Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2422

Search results for: cellular neural networks

2422 Global Exponential Stability of Impulsive BAM Fuzzy Cellular Neural Networks with Time Delays in the Leakage Terms

Authors: Liping Zhang, Kelin Li

Abstract:

In this paper, a class of impulsive BAM fuzzy cellular neural networks with time delays in the leakage terms is formulated and investigated. By establishing a delay differential inequality and M-matrix theory, some sufficient conditions ensuring the existence, uniqueness and global exponential stability of equilibrium point for impulsive BAM fuzzy cellular neural networks with time delays in the leakage terms are obtained. In particular, a precise estimate of the exponential convergence rate is also provided, which depends on system parameters and impulsive perturbation intention. It is believed that these results are significant and useful for the design and applications of BAM fuzzy cellular neural networks. An example is given to show the effectiveness of the results obtained here.

Keywords: Global exponential stability, bidirectional associative memory, fuzzy cellular neural networks, leakage delays, impulses.

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2421 Exponential Stability Analysis for Switched Cellular Neural Networks with Time-varying Delays and Impulsive Effects

Authors: Zixin Liu, Fangwei Chen

Abstract:

In this Letter, a class of impulsive switched cellular neural networks with time-varying delays is investigated. At the same time, parametric uncertainties assumed to be norm bounded are considered. By dividing the network state variables into subgroups according to the characters of the neural networks, some sufficient conditions guaranteeing exponential stability for all admissible parametric uncertainties are derived via constructing appropriate Lyapunov functional. One numerical example is provided to illustrate the validity of the main results obtained in this paper.

Keywords: Switched systems, exponential stability, cellular neural networks.

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2420 Stability Analysis of Impulsive BAM Fuzzy Cellular Neural Networks with Distributed Delays and Reaction-diffusion Terms

Authors: Xinhua Zhang, Kelin Li

Abstract:

In this paper, a class of impulsive BAM fuzzy cellular neural networks with distributed delays and reaction-diffusion terms is formulated and investigated. By employing the delay differential inequality and inequality technique developed by Xu et al., some sufficient conditions ensuring the existence, uniqueness and global exponential stability of equilibrium point for impulsive BAM fuzzy cellular neural networks with distributed delays and reaction-diffusion terms are obtained. In particular, the estimate of the exponential convergence rate is also provided, which depends on system parameters, diffusion effect and impulsive disturbed intention. It is believed that these results are significant and useful for the design and applications of BAM fuzzy cellular neural networks. An example is given to show the effectiveness of the results obtained here.

Keywords: Bi-directional associative memory, fuzzy cellular neuralnetworks, reaction-diffusion, delays, impulses, global exponentialstability.

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2419 Classification Based on Deep Neural Cellular Automata Model

Authors: Yasser F. Hassan

Abstract:

Deep learning structure is a branch of machine learning science and greet achievement in research and applications. Cellular neural networks are regarded as array of nonlinear analog processors called cells connected in a way allowing parallel computations. The paper discusses how to use deep learning structure for representing neural cellular automata model. The proposed learning technique in cellular automata model will be examined from structure of deep learning. A deep automata neural cellular system modifies each neuron based on the behavior of the individual and its decision as a result of multi-level deep structure learning. The paper will present the architecture of the model and the results of simulation of approach are given. Results from the implementation enrich deep neural cellular automata system and shed a light on concept formulation of the model and the learning in it.

Keywords: Cellular automata, neural cellular automata, deep learning, classification.

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2418 Rough Neural Networks in Adapting Cellular Automata Rule for Reducing Image Noise

Authors: Yasser F. Hassan

Abstract:

The reduction or removal of noise in a color image is an essential part of image processing, whether the final information is used for human perception or for an automatic inspection and analysis. This paper describes the modeling system based on the rough neural network model to adaptive cellular automata for various image processing tasks and noise remover. In this paper, we consider the problem of object processing in colored image using rough neural networks to help deriving the rules which will be used in cellular automata for noise image. The proposed method is compared with some classical and recent methods. The results demonstrate that the new model is capable of being trained to perform many different tasks, and that the quality of these results is comparable or better than established specialized algorithms.

Keywords: Rough Sets, Rough Neural Networks, Cellular Automata, Image Processing.

