Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 613

Search results for: brain - computer interface (BCI)

613 Electroencephalography Based Brain-Computer Interface for Cerebellum Impaired Patients

Authors: Young-Seok Choi

Abstract:

In healthy humans, the cortical brain rhythm shows specific mu (~6-14 Hz) and beta (~18-24 Hz) band patterns in the cases of both real and imaginary motor movements. As cerebellar ataxia is associated with impairment of precise motor movement control as well as motor imagery, ataxia is an ideal model system in which to study the role of the cerebellocortical circuit in rhythm control. We hypothesize that the EEG characteristics of ataxic patients differ from those of controls during the performance of a Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) task. Ataxia and control subjects showed a similar distribution of mu power during cued relaxation. During cued motor imagery, however, the ataxia group showed significant spatial distribution of the response, while the control group showed the expected decrease in mu-band power (localized to the motor cortex).

Keywords: Brain-computer interface, EEG, modulation, ataxia.

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612 Development of a Real-Time Brain-Computer Interface for Interactive Robot Therapy: An Exploration of EEG and EMG Features during Hypnosis

Authors: Maryam Alimardani, Kazuo Hiraki

Abstract:

This study presents a framework for development of a new generation of therapy robots that can interact with users by monitoring their physiological and mental states. Here, we focused on one of the controversial methods of therapy, hypnotherapy. Hypnosis has shown to be useful in treatment of many clinical conditions. But, even for healthy people, it can be used as an effective technique for relaxation or enhancement of memory and concentration. Our aim is to develop a robot that collects information about user’s mental and physical states using electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) signals and performs costeffective hypnosis at the comfort of user’s house. The presented framework consists of three main steps: (1) Find the EEG-correlates of mind state before, during, and after hypnosis and establish a cognitive model for state changes, (2) Develop a system that can track the changes in EEG and EMG activities in real time and determines if the user is ready for suggestion, and (3) Implement our system in a humanoid robot that will talk and conduct hypnosis on users based on their mental states. This paper presents a pilot study in regard to the first stage, detection of EEG and EMG features during hypnosis.

Keywords: Hypnosis, EEG, robotherapy, brain-computer interface.

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611 A Robotic Rehabilitation Arm Driven by Somatosensory Brain-Computer Interface

Authors: Jiewei Li, Hongyan Cui, Chunqi Chang, Yong Hu

Abstract:

It was expected to benefit patient with hemiparesis after stroke by extensive arm rehabilitation, to partially regain forearm and hand function. This paper propose a robotic rehabilitation arm in assisting the hemiparetic patient to learn new ways of using and moving their weak arms. In this study, the robotic arm was driven by a somatosensory stimulated brain computer interface (BCI), which is a new modality BCI. The use of somatosensory stimulation is not only an input for BCI, but also a electrical stimulation for treatment of hemiparesis to strengthen the arm and improve its range of motion. A trial of this robotic rehabilitation arm was performed in a stroke patient with pure motor hemiparesis. The initial trial showed a promising result from the patient with great motivation and function improvement. It suggests that robotic rehabilitation arm driven by somatosensory BCI can enhance the rehabilitation performance and progress for hemiparetic patients after stroke.

Keywords: Robotic rehabilitation arm, brain computer interface (BCI), hemiparesis, stroke, somatosensory stimulation.

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610 Motor Imagery Based Brain-Computer Interface for Cerebellar Impaired Patients

Authors: Young-Seok Choi

Abstract:

Cerebellar ataxia is a steadily progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with loss of motor control, leaving patients unable to walk, talk, or perform activities of daily living. Direct motor instruction in cerebella ataxia patients has limited effectiveness, presumably because an inappropriate closed-loop cerebellar response to the inevitable observed error confounds motor learning mechanisms. Could the use of EEG based BCI provide advanced biofeedback to improve motor imagery and provide a “backdoor” to improving motor performance in ataxia patients? In order to determine the feasibility of using EEG-based BCI control in this population, we compare the ability to modulate mu-band power (8-12 Hz) by performing a cued motor imagery task in an ataxia patient and healthy control.

Keywords: Cerebellar ataxia, Electroencephalogram, brain-computer interface, motor imagery.

