Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4446

Search results for: cognitive systems

4446 Definition of Cognitive Infocommunications and an Architectural Implementation of Cognitive Infocommunications Systems

Authors: Peter Baranyi, Gyorgy Persa, Adam Csapo

Abstract:

Cognitive Infocommunications (CogInfoCom) is a new research direction which has emerged as the synergic convergence of infocommunications and the cognitive sciences. In this paper, we provide the definition of CogInfoCom, and propose an architectural framework for the interaction-oriented design of CogInfoCom systems. We provide the outlines of an application example of the interaction-oriented architecture, and briefly discuss its main characteristics.

Keywords: Cognitive infocommunications, CogInfoCom, Cognitive Infocommunication Channels, CogInfoCom channels

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4445 eTransformation Framework for the Cognitive Systems

Authors: Ana Hol

Abstract:

Digital systems are in the Cognitive wave of the eTransformations and are now extensively aimed at meeting the individuals’ demands, both those of customers requiring services and those of service providers. It is also apparent that successful future systems will not just simply open doors to the traditional owners/users to offer and receive services such as Uber, for example, does today, but will in the future require more customized and cognitively enabled infrastructures that will be responsive to the system user’s needs. To be able to identify what is required for such systems this research reviews the historical and the current effects of the eTransformation process by studying: 1. eTransitions of company websites and mobile applications, 2. Emergence of new shared economy business models such as Uber, and 3. New requirements for demand driven, cognitive systems capable of learning and just-in-time decision-making. Based on the analysis, this study proposes a Cognitive eTransformation Framework capable of guiding implementations of new responsive and user aware systems.

Keywords: System implementations, AI supported systems, cognitive systems, eTransformation.

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4444 Measuring Cognitive Load - A Solution to Ease Learning of Programming

Authors: Muhammed Yousoof, Mohd Sapiyan, Khaja Kamaluddin

Abstract:

Learning programming is difficult for many learners. Some researches have found that the main difficulty relates to cognitive load. Cognitive overload happens in programming due to the nature of the subject which is intrinisicly over-bearing on the working memory. It happens due to the complexity of the subject itself. The problem is made worse by the poor instructional design methodology used in the teaching and learning process. Various efforts have been proposed to reduce the cognitive load, e.g. visualization softwares, part-program method etc. Use of many computer based systems have also been tried to tackle the problem. However, little success has been made to alleviate the problem. More has to be done to overcome this hurdle. This research attempts at understanding how cognitive load can be managed so as to reduce the problem of overloading. We propose a mechanism to measure the cognitive load during pre instruction, post instruction and in instructional stages of learning. This mechanism is used to help the instruction. As the load changes the instruction is made to adapt itself to ensure cognitive viability. This mechanism could be incorporated as a sub domain in the student model of various computer based instructional systems to facilitate the learning of programming.

Keywords: Cognitive load, Working memory, Cognitive Loadmeasurement.

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4443 Big Bang – Big Crunch Learning Method for Fuzzy Cognitive Maps

Authors: Engin Yesil, Leon Urbas

Abstract:

Modeling of complex dynamic systems, which are very complicated to establish mathematical models, requires new and modern methodologies that will exploit the existing expert knowledge, human experience and historical data. Fuzzy cognitive maps are very suitable, simple, and powerful tools for simulation and analysis of these kinds of dynamic systems. However, human experts are subjective and can handle only relatively simple fuzzy cognitive maps; therefore, there is a need of developing new approaches for an automated generation of fuzzy cognitive maps using historical data. In this study, a new learning algorithm, which is called Big Bang-Big Crunch, is proposed for the first time in literature for an automated generation of fuzzy cognitive maps from data. Two real-world examples; namely a process control system and radiation therapy process, and one synthetic model are used to emphasize the effectiveness and usefulness of the proposed methodology.

Keywords: Big Bang-Big Crunch optimization, Dynamic Systems, Fuzzy Cognitive Maps, Learning.