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2417 Exponential Stability and Periodicity of a Class of Cellular Neural Networks with Time-Varying Delays

Authors: Zixin Liu, Shu Lü, Shouming Zhong, Mao Ye

Abstract:

The problem of exponential stability and periodicity for a class of cellular neural networks (DCNNs) with time-varying delays is investigated. By dividing the network state variables into subgroups according to the characters of the neural networks, some sufficient conditions for exponential stability and periodicity are derived via the methods of variation parameters and inequality techniques. These conditions are represented by some blocks of the interconnection matrices. Compared with some previous methods, the method used in this paper does not resort to any Lyapunov function, and the results derived in this paper improve and generalize some earlier criteria established in the literature cited therein. Two examples are discussed to illustrate the main results.

Keywords: Cellular neural networks, exponential stability, time varying delays, partitioned matrices, periodic solution.

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2416 Stability Analysis of Impulsive Stochastic Fuzzy Cellular Neural Networks with Time-varying Delays and Reaction-diffusion Terms

Authors: Xinhua Zhang, Kelin Li

Abstract:

In this paper, the problem of stability analysis for a class of impulsive stochastic fuzzy neural networks with timevarying delays and reaction-diffusion is considered. By utilizing suitable Lyapunov-Krasovskii funcational, the inequality technique and stochastic analysis technique, some sufficient conditions ensuring global exponential stability of equilibrium point for impulsive stochastic fuzzy cellular neural networks with time-varying delays and diffusion are obtained. In particular, the estimate of the exponential convergence rate is also provided, which depends on system parameters, diffusion effect and impulsive disturbed intention. It is believed that these results are significant and useful for the design and applications of fuzzy neural networks. An example is given to show the effectiveness of the obtained results.

Keywords: Exponential stability, stochastic fuzzy cellular neural networks, time-varying delays, impulses, reaction-diffusion terms.

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2415 A Combined Neural Network Approach to Soccer Player Prediction

Authors: Wenbin Zhang, Hantian Wu, Jian Tang

Abstract:

An artificial neural network is a mathematical model inspired by biological neural networks. There are several kinds of neural networks and they are widely used in many areas, such as: prediction, detection, and classification. Meanwhile, in day to day life, people always have to make many difficult decisions. For example, the coach of a soccer club has to decide which offensive player to be selected to play in a certain game. This work describes a novel Neural Network using a combination of the General Regression Neural Network and the Probabilistic Neural Networks to help a soccer coach make an informed decision.

Keywords: General Regression Neural Network, Probabilistic Neural Networks, Neural function.

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2414 A Performance Evaluation of Cellular Network Suitability for VANET

Authors: Ho-Yeon Kim, Dong-Min Kang, Jun-Ho Lee, Tai-Myoung Chung

Abstract:

Recently, a vehicular ad-hoc networks(VANETs) for Intelligent Transport System(ITS) have become able safety and convenience services surpassing the simple services such as an electronic toll collection system. To provide the proper services, VANET needs infrastructure over the country infrastructure. Thus, we have to spend a huge sum of human resources. In this reason, several studies have been made on the usage of cellular networks instead of new protocols this study is to assess a performance evaluation of the cellular network for VANET. In this paper, the result of a for the suitability of cellular networks for VANET experiment, The LTE(Long Term Evolution) of cellular networks found to be most suitable among the others cellular networks

Keywords: Vehicle communication, VANET, Cellular network

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2413 The Multi-Layered Perceptrons Neural Networks for the Prediction of Daily Solar Radiation

Authors: Radouane Iqdour, Abdelouhab Zeroual

Abstract:

The Multi-Layered Perceptron (MLP) Neural networks have been very successful in a number of signal processing applications. In this work we have studied the possibilities and the met difficulties in the application of the MLP neural networks for the prediction of daily solar radiation data. We have used the Polack-Ribière algorithm for training the neural networks. A comparison, in term of the statistical indicators, with a linear model most used in literature, is also performed, and the obtained results show that the neural networks are more efficient and gave the best results.

