio of different loads to their plasticity and seismic behavior of the wall under different loads have been investigated. Modeling and analysis are carried out by the finite element analysis software ABAQUS. The results show that any increase in the exerted loads will have adverse effects on the seismic behavior of the thin shear walls and causes the wall to collapse by small displacements.

Keywords: Thin shear wall, nonlinear dynamic analysis, reinforced concrete, plasticity.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 650
1211 Effects of Aggressive Ammonium Nitrate on Durability Properties of Concrete Using Sandstone and Granite Aggregates

Authors: L. Wong, H. Asrah, M.E. Rahman, M.A. Mannan

Abstract:

The storage of chemical fertilizers in concrete building often leads to durability problems due to chemical attack. The damage of concrete is mostly caused by certain ammonium salts. The main purpose of the research is to investigate the durability properties of concrete being exposed to ammonium nitrate solution. In this investigation, experiments are conducted on concrete type G50 and G60. The leaching process is achieved by the use of 20% concentration solution of ammonium nitrate. The durability properties investigated are water absorption, volume of permeable voids, and sorptivity. Compressive strength, pH value, and degradation depth are measured after a certain period of leaching. A decrease in compressive strength and an increase in porosity are found through the conducted experiments. Apart from that, the experimental data shows that pH value decreases with increased leaching time while the degradation depth of concrete increases with leaching time. By comparing concrete type G50 and G60, concrete type G60 is more resistant to ammonium nitrate attack.

Keywords: Normal weight concrete durability, Aggressive Ammonium Nitrate Solution, G50 & G60 concretes, Chemical attack.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 6169
1210 A Procedure for Post-Earthquake Damage Estimation Based on Detection of High-Frequency Transients

Authors: Aleksandar Zhelyazkov, Daniele Zonta, Helmut Wenzel, Peter Furtner

Abstract:

In the current research structural health monitoring is considered for addressing the critical issue of post-earthquake damage detection. A non-standard approach for damage detection via acoustic emission is presented - acoustic emissions are monitored in the low frequency range (up to 120 Hz). Such emissions are termed high-frequency transients. Further a damage indicator defined as the Time-Ratio Damage Indicator is introduced. The indicator relies on time-instance measurements of damage initiation and deformation peaks. Based on the time-instance measurements a procedure for estimation of the maximum drift ratio is proposed. Monitoring data is used from a shaking-table test of a full-scale reinforced concrete bridge pier. Damage of the experimental column is successfully detected and the proposed damage indicator is calculated.

Keywords: Acoustic emission, Damage detection, Shaking table test, Structural health monitoring, High-frequency transients.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 683
1209 Study on Two Way Reinforced Concrete Slab Using ANSYS with Different Boundary Conditions and Loading

Authors: A. Gherbi, L. Dahmani, A. Boudjemia

Abstract:

This paper presents the Finite Element Method (FEM) for analyzing the failure pattern of rectangular slab with various edge conditions. Non-Linear static analysis is carried out using ANSYS 15 Software. Using SOLID65 solid elements, the compressive crushing of concrete is facilitated using plasticity algorithm, while the concrete cracking in tension zone is accommodated by the nonlinear material model. Smeared reinforcement is used and introduced as a percentage of steel embedded in concrete slab. The behavior of the analyzed concrete slab has been observed in terms of the crack pattern and displacement for various loading and boundary conditions. The finite element results are also compared with the experimental data. One of the other objectives of the present study is to show how similar the crack path found by ANSYS program to those observed for the yield line analysis. The smeared reinforcement method is found to be more practical especially for the layered elements like concrete slabs. The value of this method is that it does not require explicit modeling of the rebar, and thus a much coarser mesh can be defined.

Keywords: ANSYS, cracking pattern, displacements, RC Slab, smeared reinforcement.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 880
1208 Modeling of Plasticity of Clays Submitted to Compression Test

Authors: Otávio J.U. Flores, Fernando A. Andrade, Dachamir Hotza, Hazim A. Al-Qureshi

Abstract:

In the forming of ceramic materials the plasticity concept is commonly used. This term is related to a particular mechanical behavior when clay is mixed with water. A plastic ceramic material shows a permanent strain without rupture when a compressive load produces a shear stress that exceeds the material-s yield strength. For a plastic ceramic body it observes a measurable elastic behavior before the yield strength and when the applied load is removed. In this work, a mathematical model was developed from applied concepts of the plasticity theory by using the stress/strain diagram under compression.