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609 Optimized Brain Computer Interface System for Unspoken Speech Recognition: Role of Wernicke Area

Authors: Nassib Abdallah, Pierre Chauvet, Abd El Salam Hajjar, Bassam Daya

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose an optimized brain computer interface (BCI) system for unspoken speech recognition, based on the fact that the constructions of unspoken words rely strongly on the Wernicke area, situated in the temporal lobe. Our BCI system has four modules: (i) the EEG Acquisition module based on a non-invasive headset with 14 electrodes; (ii) the Preprocessing module to remove noise and artifacts, using the Common Average Reference method; (iii) the Features Extraction module, using Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT); (iv) the Classification module based on a one-hidden layer artificial neural network. The present study consists of comparing the recognition accuracy of 5 Arabic words, when using all the headset electrodes or only the 4 electrodes situated near the Wernicke area, as well as the selection effect of the subbands produced by the WPT module. After applying the articial neural network on the produced database, we obtain, on the test dataset, an accuracy of 83.4% with all the electrodes and all the subbands of 8 levels of the WPT decomposition. However, by using only the 4 electrodes near Wernicke Area and the 6 middle subbands of the WPT, we obtain a high reduction of the dataset size, equal to approximately 19% of the total dataset, with 67.5% of accuracy rate. This reduction appears particularly important to improve the design of a low cost and simple to use BCI, trained for several words.

Keywords: Brain-computer interface, speech recognition, electroencephalography EEG, Wernicke area, artificial neural network.

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608 Robot Control by ERPs of Brain Waves

Authors: K. T. Sun, Y. H. Tai, H. W. Yang, H. T. Lin

Abstract:

This paper presented the technique of robot control by event-related potentials (ERPs) of brain waves. Based on the proposed technique, severe physical disabilities can free browse outside world. A specific component of ERPs, N2P3, was found and used to control the movement of robot and the view of camera on the designed brain-computer interface (BCI). Users only required watching the stimuli of attended button on the BCI, the evoked potentials of brain waves of the target button, N2P3, had the greatest amplitude among all control buttons. An experimental scene had been constructed that the robot required walking to a specific position and move the view of camera to see the instruction of the mission, and then completed the task. Twelve volunteers participated in this experiment, and experimental results showed that the correct rate of BCI control achieved 80% and the average of execution time was 353 seconds for completing the mission. Four main contributions included in this research: (1) find an efficient component of ERPs, N2P3, for BCI control, (2) embed robot's viewpoint image into user interface for robot control, (3) design an experimental scene and conduct the experiment, and (4) evaluate the performance of the proposed system for assessing the practicability.

Keywords: Brain-computer interface (BCI), event-related potentials (ERPs), robot control, severe physical disabilities.

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607 A Brain Controlled Robotic Gait Trainer for Neurorehabilitation

Authors: Qazi Umer Jamil, Abubakr Siddique, Mubeen Ur Rehman, Nida Aziz, Mohsin I. Tiwana

Abstract:

This paper discusses a brain controlled robotic gait trainer for neurorehabilitation of Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) patients. Patients suffering from Spinal Cord Injuries (SCI) become unable to execute motion control of their lower proximities due to degeneration of spinal cord neurons. The presented approach can help SCI patients in neuro-rehabilitation training by directly translating patient motor imagery into walkers motion commands and thus bypassing spinal cord neurons completely. A non-invasive EEG based brain-computer interface is used for capturing patient neural activity. For signal processing and classification, an open source software (OpenVibe) is used. Classifiers categorize the patient motor imagery (MI) into a specific set of commands that are further translated into walker motion commands. The robotic walker also employs fall detection for ensuring safety of patient during gait training and can act as a support for SCI patients. The gait trainer is tested with subjects, and satisfactory results were achieved.

Keywords: Brain Computer Interface (BCI), gait trainer, Spinal Cord Injury (SCI), neurorehabilitation.

