Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 166

Search results for: client perspective

166 Building Information Modelling for Construction Delay Management

Authors: Essa Alenazi, Zulfikar Adamu

Abstract:

The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is not an exception in relying on the growth of its construction industry to support rapid population growth. However, its need for infrastructure development is constrained by low productivity levels and cost overruns caused by factors such as delays to project completion. Delays in delivering a construction project are a global issue and while theories such as Optimism Bias have been used to explain such delays, in KSA, client-related causes of delays are also significant. The objective of this paper is to develop a framework-based approach to explore how the country’s construction industry can manage and reduce delays in construction projects through building information modelling (BIM) in order to mitigate the cost consequences of such delays.  It comprehensively and systematically reviewed the global literature on the subject and identified gaps, critical delay factors and the specific benefits that BIM can deliver for the delay management.  A case study comprising of nine hospital projects that have experienced delay and cost overruns was also carried out. Five critical delay factors related to the clients were identified as candidates that can be mitigated through BIM’s benefits. These factors are: Ineffective planning and scheduling of the project; changes during construction by the client; delay in progress payment; slowness in decision making by the client; and poor communication between clients and other stakeholders. In addition, data from the case study projects strongly suggest that optimism bias is present in many of the hospital projects. Further validation via key stakeholder interviews and documentations are planned.

Keywords: BIM, client perspective, delay management, optimism bias, public sector projects.

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165 Design and Implementation of Client Server Network Management System for Ethernet LAN

Authors: May Paing Paing Zaw, Su Myat Marlar Soe

Abstract:

Network Management Systems have played a great important role in information systems. Management is very important and essential in any fields. There are many managements such as configuration management, fault management, performance management, security management, accounting management and etc. Among them, configuration, fault and security management is more important than others. Because these are essential and useful in any fields. Configuration management is to monitor and maintain the whole system or LAN. Fault management is to detect and troubleshoot the system. Security management is to control the whole system. This paper intends to increase the network management functionalities including configuration management, fault management and security management. In configuration management system, this paper specially can support the USB ports and devices to detect and read devices configuration and solve to detect hardware port and software ports. In security management system, this paper can provide the security feature for the user account setting and user management and proxy server feature. And all of the history of the security such as user account and proxy server history are kept in the java standard serializable file. So the user can view the history of the security and proxy server anytime. If the user uses this system, the user can ping the clients from the network and the user can view the result of the message in fault management system. And this system also provides to check the network card and can show the NIC card setting. This system is used RMI (Remote Method Invocation) and JNI (Java Native Interface) technology. This paper is to implement the client/server network management system using Java 2 Standard Edition (J2SE). This system can provide more than 10 clients. And then this paper intends to show data or message structure of client/server and how to work using TCP/IP protocol.

Keywords: TCP/ IP based client server application

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164 Modernism’s Influence on Architect-Client Relationship: Comparative Case Studies of Schroder and Farnsworth Houses

Authors: Omneya Messallam, Sara S. Fouad

Abstract:

The Modernist Movement initially flourished in France, Holland, Germany and the Soviet Union. Many architects and designers were inspired and followed its principles. Two of its most important architects (Gerrit Rietveld and Ludwig Mies van de Rohe) were introduced in this paper. Each did not follow the other’s principles and had their own particular rules; however, they shared the same features of the Modernist International Style, such as Anti-historicism, Abstraction, Technology, Function and Internationalism/ Universality. Key Modernist principles translated into high expectations, which sometimes did not meet the inhabitants’ aspirations of living comfortably; consequently, leading to a conflict and misunderstanding between the designer and their clients’ needs. Therefore, historical case studies (the Schroder and the Farnsworth houses) involving two Modernist pioneer architects have been chosen. This paper is an attempt to explore some of the influential factors affecting buildings design such as: needs, gender, and question concerning commonalities between both designers and their clients. The three aspects and two designers explored here have been chosen because they have been influenced the researchers to understand the impact of those factors on the design process, building’s performance, and the dweller’s satisfaction. This is a descriptive/ analytical research based on two historical comparative case studies that involve several steps such as: key evaluation questions (KEQs), observations, document analysis, etc. The methodology is based on data collation and finding validations. The research aims to state a manifest to regulate the relation between architects and their clients to reach the optimum building performance and functional interior design that suits their clients’ needs, reflects the architects’ character, and the school they belong to. At the end, through the investigation in this paper, the different needs between both the designers and the clients have been seen not only in the building itself but also it could convert the inhabitant’s life in various ways. Moreover, a successful relationship between the architect and their clients could play a significant role in the success of projects. In contrast, not every good design or celebrated building could end up with a successful relationship between the designer and their client or full-fill the inhabitant’s aspirations.