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4442 Identification of Training Topics for the Improvement of the Relevant Cognitive Skills of Technical Operators in the Railway Domain

Authors: Giulio Nisoli, Jonas Brüngger, Karin Hostettler, Nicole Stoller, Katrin Fischer

Abstract:

Technical operators in the railway domain are experts responsible for the supervisory control of the railway power grid as well as of the railway tunnels. The technical systems used to master these demanding tasks are constantly increasing in their degree of automation. It becomes therefore difficult for technical operators to maintain the control over the technical systems and the processes of their job. In particular, the operators must have the necessary experience and knowledge in dealing with a malfunction situation or unexpected event. For this reason, it is of growing importance that the skills relevant for the execution of the job are maintained and further developed beyond the basic training they receive, where they are educated in respect of technical knowledge and the work with guidelines. Training methods aimed at improving the cognitive skills needed by technical operators are still missing and must be developed. Goals of the present study were to identify which are the relevant cognitive skills of technical operators in the railway domain and to define which topics should be addressed by the training of these skills. Observational interviews were conducted in order to identify the main tasks and the organization of the work of technical operators as well as the technical systems used for the execution of their job. Based on this analysis, the most demanding tasks of technical operators could be identified and described. The cognitive skills involved in the execution of these tasks are those, which need to be trained. In order to identify and analyze these cognitive skills a cognitive task analysis (CTA) was developed. CTA specifically aims at identifying the cognitive skills that employees implement when performing their own tasks. The identified cognitive skills of technical operators were summarized and grouped in training topics. For every training topic, specific goals were defined. The goals regard the three main categories; knowledge, skills and attitude to be trained in every training topic. Based on the results of this study, it is possible to develop specific training methods to train the relevant cognitive skills of the technical operators.

Keywords: Cognitive skills, cognitive task analysis, technical operators in the railway domain, training topics.

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4441 Evaluation Pattern of Cognitive Processes in Language in Written Comprehension

Authors: Agnès Garletti

Abstract:

Our research aims at helping the tutor on line to evaluate the student-s cognitive processes. The student is a learner in French as a Second Language who studies an on-line socio-cognitive scenario in written communication. In our method, these cognitive processes are defined. For that, the language abilities and learning tasks are associated to cognitive operation. Moreover, the found cognitive processes are named with specific terms. The result was to create an instrumental pattern to question the learner about the cognitive processes used to build an item of written comprehension. Our research follows the principles of the third historical generation of studies on the cognitive activity of the text comprehension. The strength of our instrumental pattern stands in the precision and the logical articulation of the questions to the learner. However, the learner-s answers can still be subjective but the precision of the instrument restricts it.

Keywords: Cognitive processes, Evaluation pattern, French as asecond language, Socio-cognitive scenario, Written comprehension.

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4440 Characteristics of Cognitive Functions among Polish Adolescence with Spelling Disorders

Authors: Izabela Pietras

Abstract:

The level of visual abilities, language, memory processes and intellectual functioning development affects the quality of a written text. The following analysis will present the results of diagnostic tests indicating the most common criterion for a group and stating whether a person has been diagnosed with having cognitive developmental level below the group-s average or not.The study-s aim is to determine whether there are specific patterns of cognitive deficits, which can be distinguished among the group of young people with spelling disorders.

Keywords: cognitive deficits, cognitive functions, spellingdisorders

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4439 A Survey on Metric of Software Cognitive Complexity for OO design

Authors: A.Aloysius, L. Arockiam

Abstract:

In modern era, the biggest challenge facing the software industry is the upcoming of new technologies. So, the software engineers are gearing up themselves to meet and manage change in large software system. Also they find it difficult to deal with software cognitive complexities. In the last few years many metrics were proposed to measure the cognitive complexity of software. This paper aims at a comprehensive survey of the metric of software cognitive complexity. Some classic and efficient software cognitive complexity metrics, such as Class Complexity (CC), Weighted Class Complexity (WCC), Extended Weighted Class Complexity (EWCC), Class Complexity due to Inheritance (CCI) and Average Complexity of a program due to Inheritance (ACI), are discussed and analyzed. The comparison and the relationship of these metrics of software complexity are also presented.

Keywords: Software Metrics, Software Complexity, Cognitive Informatics, Cognitive Complexity, Software measurement

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4438 Underlying Cognitive Complexity Measure Computation with Combinatorial Rules

Authors: Benjapol Auprasert, Yachai Limpiyakorn

Abstract:

Measuring the complexity of software has been an insoluble problem in software engineering. Complexity measures can be used to predict critical information about testability, reliability, and maintainability of software systems from automatic analysis of the source code. During the past few years, many complexity measures have been invented based on the emerging Cognitive Informatics discipline. These software complexity measures, including cognitive functional size, lend themselves to the approach of the total cognitive weights of basic control structures such as loops and branches. This paper shows that the current existing calculation method can generate different results that are algebraically equivalence. However, analysis of the combinatorial meanings of this calculation method shows significant flaw of the measure, which also explains why it does not satisfy Weyuker's properties. Based on the findings, improvement directions, such as measures fusion, and cumulative variable counting scheme are suggested to enhance the effectiveness of cognitive complexity measures.