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606 Noninvasive Brain-Machine Interface to Control Both Mecha TE Robotic Hands Using Emotiv EEG Neuroheadset

Authors: Adrienne Kline, Jaydip Desai

Abstract:

Electroencephalogram (EEG) is a noninvasive technique that registers signals originating from the firing of neurons in the brain. The Emotiv EEG Neuroheadset is a consumer product comprised of 14 EEG channels and was used to record the reactions of the neurons within the brain to two forms of stimuli in 10 participants. These stimuli consisted of auditory and visual formats that provided directions of ‘right’ or ‘left.’ Participants were instructed to raise their right or left arm in accordance with the instruction given. A scenario in OpenViBE was generated to both stimulate the participants while recording their data. In OpenViBE, the Graz Motor BCI Stimulator algorithm was configured to govern the duration and number of visual stimuli. Utilizing EEGLAB under the cross platform MATLAB®, the electrodes most stimulated during the study were defined. Data outputs from EEGLAB were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics® Version 20. This aided in determining the electrodes to use in the development of a brain-machine interface (BMI) using real-time EEG signals from the Emotiv EEG Neuroheadset. Signal processing and feature extraction were accomplished via the Simulink® signal processing toolbox. An Arduino™ Duemilanove microcontroller was used to link the Emotiv EEG Neuroheadset and the right and left Mecha TE™ Hands.

Keywords: Brain-machine interface, EEGLAB, emotiv EEG neuroheadset, openViBE, simulink.

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605 Effects of Hidden Unit Sizes and Autoregressive Features in Mental Task Classification

Authors: Ramaswamy Palaniappan, Nai-Jen Huan

Abstract:

Classification of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals extracted during mental tasks is a technique that is actively pursued for Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) designs. In this paper, we compared the classification performances of univariateautoregressive (AR) and multivariate autoregressive (MAR) models for representing EEG signals that were extracted during different mental tasks. Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) neural network (NN) trained by the backpropagation (BP) algorithm was used to classify these features into the different categories representing the mental tasks. Classification performances were also compared across different mental task combinations and 2 sets of hidden units (HU): 2 to 10 HU in steps of 2 and 20 to 100 HU in steps of 20. Five different mental tasks from 4 subjects were used in the experimental study and combinations of 2 different mental tasks were studied for each subject. Three different feature extraction methods with 6th order were used to extract features from these EEG signals: AR coefficients computed with Burg-s algorithm (ARBG), AR coefficients computed with stepwise least square algorithm (ARLS) and MAR coefficients computed with stepwise least square algorithm. The best results were obtained with 20 to 100 HU using ARBG. It is concluded that i) it is important to choose the suitable mental tasks for different individuals for a successful BCI design, ii) higher HU are more suitable and iii) ARBG is the most suitable feature extraction method.

Keywords: Autoregressive, Brain-Computer Interface, Electroencephalogram, Neural Network.

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604 Classifier Combination Approach in Motion Imagery Signals Processing for Brain Computer Interface

Authors: Homayoon Zarshenas, Mahdi Bamdad, Hadi Grailu, Akbar A. Shakoori

Abstract:

In this study we focus on improvement performance of a cue based Motor Imagery Brain Computer Interface (BCI). For this purpose, data fusion approach is used on results of different classifiers to make the best decision. At first step Distinction Sensitive Learning Vector Quantization method is used as a feature selection method to determine most informative frequencies in recorded signals and its performance is evaluated by frequency search method. Then informative features are extracted by packet wavelet transform. In next step 5 different types of classification methods are applied. The methodologies are tested on BCI Competition II dataset III, the best obtained accuracy is 85% and the best kappa value is 0.8. At final step ordered weighted averaging (OWA) method is used to provide a proper aggregation classifiers outputs. Using OWA enhanced system accuracy to 95% and kappa value to 0.9. Applying OWA just uses 50 milliseconds for performing calculation.

Keywords: BCI, EEG, Classifier, Fuzzy operator, OWA.

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603 Motor Imaginary Signal Classification Using Adaptive Recursive Bandpass Filter and Adaptive Autoregressive Models for Brain Machine Interface Designs

Authors: Vickneswaran Jeyabalan, Andrews Samraj, Loo Chu Kiong

Abstract:

The noteworthy point in the advancement of Brain Machine Interface (BMI) research is the ability to accurately extract features of the brain signals and to classify them into targeted control action with the easiest procedures since the expected beneficiaries are of disabled. In this paper, a new feature extraction method using the combination of adaptive band pass filters and adaptive autoregressive (AAR) modelling is proposed and applied to the classification of right and left motor imagery signals extracted from the brain. The introduction of the adaptive bandpass filter improves the characterization process of the autocorrelation functions of the AAR models, as it enhances and strengthens the EEG signal, which is noisy and stochastic in nature. The experimental results on the Graz BCI data set have shown that by implementing the proposed feature extraction method, a LDA and SVM classifier outperforms other AAR approaches of the BCI 2003 competition in terms of the mutual information, the competition criterion, or misclassification rate.