Keywords: Architect’s character, Building’s performance, commonalities, client’s character, gender, modernist movement, needs.

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163 Client Importance and Audit Quality under Civil Law versus Common Law Societies

Authors: Kelly Grani Yuen

Abstract:

Accounting scandals and auditing frauds are perceived to be driven by aggressive companies and misrepresentation of audit reports. However, local legal systems and law enforcements may affect the services auditors provide to their ‘important’ clients. Under the civil law and common law jurisdictions, the standard setters, the government, and the regulatory bodies treat cases differently. As such, whether or not different forms of legal systems and extent of law enforcement plays an important role in auditor’s Audit Quality is a question this paper attempts to explore. The paper focuses on the investigation in Asia, where Hong Kong represents the common-law jurisdiction, while Taiwan and China represent the civil law jurisdiction. Only the ten reputable accounting firms are used in this study due to the differences in rankings and establishments of some of the small local audit firms. This will also contribute to the data collected between the years 2007-2013. By focusing on the use of multiple regression based on the dependent (Audit Quality) and independent variables (Client Importance, Law Enforcement, and Press Freedom), six different models are established. Results demonstrate that since different jurisdictions have different legal systems and market regulations, auditor’s treatment on ‘important’ clients will vary. However, with the moderators in place (law enforcement and press freedom), the relationship between client importance and audit quality may be smoothed out. With that in mind, this study contributes to local governments and standard setters’ consideration on legal reform and proper law enforcement in the market. Perhaps, with such modifications on the economic systems, collusion between companies and auditors can finally be put to a halt.

Keywords: Audit quality, client importance, jurisdiction, modified audit opinions.

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162 Effect of Pre-Construction on Construction Schedule and Client Loyalty

Authors: Jong Hoon Kim, Hyun-Soo Lee, Moonseo Park, Min Jeong, Inbeom Lee

Abstract:

Pre-construction is essential in achieving the success of a construction project. Due to the early involvement of project participants in the construction phase, project managers are able to plan ahead and solve issues well in advance leading to the success of the project and the satisfaction of the client. This research utilizes quantitative data derived from construction management projects in order to identify the relationship between pre-construction, construction schedule, and client satisfaction. A total of 65 construction projects and 93 clients were investigated for this research in an attempt to identify (a) the relationship between pre-construction and schedule reduction, and (b) pre-construction and client loyalty. Based on the quantitative analysis, this research was able to establish a negative correlation based on 65 construction projects between pre-construction and project schedule existed. This finding represents that the more pre-construction is performed for a certain project, the overall construction schedule decreased. Then, to determine the relationship between pre-construction and client satisfaction, Net Promoter Score (NPS) of 93 clients from the 65 projects was utilized. Pre-construction and NPS was further analyzed and a positive correlation was found between the two. This infers that clients tend to be more satisfied with projects with higher ratio of pre-construction than those projects with less pre-construction.

Keywords: Client loyalty, NPS, pre-construction, schedule reduction.

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161 Extension of the Client-Centric Approach under Small Buffer Space

Authors: Hsiang-Fu Yu, Yu-Chan Hsu, Chun Fang, Hao-Yun Yang

Abstract:

Periodic broadcast is a cost-effective solution for large-scale distribution of popular videos because this approach guarantees constant worst service latency, regardless of the number of video requests. An essential periodic broadcast method is the client-centric approach (CCA), which allows clients to use smaller receiving bandwidth to download broadcast data. An enhanced version, namely CCA++, was proposed to yield a shorter waiting time. This work further improves CCA++ in reducing client buffer requirements. The new scheme decreases the buffer requirements by as much as 52% when compared to CCA++. This study also provides an analytical evaluation to demonstrate the performance advantage, as compared with particular schemes.

Keywords: Periodic broadcast, client-centric approach, buffer space, multimedia communications.