Keywords: Daily solar radiation, Prediction, MLP neural networks, linear model

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2412 A Fast Neural Algorithm for Serial Code Detection in a Stream of Sequential Data

Authors: Hazem M. El-Bakry, Qiangfu Zhao

Abstract:

In recent years, fast neural networks for object/face detection have been introduced based on cross correlation in the frequency domain between the input matrix and the hidden weights of neural networks. In our previous papers [3,4], fast neural networks for certain code detection was introduced. It was proved in [10] that for fast neural networks to give the same correct results as conventional neural networks, both the weights of neural networks and the input matrix must be symmetric. This condition made those fast neural networks slower than conventional neural networks. Another symmetric form for the input matrix was introduced in [1-9] to speed up the operation of these fast neural networks. Here, corrections for the cross correlation equations (given in [13,15,16]) to compensate for the symmetry condition are presented. After these corrections, it is proved mathematically that the number of computation steps required for fast neural networks is less than that needed by classical neural networks. Furthermore, there is no need for converting the input data into symmetric form. Moreover, such new idea is applied to increase the speed of neural networks in case of processing complex values. Simulation results after these corrections using MATLAB confirm the theoretical computations.

Keywords: Fast Code/Data Detection, Neural Networks, Cross Correlation, real/complex values.

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2411 Fast Complex Valued Time Delay Neural Networks

Authors: Hazem M. El-Bakry, Qiangfu Zhao

Abstract:

Here, a new idea to speed up the operation of complex valued time delay neural networks is presented. The whole data are collected together in a long vector and then tested as a one input pattern. The proposed fast complex valued time delay neural networks uses cross correlation in the frequency domain between the tested data and the input weights of neural networks. It is proved mathematically that the number of computation steps required for the presented fast complex valued time delay neural networks is less than that needed by classical time delay neural networks. Simulation results using MATLAB confirm the theoretical computations.

Keywords: Fast Complex Valued Time Delay Neural Networks, Cross Correlation, Frequency Domain

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2410 Application of Wavelet Neural Networks in Optimization of Skeletal Buildings under Frequency Constraints

Authors: Mohammad Reza Ghasemi, Amin Ghorbani

Abstract:

The main goal of the present work is to decrease the computational burden for optimum design of steel frames with frequency constraints using a new type of neural networks called Wavelet Neural Network. It is contested to train a suitable neural network for frequency approximation work as the analysis program. The combination of wavelet theory and Neural Networks (NN) has lead to the development of wavelet neural networks. Wavelet neural networks are feed-forward networks using wavelet as activation function. Wavelets are mathematical functions within suitable inner parameters, which help them to approximate arbitrary functions. WNN was used to predict the frequency of the structures. In WNN a RAtional function with Second order Poles (RASP) wavelet was used as a transfer function. It is shown that the convergence speed was faster than other neural networks. Also comparisons of WNN with the embedded Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and with approximate techniques and also with analytical solutions are available in the literature.

Keywords: Weight Minimization, Frequency Constraints, Steel Frames, ANN, WNN, RASP Function.

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2409 Anti-periodic Solutions for Cohen-Grossberg Shunting Inhibitory Neural Networks with Delays

Authors: Yongkun Li, Tianwei Zhang, Shufa Bai

Abstract:

By using the method of coincidence degree theory and constructing suitable Lyapunov functional, several sufficient conditions are established for the existence and global exponential stability of anti-periodic solutions for Cohen-Grossberg shunting inhibitory neural networks with delays. An example is given to illustrate our feasible results.

Keywords: Anti-periodic solution, coincidence degree, global exponential stability, Cohen-Grossberg shunting inhibitory cellular neural networks.

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2408 Diagnosis of Ovarian Cancer with Proteomic Patterns in Serum using Independent Component Analysis and Neural Networks

Authors: Simone C. F. Neves, Lúcio F. A. Campos, Ewaldo Santana, Ginalber L. O. Serra, Allan K. Barros

Abstract:

We propose a method for discrimination and classification of ovarian with benign, malignant and normal tissue using independent component analysis and neural networks. The method was tested for a proteomic patters set from A database, and radial basis functions neural networks. The best performance was obtained with probabilistic neural networks, resulting I 99% success rate, with 98% of specificity e 100% of sensitivity.

Keywords: Cancer ovarian, Proteomic patterns in serum, independent component analysis and neural networks.

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2407 Existence and Global Exponential Stability of Periodic Solutions of Cellular Neural Networks with Distributed Delays and Impulses on Time Scales

Authors: Daiming Wang

Abstract:

In this paper, by using Mawhin-s continuation theorem of coincidence degree and a method based on delay differential inequality, some sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence and global exponential stability of periodic solutions of cellular neural networks with distributed delays and impulses on time scales. The results of this paper generalized previously known results.