Keywords: Cognitive Complexity Measure, Cognitive Weight of Basic Control Structure, Counting Rules, Cumulative Variable Counting Scheme.

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4437 Managing User Expectations in Information Systems Development

Authors: Linda, Sau-ling Lai

Abstract:

This paper provides new ways to explore the old problem of failure of information systems development in an organisation. Based on the theory of cognitive dissonance, information systems (IS) failure is defined as a gap between what the users expect from an information system and how well these expectations are met by the perceived performance of the delivered system. Bridging the expectation-perception gap requires that IS professionals make a radical change from being the proprietor of information systems and products to being service providers. In order to deliver systems and services that IS users perceive as valuable, IS people must become expert in determining and assessing users- expectations and perceptions. It is also suggested that the IS community, in general, has given relatively little attention to the front-end process of requirements specification for IS development. There is a simplistic belief that requirements are obtainable from users, they are then translatable into a formal specification. The process of information needs analysis is problematic and worthy of investigation.

Keywords: Information Systems Development, Cognitive Dissonance, Expectation-Perception Gap, Requirements Analysis.

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4436 Problem-based Learning Approach to Human Computer Interaction

Authors: Oon-Seng Tan

Abstract:

Human Computer Interaction (HCI) has been an emerging field that draws in the experts from various fields to enhance the application of computer programs and the ease of computer users. HCI has much to do with learning and cognition and an emerging approach to learning and problem-solving is problembased learning (PBL). The processes of PBL involve important cognitive functions in the various stages. This paper will illustrate how closely related fields to HCI, PBL and cognitive psychology can benefit from informing each other through analysing various cognitive functions. Several cognitive functions from cognitive function disc (CFD) would be presented and discussed in relation to human-computer interface. This paper concludes with the implications of bridging the gaps amongst these disciplines.

Keywords: problem-based learning, human computerinteraction, cognitive psychology, Cognitive Function Disc (CFD)

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4435 Single Port Overlay Cognitive Radio Using Reconfigurable Filtennas

Authors: V. Nagaraju, Tapas Bapu. B. R, Beryl J. Victor

Abstract:

In this paper cognitive radio is presented and the spectrum overlay cognitive radio antenna system is detailed. A UWB antenna with frequency reconfigurable characteristics is proposed. The reconfigurability is achieved when the filter is integrated to the feeding line of the single port overlay cognitive radio. When activated, the filter can transform the UWB frequency response into a reconfigurable narrowband one, which is suitable for the communication operation of the CR system. Here single port overlay cognitive radio antenna is designed and simulated using Ansoft High Frequency Structure Simulator (HFSS).

Keywords: Band-pass filter, Cognitive radio, filtenna, frequency reconfigurable, ultra-wideband antenna.

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4434 Impact of Behavioral Aspects of Autism on Cognitive Abilities in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Authors: Rana M. Zeina, Laila AL-Ayadhi, Shahid Bashir

Abstract:

Cognitive symptoms and behavioral symptoms may, in fact, overlap and be related to the level of the general cognitive function. We have measured the behavioral aspects of autism and its correlation to the cognitive ability in 30 children with ASD. We used a neuropsychological Battery CANTAB eclipse to evaluate the ASD children's cognitive ability. Individuals with ASD and challenging behaviors showed significant correlation between some cognitive abilities and Motor aspects. Based on these findings, we can conclude that the motor behavioral problems in autism affect specific cognitive abilities in ASDs such as comprehension, learning, reversal, acquisition, attention set shifting, and speed of reaction to one stimulus. Future researches should also focus on the relationship between motor stereotypes and other subtypes of repetitive behaviors, such as verbal stereotypes, ritual routine adherence, and the use of different types of CANTAB tests.

Keywords: Autism, Cognitive ability, Motor Behavior, and Neuropsychological battery.