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160 Client Satisfaction: Does Private or Public Health Sector Make a Difference? Results from Secondary Data Analysis in Sindh, Pakistan

Authors: Wajiha Javed, Arsalan Jabbar, Nelofer Mehboob, Muhammad Tafseer, Zahid Memon

Abstract:

Introduction: Researchers globally have strived to explore diverse factors that augment the continuation and uptake of family planning methods. Clients’ satisfaction is one of the core determinants facilitating continuation of family planning methods. There is a major debate yet scanty evidence to contrast public and private sectors with respect to client satisfaction. The objective of this study is to compare quality-of-care provided by public and private sectors of Pakistan through a client satisfaction lens. Methods: We used Pakistan Demographic Heath Survey 2012-13 dataset on 3133 women. Ten different multivariate models were made. to explore the relationship between client satisfaction and dependent outcome after adjusting for all known confounding factors and results are presented as OR and AOR (95% CI). Results: Multivariate analyses showed that clients were less satisfied in contraceptive provision from private sector as compared to public sector (AOR 0.92, 95% CI 0.63-1.68) even though the result was not statistically significant. Clients were more satisfied from private sector as compared to the public sector with respect to other determinants of quality-of-care follow-up care (AOR 3.29, 95% CI 1.95-5.55), infection prevention (AOR 2.41, 95% CI 1.60-3.62), counseling services (AOR 2.01, 95% CI 1.27-3.18, timely treatment (AOR 3.37, 95% CI 2.20-5.15), attitude of staff (AOR 2.23, 95% CI 1.50-3.33), punctuality of staff (AOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.92-4.13), timely referring (AOR 2.34, 95% CI 1.63-3.35), staff cooperation (AOR 1.75, 95% CI 1.22-2.51) and complications handling (AOR 2.27, 95% CI 1.56-3.29). Discussion: Public sector has successfully attained substantial satisfaction levels with respect to provision of contraceptives, but it contrasts previous literature from a multi country studies. Our study though in is concordance with a study from Tanzania where public sector was more likely to offer family planning services to clients as compared to private facilities. Conclusion: In majority of the developing countries, public sector is more involved in FP service provision; however, in Pakistan clients’ satisfaction in private sector is more, which opens doors for public-private partnerships and collaboration in the near future. 

Keywords: Client satisfaction, Family Planning, Public private partnership, Quality of care

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159 Modelling the States of Public Client Participation in Public Private Partnership Arrangements

Authors: Eisa A. Alsafran, Francis T. Edum-Fotwe, Wayne E. Lord

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The degree to which a public client actively participates in Public Private Partnership (PPP) schemes, is seen as a determinant of the success of the arrangement, and in particular, efficiency in the delivery of the assets of any infrastructure development. The asset delivery is often an early barometer for judging the overall performance of the PPP. Currently, there are no defined descriptors for the degree of such participation. The lack of defined descriptors makes the association between the degree of participation and efficiency of asset delivery, difficult to establish. This is particularly so if an optimum effect is desired. In addition, such an association is important for the strategic decision to embark on any PPP initiative. This paper presents a conceptual model of different levels of participation that characterise PPP schemes. The modelling was achieved by a systematic review of reported sources that address essential aspects and structures of PPP schemes, published from 2001 to 2015. As a precursor to the modelling, the common areas of Public Client Participation (PCP) were investigated. Equity and risk emerged as two dominant factors in the common areas of PCP, and were therefore adopted to form the foundation of the modelling. The resultant conceptual model defines the different states of combined PCP. The defined states provide a more rational basis for establishing how the degree of PCP affects the efficiency of asset delivery in PPP schemes.

Keywords: Asset delivery, infrastructure development, public private partnership, public client participation.

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158 Client Server System for e-Services Access Using Mobile Communications Networks

Authors: Eugen Pop, Mihai Barbos, Razvan Lupu

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The client server systems using mobile communications networks for data transmission became very attractive for many economic agents, in the purpose of promoting and offering electronic services to their clients. E-services are suitable for business developing and financial benefits increasing. The products or services can be efficiently delivered to a large number of clients, using mobile Internet access technologies. The clients can have access to e-services, anywhere and anytime, with the support of 3G, GPRS, WLAN, etc., channels bandwidth, data services and protocols. Based on the mobile communications networks evolution and development, a convergence of technological and financial interests of mobile operators, software developers, mobile terminals producers and e-content providers is established. These will lead to a high level of integration of IT&C resources and will facilitate the value added services delivery through the mobile communications networks. In this paper it is presented a client server system, for e-services access, with Smartphones and PDA-s mobile software applications, installed on Symbian and Windows Mobile operating systems.

Keywords: Client server system, e-services access, mobile communications, PDA, Smartphone.

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157 The Existence of Field Corn Networks on the Thailand-Burma Border under the Patron-Client Contract Farming System

Authors: Kettawa Boonprakarn, Jedsarid Sangkaphan, Bejapornd Deekhuntod, Nuntharat Suriyo

Abstract:

This study aimed to investigate the existence of field corn networks on the Thailand-Burma border under the patron-client contract farming system. The data of this qualitative study were collected through in-depth interviews with nine key informants.