Keywords: Adaptive autoregressive, adaptive bandpass filter, brain machine Interface, EEG, motor imaginary.

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602 Tablet Computer as a User Interface: Intelligent Solutions for Multifunctional Hardcopy Devices

Authors: Jaakko Parviainen, Keijo Haataja, Antti Väänänen, Pekka Toivanen

Abstract:

Tablet computers and Multifunctional Hardcopy Devices (MHDs) are common devices in daily life. Though, many scientific studies have not been published. The tablet computers are straightforward to use whereas the MHDs are comparatively difficult to use. Thus, to assist different levels of users, we propose combining these two devices to achieve straightforward intelligent user interface (UI) and versatile What You See Is What You Get (WYSIWYG) document management and production. Our approach to this issue is to design an intelligent user dependent UI for a MHD applying a tablet computer. Furthermore, we propose hardware interconnection and versatile intelligent software between these two devices. In this study, we first provide a state-of-the-art survey on MHDs and tablet computers, and their interconnections. Secondly we provide a comparative UI survey on two state-of-the-art MHDs with a proposal of a novel UI for the MHDs using Jakob Nielsen-s Ten Usability Heuristics Evaluation.

Keywords: Computational intelligence, hardcopy device, tablet computer, user interface.

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601 Real Time Acquisition and Analysis of Neural Response for Rehabilitative Control

Authors: Dipali Bansal, Rashima Mahajan, Shweta Singh, Dheeraj Rathee, Sujit Roy

Abstract:

Non-invasive Brain Computer Interface like Electroencephalography (EEG) which directly taps neurological signals, is being widely explored these days to connect paralytic patients/elderly with the external environment. However, in India the research is confined to laboratory settings and is not reaching the mass for rehabilitation purposes. An attempt has been made in this paper to analyze real time acquired EEG signal using cost effective and portable headset unit EMOTIV. Signal processing of real time acquired EEG is done using EEGLAB in MATLAB and EDF Browser application software platforms. Independent Component Analysis algorithm of EEGLAB is explored to identify deliberate eye blink in the attained neural signal. Time Frequency transforms and Data statistics obtained using EEGLAB along with component activation results of EDF browser clearly indicate voluntary eye blink in AF3 channel. The spectral analysis indicates dominant frequency component at 1.536000Hz representing the delta wave component of EEG during voluntary eye blink action. An algorithm is further designed to generate an active high signal based on thoughtful eye blink that can be used for plethora of control applications for rehabilitation.

Keywords: Brain Computer Interface, EDF Browser, EEG, EEGLab, EMOTIV, Real time Acquisition

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600 Increased Signal to Noise Ratio in P300 Potentials by the Method of Coherent Self-Averaging in BCI Systems

Authors: Ricardo Espinosa

Abstract:

The coherent Self-Averaging (CSA), is a new method proposed in this work; applied to simulated signals evoked potentials related to events (ERP) to find the wave P300, useful systems in the brain computer interface (BCI). The CSA method cleans signal in the time domain of white noise through of successive averaging of a single signal. The method is compared with the traditional method, coherent averaging or synchronized (CA), showing optimal results in the improvement of the signal to noise ratio (SNR). The method of CSA is easy to implement, robust and applicable to any physiological time series contaminated with white noise

Keywords: Evoked potentials, wave P300, Coherent Self-averaging, brain - computer interface (BCI).