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4433 Cognitive Weighted Polymorphism Factor: A Comprehension Augmented Complexity Metric

Authors: T. Francis Thamburaj, A. Aloysius

Abstract:

Polymorphism is one of the main pillars of objectoriented paradigm. It induces hidden forms of class dependencies which may impact software quality, resulting in higher cost factor for comprehending, debugging, testing, and maintaining the software. In this paper, a new cognitive complexity metric called Cognitive Weighted Polymorphism Factor (CWPF) is proposed. Apart from the software structural complexity, it includes the cognitive complexity on the basis of type. The cognitive weights are calibrated based on 27 empirical studies with 120 persons. A case study and experimentation of the new software metric shows positive results. Further, a comparative study is made and the correlation test has proved that CWPF complexity metric is a better, more comprehensive, and more realistic indicator of the software complexity than Abreu’s Polymorphism Factor (PF) complexity metric.

Keywords: Cognitive complexity metric, cognitive weighted polymorphism factor, object-oriented metrics, polymorphism factor, software metrics.

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4432 The Emotions in Consumers’ Decision Making: Review of Empirical Studies

Authors: Mikel Alonso López

Abstract:

This paper explores, in depth, the idea that emotions are present in all consumer decision making processes, meaning that purchase decisions have never been purely cognitive or as they traditionally have been defined, rational. Human beings, in all kinds of decisions, has "always" used neural systems related to emotions along with neural systems related to cognition, regardless of the type of purchase or the product or service in question. Therefore, all purchase decisions are, at the same time, cognitive and emotional. This paper presents an analysis of the main contributions of researchers in this regard.

Keywords: Emotions, decision making, consumer behavior.

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4431 Attribute Weighted Class Complexity: A New Metric for Measuring Cognitive Complexity of OO Systems

Authors: Dr. L. Arockiam, A. Aloysius

Abstract:

In general, class complexity is measured based on any one of these factors such as Line of Codes (LOC), Functional points (FP), Number of Methods (NOM), Number of Attributes (NOA) and so on. There are several new techniques, methods and metrics with the different factors that are to be developed by the researchers for calculating the complexity of the class in Object Oriented (OO) software. Earlier, Arockiam et.al has proposed a new complexity measure namely Extended Weighted Class Complexity (EWCC) which is an extension of Weighted Class Complexity which is proposed by Mishra et.al. EWCC is the sum of cognitive weights of attributes and methods of the class and that of the classes derived. In EWCC, a cognitive weight of each attribute is considered to be 1. The main problem in EWCC metric is that, every attribute holds the same value but in general, cognitive load in understanding the different types of attributes cannot be the same. So here, we are proposing a new metric namely Attribute Weighted Class Complexity (AWCC). In AWCC, the cognitive weights have to be assigned for the attributes which are derived from the effort needed to understand their data types. The proposed metric has been proved to be a better measure of complexity of class with attributes through the case studies and experiments

Keywords: Software Complexity, Attribute Weighted Class Complexity, Weighted Class Complexity, Data Type

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4430 Towards Better Understanding of the Concept of Tacit Knowledge – A Cognitive Approach

Authors: Ilkka J. Virtanen

Abstract:

Tacit knowledge has been one of the most discussed and contradictory concepts in the field of knowledge management since the mid 1990s. The concept is used relatively vaguely to refer to any type of information that is difficult to articulate, which has led to discussions about the original meaning of the concept (adopted from Polanyi-s philosophy) and the nature of tacit knowing. It is proposed that the subject should be approached from the perspective of cognitive science in order to connect tacit knowledge to empirically studied cognitive phenomena. Some of the most important examples of tacit knowing presented by Polanyi are analyzed in order to trace the cognitive mechanisms of tacit knowing and to promote better understanding of the nature of tacit knowledge. The cognitive approach to Polanyi-s theory reveals that the tacit/explicit typology of knowledge often presented in the knowledge management literature is not only artificial but totally opposite approach compared to Polanyi-s thinking.

Keywords: Cognitive science, explicit knowledge, knowledgemanagement, tacit knowledge.