Keywords: Periodic solutions, global exponential stability, coincidence degree, M-matrix.

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2406 Analysis of Periodic Solution of Delay Fuzzy BAM Neural Networks

Authors: Qianhong Zhang, Lihui Yang, Daixi Liao

Abstract:

In this paper, by employing a new Lyapunov functional and an elementary inequality analysis technique, some sufficient conditions are derived to ensure the existence and uniqueness of periodic oscillatory solution for fuzzy bi-directional memory (BAM) neural networks with time-varying delays, and all other solutions of the fuzzy BAM neural networks converge the uniqueness periodic solution. These criteria are presented in terms of system parameters and have important leading significance in the design and applications of neural networks. Moreover an example is given to illustrate the effectiveness and feasible of results obtained.

Keywords: Fuzzy BAM neural networks, Periodic solution, Global exponential stability, Time-varying delays

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2405 A Modified Cross Correlation in the Frequency Domain for Fast Pattern Detection Using Neural Networks

Authors: Hazem M. El-Bakry, Qiangfu Zhao

Abstract:

Recently, neural networks have shown good results for detection of a certain pattern in a given image. In our previous papers [1-5], a fast algorithm for pattern detection using neural networks was presented. Such algorithm was designed based on cross correlation in the frequency domain between the input image and the weights of neural networks. Image conversion into symmetric shape was established so that fast neural networks can give the same results as conventional neural networks. Another configuration of symmetry was suggested in [3,4] to improve the speed up ratio. In this paper, our previous algorithm for fast neural networks is developed. The frequency domain cross correlation is modified in order to compensate for the symmetric condition which is required by the input image. Two new ideas are introduced to modify the cross correlation algorithm. Both methods accelerate the speed of the fast neural networks as there is no need for converting the input image into symmetric one as previous. Theoretical and practical results show that both approaches provide faster speed up ratio than the previous algorithm.

Keywords: Fast Pattern Detection, Neural Networks, Modified Cross Correlation

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2404 Fast Object/Face Detection Using Neural Networks and Fast Fourier Transform

Authors: Hazem M. El-Bakry, Qiangfu Zhao

Abstract:

Recently, fast neural networks for object/face detection were presented in [1-3]. The speed up factor of these networks relies on performing cross correlation in the frequency domain between the input image and the weights of the hidden layer. But, these equations given in [1-3] for conventional and fast neural networks are not valid for many reasons presented here. In this paper, correct equations for cross correlation in the spatial and frequency domains are presented. Furthermore, correct formulas for the number of computation steps required by conventional and fast neural networks given in [1-3] are introduced. A new formula for the speed up ratio is established. Also, corrections for the equations of fast multi scale object/face detection are given. Moreover, commutative cross correlation is achieved. Simulation results show that sub-image detection based on cross correlation in the frequency domain is faster than classical neural networks.

Keywords: Conventional Neural Networks, Fast Neural Networks, Cross Correlation in the Frequency Domain.

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2403 Location Management in Cellular Networks

Authors: Bhavneet Sidhu, Hardeep Singh

Abstract:

Cellular networks provide voice and data services to the users with mobility. To deliver services to the mobile users, the cellular network is capable of tracking the locations of the users, and allowing user movement during the conversations. These capabilities are achieved by the location management. Location management in mobile communication systems is concerned with those network functions necessary to allow the users to be reached wherever they are in the network coverage area. In a cellular network, a service coverage area is divided into smaller areas of hexagonal shape, referred to as cells. The cellular concept was introduced to reuse the radio frequency. Continued expansion of cellular networks, coupled with an increasingly restricted mobile spectrum, has established the reduction of communication overhead as a highly important issue. Much of this traffic is used in determining the precise location of individual users when relaying calls, with the field of location management aiming to reduce this overhead through prediction of user location. This paper describes and compares various location management schemes in the cellular networks.

Keywords: Cellular Networks, Location Area, MobilityManagement, Paging.