The results of the study revealed that the existence of the field corn networks was associated with the relationship where farmers had to share their crops with protectors in the areas under the influence of the KNU (Karen National Union) and the DKBA (Democratic Karen Buddhist Army) or Burmese soldiers. A Mae Liang, the person who starts a network has a connection with a Thaokae, Luk Rai Hua Chai or the head of a group of farmers, and farmers. They are under the patron-client system with trust and loyalty that enable the head of the group and the farmers in the Burma border side to remain under the same Mae Liang even though the business has been passed down to later generations.

Keywords: Existence, field-corn networks, patron-client system, contract farming.

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156 Privacy-Preserving Location Sharing System with Client/Server Architecture in Mobile Online Social Network

Authors: Xi Xiao, Chunhui Chen, Xinyu Liu, Guangwu Hu, Yong Jiang

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Location sharing is a fundamental service in mobile Online Social Networks (mOSNs), which raises significant privacy concerns in recent years. Now, most location-based service applications adopt client/server architecture. In this paper, a location sharing system, named CSLocShare, is presented to provide flexible privacy-preserving location sharing with client/server architecture in mOSNs. CSLocShare enables location sharing between both trusted social friends and untrusted strangers without the third-party server. In CSLocShare, Location-Storing Social Network Server (LSSNS) provides location-based services but do not know the users’ real locations. The thorough analysis indicates that the users’ location privacy is protected. Meanwhile, the storage and the communication cost are saved. CSLocShare is more suitable and effective in reality.

Keywords: Client/server architecture, location sharing, mobile online social networks, privacy-preserving.

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155 Assessment on Communication Students’ Internship Performances from the Employers’ Perspective

Authors: Yesuselvi Manickam, Tan Soon Chin

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Internship is a supervised and structured learning experience related to one’s field of study or career goal. Internship allows students to obtain work experience and the opportunity to apply skills learned during university. Internship is a valuable learning experience for students; however, literature on employer assessment is scarce on Malaysian student’s internship experience. This study focuses on employer’s perspective on student’s performances during their three months of internship. The results are based on the descriptive analysis of 45 sets of question gathered from the on-site supervisors of the interns. The survey of 45 on-site supervisor’s feedback was collected through postal mail. It was found that, interns have not met their on-site supervisor’s expectations in many areas. The significance of this study is employer’s assessment on the internship shall be used as feedback to improve on ways how to prepare students for their internship and employments in future.

Keywords: Employers perspective, internship, structured learning, student’s performances.

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154 The Western Resource-Oriented Strategic Perspective Meets the Eastern Tai-Chi Thinking

Authors: Tzu-Hsin Liu

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This study adopts a qualitative approach, which engages in the dialectical discussion on two levels of dyad opposite views. The first level of the dyad opposite views is the Western strategic perspective and the Eastern Tai-Chi thinking. The second level of the dyad opposite views is resource-based view and resource dependence theory. This study concludes the resource-oriented actions for competitive advantage as the metaphor of Tai-Chi consisted of yin and yang. This study argues that the focal firm should adopt bridging strategy during the core competence development period because its core competence development is likely to meet its competitor’s needs of exploring strategy during the competitor’s external resource development stage. In addition, the focal firm should adopt buffering strategy during the external resource development period to prevent its competitor’s the exploiting strategy from attack during the competitor’s core competence development stage. Consequently, this study takes a significant first step toward a novel contextualize understanding of resource development based on strategic perspective and Tai-Chi thinking providing more fully sustainable strategy for competitive advantage.

Keywords: Competitive advantage, resource-based view, resource dependence theory, strategic perspective, Tai-Chi thinking.

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153 Cyber Warriors for Cyber Security and Information Assurance- An Academic Perspective

Authors: Ronald F. Gonzales, Gordon W. Romney, Pradip Peter Dey, Mohammad Amin, Bhaskar Raj Sinha

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A virtualized and virtual approach is presented on academically preparing students to successfully engage at a strategic perspective to understand those concerns and measures that are both structured and not structured in the area of cyber security and information assurance. The Master of Science in Cyber Security and Information Assurance (MSCSIA) is a professional degree for those who endeavor through technical and managerial measures to ensure the security, confidentiality, integrity, authenticity, control, availability and utility of the world-s computing and information systems infrastructure. The National University Cyber Security and Information Assurance program is offered as a Master-s degree. The emphasis of the MSCSIA program uniquely includes hands-on academic instruction using virtual computers. This past year, 2011, the NU facility has become fully operational using system architecture to provide a Virtual Education Laboratory (VEL) accessible to both onsite and online students. The first student cohort completed their MSCSIA training this past March 2, 2012 after fulfilling 12 courses, for a total of 54 units of college credits. The rapid pace scheduling of one course per month is immensely challenging, perpetually changing, and virtually multifaceted. This paper analyses these descriptive terms in consideration of those globalization penetration breaches as present in today-s world of cyber security. In addition, we present current NU practices to mitigate risks.