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4429 Expert Based System Design for Integrated Waste Management

Authors: A. Buruzs, M. F. Hatwágner, A. Torma, L. T. Kóczy

Abstract:

Recently, an increasing number of researchers have been focusing on working out realistic solutions to sustainability problems. As sustainability issues gain higher importance for organisations, the management of such decisions becomes critical. Knowledge representation is a fundamental issue of complex knowledge based systems. Many types of sustainability problems would benefit from models based on experts’ knowledge. Cognitive maps have been used for analyzing and aiding decision making. A cognitive map can be made of almost any system or problem. A fuzzy cognitive map (FCM) can successfully represent knowledge and human experience, introducing concepts to represent the essential elements and the cause and effect relationships among the concepts to model the behaviour of any system. Integrated waste management systems (IWMS) are complex systems that can be decomposed to non-related and related subsystems and elements, where many factors have to be taken into consideration that may be complementary, contradictory, and competitive; these factors influence each other and determine the overall decision process of the system. The goal of the present paper is to construct an efficient IWMS which considers various factors. The authors’ intention is to propose an expert based system design approach for implementing expert decision support in the area of IWMSs and introduces an appropriate methodology for the development and analysis of group FCM. A framework for such a methodology consisting of the development and application phases is presented.

Keywords: Factors, fuzzy cognitive map, group decision, integrated waste management system.

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4428 Enhancement of Capacity in a MC-CDMA based Cognitive Radio Network Using Non-Cooperative Game Model

Authors: Kalyani J. Kulkarni, Bharat S. Chaudhari

Abstract:

This paper addresses the issue of resource allocation in the emerging cognitive technology. Focusing the Quality of Service (QoS) of Primary Users (PU), a novel method is proposed for the resource allocation of Secondary Users (SU). In this paper, we propose the unique Utility Function in the game theoretic model of Cognitive Radio which can be maximized to increase the capacity of the Cognitive Radio Network (CRN) and to minimize the interference scenario. Utility function is formulated to cater the need of PUs by observing Signal to Noise ratio. Existence of Nash Equilibrium for the postulated game is established.

Keywords: Cognitive Networks, Game Theory, Nash Equilibrium, Resource Allocation.

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4427 Depression and Its Effects on a Cognitive Performance Test

Authors: C. Noi-Okwei

Abstract:

In this study, participants with adjustment disorder with depressed mood (aged 18-54 years) with mild depression (N=18), severe depression (N=12) were compared with healthy controls (N=20) on the Multidimensional Aptitude Battery (MAB) a cognitive performance test. Using One Way Analysis of Variance and Matched Sample t-test. The results of the analysis shows that severely depressed participants performed poorly on the cognitive performance test relative to controls, however there were no significant differences on the cognitive performance test scores between the severely depressed and the mildly depressed. In addition, performance on the non-verbal performance subtest was poorer than that of the verbal subtest, suggesting that depression affects the executive functions of the person.

Keywords: adjustment disorder, cognitive performance test, Depression,

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4426 Performance Evaluation of Qos Parameters in Cognitive Radio Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Maninder Jeet Kaur, Moin Uddin, Harsh K. Verma

Abstract:

The efficient use of available licensed spectrum is becoming more and more critical with increasing demand and usage of the radio spectrum. This paper shows how the use of spectrum as well as dynamic spectrum management can be effectively managed and spectrum allocation schemes in the wireless communication systems be implemented and used, in future. This paper would be an attempt towards better utilization of the spectrum. This research will focus on the decision-making process mainly, with an assumption that the radio environment has already been sensed and the QoS requirements for the application have been specified either by the sensed radio environment or by the secondary user itself. We identify and study the characteristic parameters of Cognitive Radio and use Genetic Algorithm for spectrum allocation. Performance evaluation is done using MATLAB toolboxes.

Keywords: Cognitive Radio, Fitness Functions, Fuzzy Logic, Quality of Service (QoS)

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4425 The Effects of Visual Elements and Cognitive Styles on Students Learning in Hypermedia Environment

Authors: Rishi Ruttun

Abstract:

One of the major features of hypermedia learning is its non-linear structure, allowing learners, the opportunity of flexible navigation to accommodate their own needs. Nevertheless, such flexibility can also cause problems such as insufficient navigation and disorientation for some learners, especially those with Field Dependent cognitive styles. As a result students learning performance can be deteriorated and in turn, they can have negative attitudes with hypermedia learning systems. It was suggested that visual elements can be used to compensate dilemmas. However, it is unclear whether these visual elements improve their learning or whether problems still exist. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of students cognitive styles and visual elements on students learning performance and attitudes in hypermedia learning environment. Cognitive Style Analysis (CSA), Learning outcome in terms of pre and post-test, practical task, and Attitude Questionnaire (AQ) were administered to a sample of 60 university students. The findings revealed that FD students preformed equally to those of FI. Also, FD students experienced more disorientation in the hypermedia learning system where they depend a lot on the visual elements for navigation and orientation purposes. Furthermore, they had more positive attitudes towards the visual elements which escape them from experiencing navigation and disorientation dilemmas. In contrast, FI students were more comfortable, did not get disturbed or did not need some of the visual elements in the hypermedia learning system.

Keywords: Hypermedia learning, cognitive styles, visual elements, support, learning performance, attitudes and perceptions

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4424 Key Concepts of 5th Generation Mobile Technology

Authors: H. Magri, N. Abghour, M. Ouzzif

Abstract:

The 5th generation of mobile networks is term used in various research papers and projects to identify the next major phase of mobile telecommunications standards. 5G wireless networks will support higher peak data rate, lower latency and provide best connections with QoS guarantees. In this article, we discuss various promising technologies for 5G wireless communication systems, such as IPv6 support, World Wide Wireless Web (WWWW), Dynamic Adhoc Wireless Networks (DAWN), BEAM DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (BDMA), Cloud Computing, cognitive radio technology and FBMC/OQAM. This paper is organized as follows: First, we will give introduction to 5G systems, present some goals and requirements of 5G. In the next, basic differences between 4G and 5G are given, after we talk about key technology innovations of 5G systems and finally we will conclude in last Section.

Keywords: WWWW, BDMA, DAWN, 5G, 4G, IPv6, Cloud Computing, cognitive radio, FBMC/OQAM.

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4423 Wavelet-Based Spectrum Sensing for Cognitive Radios using Hilbert Transform

Authors: Shiann-Shiun Jeng, Jia-Ming Chen, Hong-Zong Lin, Chen-Wan Tsung

Abstract:

For cognitive radio networks, there is a major spectrum sensing problem, i.e. dynamic spectrum management. It is an important issue to sense and identify the spectrum holes in cognitive radio networks. The first-order derivative scheme is usually used to detect the edge of the spectrum. In this paper, a novel spectrum sensing technique for cognitive radio is presented. The proposed algorithm offers efficient edge detection. Then, simulation results show the performance of the first-order derivative scheme and the proposed scheme and depict that the proposed scheme obtains better performance than does the first-order derivative scheme.

Keywords: cognitive radio, Spectrum Sensing, wavelet, edgedetection

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4422 Modern Spectrum Sensing Techniques for Cognitive Radio Networks: Practical Implementation and Performance Evaluation

Authors: Antoni Ivanov, Nikolay Dandanov, Nicole Christoff, Vladimir Poulkov

Abstract:

Spectrum underutilization has made cognitive radio a promising technology both for current and future telecommunications. This is due to the ability to exploit the unused spectrum in the bands dedicated to other wireless communication systems, and thus, increase their occupancy. The essential function, which allows the cognitive radio device to perceive the occupancy of the spectrum, is spectrum sensing. In this paper, the performance of modern adaptations of the four most widely used spectrum sensing techniques namely, energy detection (ED), cyclostationary feature detection (CSFD), matched filter (MF) and eigenvalues-based detection (EBD) is compared. The implementation has been accomplished through the PlutoSDR hardware platform and the GNU Radio software package in very low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) conditions. The optimal detection performance of the examined methods in a realistic implementation-oriented model is found for the common relevant parameters (number of observed samples, sensing time and required probability of false alarm).

Keywords: Cognitive radio, dynamic spectrum access, GNU Radio, spectrum sensing.

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4421 An Integrated Cognitive Performance Evaluation Framework for Urban Search and Rescue Applications

Authors: Antonio D. Lee, Steven X. Jiang

Abstract:

A variety of techniques and methods are available to evaluate cognitive performance in Urban Search and Rescue (USAR) applications. However, traditional cognitive performance evaluation techniques typically incorporate either the conscious or systematic aspect, failing to take into consideration the subconscious or intuitive aspect. This leads to incomplete measures and produces ineffective designs. In order to fill the gaps in past research, this study developed a theoretical framework to facilitate the integration of situation awareness (SA) and intuitive pattern recognition (IPR) to enhance the cognitive performance representation in USAR applications. This framework provides guidance to integrate both SA and IPR in order to evaluate the cognitive performance of the USAR responders. The application of this framework will help improve the system design.