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2402 Sub-Image Detection Using Fast Neural Processors and Image Decomposition

Authors: Hazem M. El-Bakry, Qiangfu Zhao

Abstract:

In this paper, an approach to reduce the computation steps required by fast neural networksfor the searching process is presented. The principle ofdivide and conquer strategy is applied through imagedecomposition. Each image is divided into small in sizesub-images and then each one is tested separately usinga fast neural network. The operation of fast neuralnetworks based on applying cross correlation in thefrequency domain between the input image and theweights of the hidden neurons. Compared toconventional and fast neural networks, experimentalresults show that a speed up ratio is achieved whenapplying this technique to locate human facesautomatically in cluttered scenes. Furthermore, fasterface detection is obtained by using parallel processingtechniques to test the resulting sub-images at the sametime using the same number of fast neural networks. Incontrast to using only fast neural networks, the speed upratio is increased with the size of the input image whenusing fast neural networks and image decomposition.

Keywords: Fast Neural Networks, 2D-FFT, CrossCorrelation, Image decomposition, Parallel Processing.

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2401 Neural Network Ensemble-based Solar Power Generation Short-Term Forecasting

Authors: A. Chaouachi, R.M. Kamel, R. Ichikawa, H. Hayashi, K. Nagasaka

Abstract:

This paper presents the applicability of artificial neural networks for 24 hour ahead solar power generation forecasting of a 20 kW photovoltaic system, the developed forecasting is suitable for a reliable Microgrid energy management. In total four neural networks were proposed, namely: multi-layred perceptron, radial basis function, recurrent and a neural network ensemble consisting in ensemble of bagged networks. Forecasting reliability of the proposed neural networks was carried out in terms forecasting error performance basing on statistical and graphical methods. The experimental results showed that all the proposed networks achieved an acceptable forecasting accuracy. In term of comparison the neural network ensemble gives the highest precision forecasting comparing to the conventional networks. In fact, each network of the ensemble over-fits to some extent and leads to a diversity which enhances the noise tolerance and the forecasting generalization performance comparing to the conventional networks.

Keywords: Neural network ensemble, Solar power generation, 24 hour forecasting, Comparative study

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2400 A Neuro-Automata Decision Support System for the Control of Late Blight in Tomato Crops

Authors: Gizelle K. Vianna, Gustavo S. Oliveira, Gabriel V. Cunha

Abstract:

The use of decision support systems in agriculture may help monitoring large fields of crops by automatically detecting the symptoms of foliage diseases. In our work, we designed and implemented a decision support system for small tomatoes producers. This work investigates ways to recognize the late blight disease from the analysis of digital images of tomatoes, using a pair of multilayer perceptron neural networks. The networks outputs are used to generate repainted tomato images in which the injuries on the plant are highlighted, and to calculate the damage level of each plant. Those levels are then used to construct a situation map of a farm where a cellular automata simulates the outbreak evolution over the fields. The simulator can test different pesticides actions, helping in the decision on when to start the spraying and in the analysis of losses and gains of each choice of action.

Keywords: Artificial neural networks, cellular automata, decision support system, pattern recognition.

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2399 Investigation of Some Technical Indexes inStock Forecasting Using Neural Networks

Authors: Myungsook Klassen

Abstract:

Training neural networks to capture an intrinsic property of a large volume of high dimensional data is a difficult task, as the training process is computationally expensive. Input attributes should be carefully selected to keep the dimensionality of input vectors relatively small. Technical indexes commonly used for stock market prediction using neural networks are investigated to determine its effectiveness as inputs. The feed forward neural network of Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is applied to perform one step ahead forecasting of NASDAQ and Dow stock prices.

Keywords: Stock Market Prediction, Neural Networks, Levenberg-Marquadt Algorithm, Technical Indexes

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2398 Using Artificial Neural Networks for Optical Imaging of Fluorescent Biomarkers

Authors: K. A. Laptinskiy, S. A. Burikov, A. M. Vervald, S. A. Dolenko, T. A. Dolenko

Abstract:

The article presents the results of the application of artificial neural networks to separate the fluorescent contribution of nanodiamonds used as biomarkers, adsorbents and carriers of drugs in biomedicine, from a fluorescent background of own biological fluorophores. The principal possibility of solving this problem is shown. Use of neural network architecture let to detect fluorescence of nanodiamonds against the background autofluorescence of egg white with high accuracy - better than 3 ug/ml.

Keywords: Artificial neural networks, fluorescence, data aggregation.