Keywords: Cyber security, information assurance, mitigate risks, virtual machines, strategic perspective.

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152 Determinants of R&D Outsourcing at Japanese Firms: Transaction Cost and Strategic Management Perspectives

Authors: Dai Miyamoto

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This paper examines the factors, which determine R&D outsourcing behaviour at Japanese firms, from the viewpoints of transaction cost and strategic management, since the latter half of the 1990s. This study uses empirical analysis, which involves the application of large-sample data. The principal findings of this paper are listed below. Firms that belong to a wider corporate group are more active in executing R&D outsourcing activities. Diversification strategies such as the expansion of product and sales markets have a positive effect on the R&D outsourcing behaviour of firms. Moreover, while quantitative R&D resources have positive influences on R&D outsourcing, qualitative indices have no effect. These facts suggest that R&D outsourcing behaviour of Japanese firms are consistent with the two perspectives of transaction cost and strategic management. Specifically, a conventional corporate group network plays an important role in R&D outsourcing behaviour. Firms that execute R&D outsourcing leverage 'old' networks to construct 'new' networks and use both networks properly.

Keywords: Corporate Group Networks, R&D Outsourcing, Strategic Management Perspective, Transaction Cost Perspective.

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151 The Experiences of Coronary Heart Disease Patients: Biopsychosocial Perspective

Authors: Christopher C. Anyadubalu

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Biological, psychological and social experiences and perceptions of healthcare services in patients medically diagnosed of coronary heart disease were investigated using a sample of 10 participants whose responses to the in-depth interview questions were analyzed based on inter-and-intra-case analyses. The results obtained revealed that advancing age, single status, divorce and/or death of spouse and the issue of single parenting negatively impacted patients- biopsychosocial experiences. The patients- experiences of physical signs and symptoms, anxiety and depression, past serious medical conditions, use of self-prescribed medications, family history of poor mental/medical or physical health, nutritional problems and insufficient physical activities heightened their risk of coronary attack. Collectivist culture served as a big source of relieve to the patients. Patients- temperament, experience of different chronic life stresses/challenges, mood alteration, regular drinking, smoking/gambling, and family/social impairments compounded their health situation. Patients were satisfied with the biomedical services rendered by the healthcare personnel, whereas their psychological and social needs were not attended to. Effective procedural treatment model, a holistic and multidimensional approach to the treatment of heart disease patients was proposed.

Keywords: Biopsychosocial, Coronary Heart Disease, Experience, Patients, Perception, Perspective.

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150 The Relationship between Business-model Innovation and Firm Value: A Dynamic Perspective

Authors: Yung C. Ho, Hui C. Fang, Ming J. Hsieh

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When consistently innovative business-models can give companies a competitive advantage, longitudinal empirical research, which can reflect dynamic business-model changes, has yet to prove a definitive connection. This study consequently employs a dynamic perspective in conjunction with innovation theory to examine the relationship between the types of business-model innovation and firm value. This study tries to examine various types of business-model innovation in high-end and low-end technology industries such as HTC and the 7-Eleven chain stores with research periods of 14 years and 32 years, respectively. The empirical results suggest that adopting radical business-model innovation in addition to expanding new target markets can successfully lead to a competitive advantage. Sustained advanced technological competences and service/product innovation are the key successful factors in high-end and low-end technology industry business-models respectively. In sum up, the business-model innovation can yield a higher market value and financial value in high-end technology industries than low-end ones.

Keywords: Business-model, Dynamic Perspective, Firm Value, Innovation

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149 Analysis of Wi-Fi Access Networks Situation in the City Area

Authors: A. Statkus, S. Paulikas

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With increasing number of wireless devices like laptops, Wi-Fi Web Cams, network extenders, etc., a new kind of problems appeared, mostly related to poor Wi-Fi throughput or communication problems. In this paper an investigation on wireless networks and it-s saturation in Vilnius City and its surrounding is presented, covering the main problems of wireless saturation and network load during day. Also an investigation on wireless channel selection and noise levels were made, showing the impact of neighbor AP to signal and noise levels and how it changes during the day.