Keywords: Plasticity, clay, modeling, coefficient of friction.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1842
1207 Analysis of Possibilities for Using Recycled Concrete Aggregate in Concrete Pavement

Authors: R. Pernicova, D. Dobias

Abstract:

The present article describes the limits of using recycled concrete aggregate (denoted as RCA) in the top layer of concrete roads. The main aim of this work is to investigate the possibility of reuse of recycled aggregates obtained by crushing the old concrete roads as a building material in the new top layers of concrete pavements. The paper is based on gathering the current knowledge about how to use recycled concrete aggregate, suitability, and modification of the properties and its standards. Regulations are detailed and described especially for European Union and for Czech Republic.

Keywords: Concrete, Czech Republic, pavements, recycled concrete aggregate, RCA, standards.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 1041
1206 The Effect of Intermediate Stiffeners on Steel Reinforced Concrete Beams Behaviors

Authors: Teguh Sudibyo, Cheng-Cheng Chen

Abstract:

Eight steel reinforced concrete beams (SRC), were fabricated and tested under earthquake type cyclic loading. The effectiveness of intermediate stiffeners, such as mid-span stiffener and plastic hinge zone stiffeners, in enhancing composite action and ductility of SRC beams was investigated. The effectiveness of strengthened beam-to-column (SBC) and weakened beam-to-column (WBC) connections in enhancing beam ductility was also studied. It was found that: (1) All the specimens possessed fairly high flexural ductility and were found adequate for structures in high seismic zones. (2) WBC connections induced stress concentration which caused extra damage to concrete near the flange tapering zone. This extra damage inhibited the flexural strength development and the ductility of the specimens with WBC connections to some extent. (3) Specimens with SBC connections demonstrated higher flexural strength and ductility compared to specimens with WBC connections. (4) The intermediate stiffeners, especially combination of plastic hinge zone stiffener and mid span stiffeners, have an obvious effect in enhancing the ductility of the beams with SBC connection.

Keywords: Composite beam, concrete encased steel beam, steel reinforced concrete, stiffeners.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 3585
1205 Seismic Fragility for Sliding Failure of Weir Structure Considering the Process of Concrete Aging

Authors: HoYoung Son, Ki Young Kim, Woo Young Jung

Abstract:

This study investigated the change of weir structure performances when durability of concrete, which is the main material of weir structure, decreased due to their aging by mean of seismic fragility analysis. In the analysis, it was assumed that the elastic modulus of concrete was reduced by 10% in order to account for their aged deterioration. Additionally, the analysis of seismic fragility was based on Monte Carlo Simulation method combined with a 2D nonlinear finite element in ABAQUS platform with the consideration of deterioration of concrete. Finally, the comparison of seismic fragility of model pre- and post-deterioration was made to study the performance of weir. Results show that the probability of failure in moderate damage for deteriorated model was found to be larger than pre-deterioration model when peak ground acceleration (PGA) passed 0.4 g.

Keywords: Weir, FEM, concrete, fragility, aging.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 683
1204 Reliability Analysis of P-I Diagram Formula for RC Column Subjected to Blast Load

Authors: Masoud Abedini, Azrul A. Mutalib, Shahrizan Baharom, Hong Hao

Abstract:

This study was conducted published to investigate there liability of the equation pressure-impulse (PI) reinforced concrete column inprevious studies. Equation involves three different levels of damage criteria known as D =0. 2, D =0. 5 and D =0. 8.The damage criteria known as a minor when 0-0.2, 0.2-0.5is known as moderate damage, high damage known as 0.5-0.8, and 0.8-1 of the structure is considered a failure. In this study, two types of reliability analyzes conducted. First, using pressure-impulse equation with different parameters. The parameters involved are the concrete strength, depth, width, and height column, the ratio of longitudinal reinforcement and transverse reinforcement ratio. In the first analysis of the reliability of this new equation is derived to improve the previous equations. The second reliability analysis involves three types of columns used to derive the PI curve diagram using the derived equation to compare with the equation derived from other researchers and graph minimum standoff versus weapon yield Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The results showed that the derived equation is more accurate with FEMA standards than previous researchers.

Keywords: Blast load, RC column, P-I curve, Analytical formulae, Standard FEMA.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2675
1203 Damage Strain Analysis of Parallel Fiber Eutectic

Authors: Jian Zheng, Xinhua Ni, Xiequan Liu

Abstract:

According to isotropy of parallel fiber eutectic, the no- damage strain field in parallel fiber eutectic is obtained from the flexibility tensor of parallel fiber eutectic. Considering the damage behavior of parallel fiber eutectic, damage variables are introduced to determine the strain field of parallel fiber eutectic. The damage strains in the matrix, interphase, and fiber of parallel fiber eutectic are quantitatively analyzed. Results show that damage strains are not only associated with the fiber volume fraction of parallel fiber eutectic, but also with the damage degree.

Keywords: Parallel fiber eutectic, no-damage strain, damage strain, fiber volume fraction, damage degree.

Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 568