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2397 Accelerating Integer Neural Networks On Low Cost DSPs

Authors: Thomas Behan, Zaiyi Liao, Lian Zhao, Chunting Yang

Abstract:

In this paper, low end Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) are applied to accelerate integer neural networks. The use of DSPs to accelerate neural networks has been a topic of study for some time, and has demonstrated significant performance improvements. Recently, work has been done on integer only neural networks, which greatly reduces hardware requirements, and thus allows for cheaper hardware implementation. DSPs with Arithmetic Logic Units (ALUs) that support floating or fixed point arithmetic are generally more expensive than their integer only counterparts due to increased circuit complexity. However if the need for floating or fixed point math operation can be removed, then simpler, lower cost DSPs can be used. To achieve this, an integer only neural network is created in this paper, which is then accelerated by using DSP instructions to improve performance.

Keywords: Digital Signal Processor (DSP), Integer Neural Network(INN), Low Cost Neural Network, Integer Neural Network DSPImplementation.

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2396 Novel Approach for Promoting the Generalization Ability of Neural Networks

Authors: Naiqin Feng, Fang Wang, Yuhui Qiu

Abstract:

A new approach to promote the generalization ability of neural networks is presented. It is based on the point of view of fuzzy theory. This approach is implemented through shrinking or magnifying the input vector, thereby reducing the difference between training set and testing set. It is called “shrinking-magnifying approach" (SMA). At the same time, a new algorithm; α-algorithm is presented to find out the appropriate shrinking-magnifying-factor (SMF) α and obtain better generalization ability of neural networks. Quite a few simulation experiments serve to study the effect of SMA and α-algorithm. The experiment results are discussed in detail, and the function principle of SMA is analyzed in theory. The results of experiments and analyses show that the new approach is not only simpler and easier, but also is very effective to many neural networks and many classification problems. In our experiments, the proportions promoting the generalization ability of neural networks have even reached 90%.

Keywords: Fuzzy theory, generalization, misclassification rate, neural network.

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2395 Detection of Diabetic Symptoms in Retina Images Using Analog Algorithms

Authors: Daniela Matei, Radu Matei

Abstract:

In this paper a class of analog algorithms based on the concept of Cellular Neural Network (CNN) is applied in some processing operations of some important medical images, namely retina images, for detecting various symptoms connected with diabetic retinopathy. Some specific processing tasks like morphological operations, linear filtering and thresholding are proposed, the corresponding template values are given and simulations on real retina images are provided.

Keywords: Diabetic retinopathy, pathology detection, cellular neural networks, analog algorithms.

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2394 Comparison between Beta Wavelets Neural Networks, RBF Neural Networks and Polynomial Approximation for 1D, 2DFunctions Approximation

Authors: Wajdi Bellil, Chokri Ben Amar, Adel M. Alimi

Abstract:

This paper proposes a comparison between wavelet neural networks (WNN), RBF neural network and polynomial approximation in term of 1-D and 2-D functions approximation. We present a novel wavelet neural network, based on Beta wavelets, for 1-D and 2-D functions approximation. Our purpose is to approximate an unknown function f: Rn - R from scattered samples (xi; y = f(xi)) i=1....n, where first, we have little a priori knowledge on the unknown function f: it lives in some infinite dimensional smooth function space and second the function approximation process is performed iteratively: each new measure on the function (xi; f(xi)) is used to compute a new estimate f as an approximation of the function f. Simulation results are demonstrated to validate the generalization ability and efficiency of the proposed Beta wavelet network.

Keywords: Beta wavelets networks, RBF neural network, training algorithms, MSE, 1-D, 2D function approximation.

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2393 Existence and Exponential Stability of Almost Periodic Solution for Cohen-Grossberg SICNNs with Impulses

Authors: Meng Hu, Lili Wang

Abstract:

In this paper, based on the estimation of the Cauchy matrix of linear impulsive differential equations, by using Banach fixed point theorem and Gronwall-Bellman-s inequality, some sufficient conditions are obtained for the existence and exponential stability of almost periodic solution for Cohen-Grossberg shunting inhibitory cellular neural networks (SICNNs) with continuously distributed delays and impulses. An example is given to illustrate the main results.

Keywords: Almost periodic solution, exponential stability, neural networks, impulses.

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