Keywords: IEEE 802.11b/g/n, wireless saturation, client activity, channel selection.

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148 Investigating the Usability of a University Website from the Users’ Perspective: An Empirical Study of Benue State University Website

Authors: Abraham Undu, Stephen Akuma

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Websites are becoming a major component of an organization’s success in our ever globalizing competitive world. The website symbolizes an organization, interacting or projecting an organization’s principles, culture, values, vision, and perspectives. It is an interface connecting organizations and their clients. The university, as an academic institution, makes use of a website to communicate and offer computing services to its stakeholders (students, staff, host community, university management etc). Unfortunately, website designers often give more consideration to the technology, organizational structure and business objectives of the university than to the usability of the site. Website designers end up designing university websites which do not meet the needs of the primary users. This empirical study investigated the Benue State University website from the point view of students. This research was realized by using a standardized website usability questionnaire based on the five factors of usability defined by WAMMI (Website Analysis and Measurement Inventory): attractiveness, controllability, efficiency, learnability and helpfulness. The result of the investigation showed that the university website (https://portal.bsum.edu.ng/) has neutral usability level because of the usability issues associated with the website. The research recommended feasible solutions to improve the usability of the website from the users’ perspective and also provided a modified usability model that will be used for better evaluation of the Benue State University website.

Keywords: Usability, usability factors, university websites, user’s perspective, WAMMI, modified usability model, Benue State University.

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147 Design and Implementation of Secure Electronic Payment System (Client)

Authors: Pyae Pyae Hun

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Secure electronic payment system is presented in this paper. This electronic payment system is to be secure for clients such as customers and shop owners. The security architecture of the system is designed by RC5 encryption / decryption algorithm. This eliminates the fraud that occurs today with stolen credit card numbers. The symmetric key cryptosystem RC5 can protect conventional transaction data such as account numbers, amount and other information. This process can be done electronically using RC5 encryption / decryption program written by Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0. There is no danger of any data sent within the system being intercepted, and replaced. The alternative is to use the existing network, and to encrypt all data transmissions. The system with encryption is acceptably secure, but that the level of encryption has to be stepped up, as computing power increases. Results In order to be secure the system the communication between modules is encrypted using symmetric key cryptosystem RC5. The system will use simple user name, password, user ID, user type and cipher authentication mechanism for identification, when the user first enters the system. It is the most common method of authentication in most computer system.

Keywords: A 128-bit block cipher, Microsoft visual basic 6.0, RC5 encryption /decryption algorithm and TCP/IP protocol.

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146 Marital Duration and Sexual Frequency among the Muslim and Santal Couples in Rural Bangladesh: A Cross-Cultural Perspective

Authors: Md. Emaj Uddin

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Age and sex are biological terms that are socioculturally constructed for marriage and marital sexual behavior in every society. Marriage is a universal norm that makes legitimate sexual behavior between a man and a woman in marital life cycle to gain bio-social purposes. Cross-cultural studies reveal that marital sexual frequency as a part of marital sexual behavior not only varies within the couple-s life cycle, but also varies between and among couples in diverse cultures. The purpose of the study was to compare marital sexual frequency in association with age status and length of marital relationship between Muslim and Santal couples in rural Bangladesh. For this we assumed that (1) Santal culture compared to Muslim culture preferred earlier age at marriage for meeting marital sexual purposes in rural Bangladesh; (2) Marital duration among the Muslim couples was higher than that among the Santal couples; (3) Sexual frequency among the younger couples in both the ethnic communities was higher than the older couples; (4) Sexual frequency across the Muslim couples- marital life cycle was higher than that the Santal couples- marital life cycle. In so doing, 288 active couples (145 for Muslim and 143 for Santal) selected by cluster random sampling were interviewed with questionnaire method. The findings of Independent Samples T Test on age at marriage, current age, marital duration and sexual frequency independently reveal that there were significant differences in sexual frequency not only across the couples- life cycle but also vary between the Muslim and Santal couples in relation to marital duration. The results of Pearson-s Inter- Correlation Coefficients reveal that although age at marriage, current age and marital duration for husband and wife were significantly positive correlated with each other between the communities, there were significantly negative correlation between the age at marriage, current age, marital duration and sexual frequency among the selected couples between the communities.

Keywords: Bangladesh, Cross-Cultural Perspective, MaritalDuration, Muslim, Santal, Marital Sexual Frequency.