Keywords: Cognitive performance, intuitive pattern recognition, situation awareness, urban search and rescue.

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4420 Is Cognitive Dissonance an Intrinsic Property of the Human Mind? An Experimental Solution to a Half-Century Debate

Authors: Álvaro Machado Dias, Eduardo Oda, Henrique Teruo Akiba, Leo Arruda, Luiz Felipe Bruder

Abstract:

Cognitive Dissonance can be conceived both as a concept related to the tendency to avoid internal contradictions in certain situations, and as a higher order theory about information processing in the human mind. In the last decades, this last sense has been strongly surpassed by the former, as nearly all experiment on the matter discuss cognitive dissonance as an output of motivational contradictions. In that sense, the question remains: is cognitive dissonance a process intrinsically associated with the way that the mind processes information, or is it caused by such specific contradictions? Objective: To evaluate the effects of cognitive dissonance in the absence of rewards or any mechanisms to manipulate motivation. Method: To solve this question, we introduce a new task, the hypothetical social arrays paradigm, which was applied to 50 undergraduate students. Results: Our findings support the perspective that the human mind shows a tendency to avoid internal dissonance even when there are no rewards or punishment involved. Moreover, our findings also suggest that this principle works outside the conscious level.

Keywords: Cognitive Dissonance, Cognitive Psychology, Information Processing.

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4419 Simulating and Forecasting Qualitative Marcoeconomic Models Using Rule-Based Fuzzy Cognitive Maps

Authors: Spiros Mazarakis, George Matzavinos, Peter P. Groumpos

Abstract:

Economic models are complex dynamic systems with a lot of uncertainties and fuzzy data. Conventional modeling approaches using well known methods and techniques cannot provide realistic and satisfactory answers to today-s challenging economic problems. Qualitative modeling using fuzzy logic and intelligent system theories can be used to model macroeconomic models. Fuzzy Cognitive maps (FCM) is a new method been used to model the dynamic behavior of complex systems. For the first time FCMs and the Mamdani Model of Intelligent control is used to model macroeconomic models. This new model is referred as the Mamdani Rule-Based Fuzzy Cognitive Map (MBFCM) and provides the academic and research community with a new promising integrated advanced computational model. A new economic model is developed for a qualitative approach to Macroeconomic modeling. Fuzzy Controllers for such models are designed. Simulation results for an economic scenario are provided and extensively discussed

Keywords: Macroeconomic Models, Mamdani Rule Based- FCMs(MBFCMs), Qualitative and Dynamics System, Simulation.

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4418 Artificial Neural Networks for Cognitive Radio Network: A Survey

Authors: Vishnu Pratap Singh Kirar

Abstract:

The main aim of a communication system is to achieve maximum performance. In Cognitive Radio any user or transceiver has ability to sense best suitable channel, while channel is not in use. It means an unlicensed user can share the spectrum of a licensed user without any interference. Though, the spectrum sensing consumes a large amount of energy and it can reduce by applying various artificial intelligent methods for determining proper spectrum holes. It also increases the efficiency of Cognitive Radio Network (CRN). In this survey paper we discuss the use of different learning models and implementation of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to increase the learning and decision making capacity of CRN without affecting bandwidth, cost and signal rate.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, Cognitive Radio, Cognitive Radio Networks, Back Propagation, Spectrum Sensing.

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4417 Reducing Cognitive Load in Learning Computer Programming

Authors: Muhammed Yousoof, Mohd Sapiyan, Khaja Kamaluddin

Abstract:

Many difficulties are faced in the process of learning computer programming. This paper will propose a system framework intended to reduce cognitive load in learning programming. In first section focus is given on the process of learning and the shortcomings of the current approaches to learning programming. Finally the proposed prototype is suggested along with the justification of the prototype. In the proposed prototype the concept map is used as visualization metaphor. Concept maps are similar to the mental schema in long term memory and hence it can reduce cognitive load well. In addition other method such as part code method is also proposed in this framework to can reduce cognitive load.

Keywords: Cognitive load, concept maps, working memory, split attention effect, partial code programs.

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