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145 Auditor with the Javanese Characters and Non Javanese in Audit Firm: Conflict of Interest

Authors: Krisna Damayanti, Lilis Ardini

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Many issues about the relationship between auditors in auditing practices with its stakeholders often heard. It appears in perspectives of bringing out the variety of phenomena affecting from the audit practice of greed and not appreciating from the independency of the audit profession and professional code of ethics. It becomes a logical consequence in practicing of capitalism in accounting. The main purpose of this article would like to uncover the existing auditing practices in Indonesia, especially in Java that associated with a strong influence of Javanese culture with reluctant /”shy", politely, "legowo (gratefully accepted)", "ngemong" (friendly), "not mentholo" (lenient), "tepo seliro" (tolerance), "ngajeni" (respectful), "acquiescent" and also reveals its relationships with Non Javanese culture in facing the conflict of interest in practical of auditing world. The method used by interpretive approach that emphasizes the role of language, interpret and understand and see social reality as something other than a label, name or concept. Global practices in auditing of each country have particular cultures that affect the standard set by those regulatory standards results the adaptation of IAS. The majority of parties in Indonesia is dominated by Javanese racial regulators, so Java culture is embedded in every audit practices and those conditions in Java leads auditors in having similar behaviour, sometimes interfere with standard Java code of conduct must be executed by an auditor. Auditors who live in Java have the characters of Javanese culture that is hard to avoid in the audit practice. However, practically, the auditors still are relevant in their profession.

Keywords: Auditors, java, character, profession, code of ethics, client.

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144 Design of MBMS Client Functions in the Mobile

Authors: Jaewook Shin, Aesoon Park

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MBMS is a unidirectional point-to-multipoint bearer service in which data are transmitted from a single source entity to multiple recipients. For a mobile to support the MBMS, MBMS client functions as well as MBMS radio protocols should be designed and implemented. In this paper, we analyze the MBMS client functions and describe the implementation of them in our mobile test-bed. User operations and signaling flows between protocol entities to control the MBMS functions are designed in detail. Service announcement utilizing the file download MBMS service and four MBMS user services are demonstrated in the test-bed to verify the MBMS client functions.

Keywords: BM-SC, Broadcast, MBMS, Mobile, Multicast.

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143 New Mitigating Technique to Overcome DDOS Attack

Authors: V. Praveena, N. Kiruthika

Abstract:

In this paper, we explore a new scheme for filtering spoofed packets (DDOS attack) which is a combination of path fingerprint and client puzzle concepts. In this each IP packet has a unique fingerprint is embedded that represents, the route a packet has traversed. The server maintains a mapping table which contains the client IP address and its corresponding fingerprint. In ingress router, client puzzle is placed. For each request, the puzzle issuer provides a puzzle which the source has to solve. Our design has the following advantages over prior approaches, 1) Reduce the network traffic, as we place a client puzzle at the ingress router. 2) Mapping table at the server is lightweight and moderate.

Keywords: Client puzzle, DDOS attack, Egress, Ingress, IP Spoofing, Spoofed Packet.

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142 What Do Young People Seeking Professional Help Want and Expect From Therapy?

Authors: Clare Watsford, Debra Rickwood

Abstract:

Client expectations and preferences about therapy represent an important area of investigation as research shows they are linked to engagement in therapy and therapy outcomes. Studies examining young people-s expectations and preferences of therapy remain a neglected area of research. The present study explored what expectations and preferences young people seeking professional help held regarding: their role as a client, their therapist-s role, their therapeutic outcomes, and the processes of therapy. Gender and age differences were also examined. Participants included 188 young people aged 12-25 who completed a survey while attending their initial session at a youth mental health service. Data were analysed using quantitative methods. Results found the young people held significantly more pessimistic expectations around therapy when compared to what they had wanted therapy to be like. Few age and gender differences were found. Results highlight the importance of a collaborative therapy approach when working with young people.

Keywords: Client expectations, mental health services, preferences, young people

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141 Distributed e-Learning System with Client-Server and P2P Hybrid Architecture

Authors: Kazunari Meguro, Shinichi Motomura, Takao Kawamura, Kazunori Sugahara

Abstract:

We have developed a distributed asynchronous Web based training system. In order to improve the scalability and robustness of this system, all contents and a function are realized on mobile agents. These agents are distributed to computers, and they can use a Peer to Peer network that modified Content-Addressable Network. In this system, all computers offer the function and exercise by themselves. However, the system that all computers do the same behavior is not realistic. In this paper, as a solution of this issue, we present an e-Learning system that is composed of computers of different participation types. Enabling the computer of different participation types will improve the convenience of the system.

Keywords: Distributed Multimedia Systems, e-Learning, P2P, Mobile Agen

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140 Determination of the Bank's Customer Risk Profile: Data Mining Applications

Authors: Taner Ersoz, Filiz Ersoz, Seyma Ozbilge

Abstract:

In this study, the clients who applied to a bank branch for loan were analyzed through data mining. The study was composed of the information such as amounts of loans received by personal and SME clients working with the bank branch, installment numbers, number of delays in loan installments, payments available in other banks and number of banks to which they are in debt between 2010 and 2013. The client risk profile was examined through Classification and Regression Tree (CART) analysis, one of the decision tree classification methods. At the end of the study, 5 different types of customers have been determined on the decision tree. The classification of these types of customers has been created with the rating of those posing a risk for the bank branch and the customers have been classified according to the risk ratings.

Keywords: Client classification, loan suitability, risk rating, CART analysis, decision tree.

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139 Enhanced Planar Pattern Tracking for an Outdoor Augmented Reality System

Authors: L. Yu, W. K. Li, S. K. Ong, A. Y. C. Nee

Abstract:

In this paper, a scalable augmented reality framework for handheld devices is presented. The presented framework is enabled by using a server-client data communication structure, in which the search for tracking targets among a database of images is performed on the server-side while pixel-wise 3D tracking is performed on the client-side, which, in this case, is a handheld mobile device. Image search on the server-side adopts a residual-enhanced image descriptors representation that gives the framework a scalability property. The tracking algorithm on the client-side is based on a gravity-aligned feature descriptor which takes the advantage of a sensor-equipped mobile device and an optimized intensity-based image alignment approach that ensures the accuracy of 3D tracking. Automatic content streaming is achieved by using a key-frame selection algorithm, client working phase monitoring and standardized rules for content communication between the server and client. The recognition accuracy test performed on a standard dataset shows that the method adopted in the presented framework outperforms the Bag-of-Words (BoW) method that has been used in some of the previous systems. Experimental test conducted on a set of video sequences indicated the real-time performance of the tracking system with a frame rate at 15-30 frames per second. The presented framework is exposed to be functional in practical situations with a demonstration application on a campus walk-around.

Keywords: Augmented reality framework, server-client model, vision-based tracking, image search.

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138 Tool Tracker: A Toolkit Ensembling Useful Online Networking Tools for Efficient Management and Operation of a Network

Authors: Onkar Bhat Kodical, Sridhar Srinivasan, N.K. Srinath

Abstract:

Tool Tracker is a client-server based application. It is essentially a catalogue of various network monitoring and management tools that are available online. There is a database maintained on the server side that contains the information about various tools. Several clients can access this information simultaneously and utilize this information. The various categories of tools considered are packet sniffers, port mappers, port scanners, encryption tools, and vulnerability scanners etc for the development of this application. This application provides a front end through which the user can invoke any tool from a central repository for the purpose of packet sniffing, port scanning, network analysis etc. Apart from the tool, its description and the help files associated with it would also be stored in the central repository. This facility will enable the user to view the documentation pertaining to the tool without having to download and install the tool. The application would update the central repository with the latest versions of the tools. The application would inform the user about the availability of a newer version of the tool currently being used and give the choice of installing the newer version to the user. Thus ToolTracker provides any network administrator that much needed abstraction and ease-ofuse with respect to the tools that he can use to efficiently monitor a network.

Keywords: Network monitoring, single platform, client/server application, version management.

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137 Inadequate Requirements Engineering Process: A Key Factor for Poor Software Development in Developing Nations: A Case Study

Authors: K. Adu Michael, K. Alese Boniface

Abstract:

Developing a reliable and sustainable software products is today a big challenge among up–coming software developers in Nigeria. The inability to develop a comprehensive problem statement needed to execute proper requirements engineering process is missing. The need to describe the ‘what’ of a system in one document, written in a natural language is a major step in the overall process of Software Engineering. Requirements Engineering is a process use to discover, analyze and validate system requirements. This process is needed in reducing software errors at the early stage of the development of software. The importance of each of the steps in Requirements Engineering is clearly explained in the context of using detailed problem statement from client/customer to get an overview of an existing system along with expectations from the new system. This paper elicits inadequate Requirements Engineering principle as the major cause of poor software development in developing nations using a case study of final year computer science students of a tertiary-education institution in Nigeria.

Keywords: Client/Customer, Problem Statement, Requirements Engineering, Software Developers.

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