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599 A Real Time Set Up for Retrieval of Emotional States from Human Neural Responses

Authors: Rashima Mahajan, Dipali Bansal, Shweta Singh

Abstract:

Real time non-invasive Brain Computer Interfaces have a significant progressive role in restoring or maintaining a quality life for medically challenged people. This manuscript provides a comprehensive review of emerging research in the field of cognitive/affective computing in context of human neural responses. The perspectives of different emotion assessment modalities like face expressions, speech, text, gestures, and human physiological responses have also been discussed. Focus has been paid to explore the ability of EEG (Electroencephalogram) signals to portray thoughts, feelings, and unspoken words. An automated workflow-based protocol to design an EEG-based real time Brain Computer Interface system for analysis and classification of human emotions elicited by external audio/visual stimuli has been proposed. The front end hardware includes a cost effective and portable Emotiv EEG Neuroheadset unit, a personal computer and a set of external stimulators. Primary signal analysis and processing of real time acquired EEG shall be performed using MATLAB based advanced brain mapping toolbox EEGLab/BCILab. This shall be followed by the development of MATLAB based self-defined algorithm to capture and characterize temporal and spectral variations in EEG under emotional stimulations. The extracted hybrid feature set shall be used to classify emotional states using artificial intelligence tools like Artificial Neural Network. The final system would result in an inexpensive, portable and more intuitive Brain Computer Interface in real time scenario to control prosthetic devices by translating different brain states into operative control signals.

Keywords: Brain Computer Interface (BCI), Electroencephalogram (EEG), EEGLab, BCILab, Emotiv, Emotions, Interval features, Spectral features, Artificial Neural Network, Control applications.

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598 Computer Aided Diagnostic System for Detection and Classification of a Brain Tumor through MRI Using Level Set Based Segmentation Technique and ANN Classifier

Authors: Atanu K Samanta, Asim Ali Khan

Abstract:

Due to the acquisition of huge amounts of brain tumor magnetic resonance images (MRI) in clinics, it is very difficult for radiologists to manually interpret and segment these images within a reasonable span of time. Computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems can enhance the diagnostic capabilities of radiologists and reduce the time required for accurate diagnosis. An intelligent computer-aided technique for automatic detection of a brain tumor through MRI is presented in this paper. The technique uses the following computational methods; the Level Set for segmentation of a brain tumor from other brain parts, extraction of features from this segmented tumor portion using gray level co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM), and the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to classify brain tumor images according to their respective types. The entire work is carried out on 50 images having five types of brain tumor. The overall classification accuracy using this method is found to be 98% which is significantly good.

Keywords: Artificial neural network, ANN, brain tumor, computer-aided diagnostic, CAD system, gray-level co-occurrence matrix, GLCM, level set method, tumor segmentation.

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597 Robot Navigation and Localization Based on the Rat’s Brain Signals

Authors: Endri Rama, Genci Capi, Shigenori Kawahara

Abstract:

The mobile robot ability to navigate autonomously in its environment is very important. Even though the advances in technology, robot self-localization and goal directed navigation in complex environments are still challenging tasks. In this article, we propose a novel method for robot navigation based on rat’s brain signals (Local Field Potentials). It has been well known that rats accurately and rapidly navigate in a complex space by localizing themselves in reference to the surrounding environmental cues. As the first step to incorporate the rat’s navigation strategy into the robot control, we analyzed the rats’ strategies while it navigates in a multiple Y-maze, and recorded Local Field Potentials (LFPs) simultaneously from three brain regions. Next, we processed the LFPs, and the extracted features were used as an input in the artificial neural network to predict the rat’s next location, especially in the decision-making moment, in Y-junctions. We developed an algorithm by which the robot learned to imitate the rat’s decision-making by mapping the rat’s brain signals into its own actions. Finally, the robot learned to integrate the internal states as well as external sensors in order to localize and navigate in the complex environment.

Keywords: Brain machine interface, decision-making, local field potentials, mobile robot, navigation, neural network, rat, signal processing.

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596 Motor Imagery Signal Classification for a Four State Brain Machine Interface

Authors: Hema C. R., Paulraj M. P., S. Yaacob, A. H. Adom, R. Nagarajan

Abstract:

Motor imagery classification provides an important basis for designing Brain Machine Interfaces [BMI]. A BMI captures and decodes brain EEG signals and transforms human thought into actions. The ability of an individual to control his EEG through imaginary mental tasks enables him to control devices through the BMI. This paper presents a method to design a four state BMI using EEG signals recorded from the C3 and C4 locations. Principle features extracted through principle component analysis of the segmented EEG are analyzed using two novel classification algorithms using Elman recurrent neural network and functional link neural network. Performance of both classifiers is evaluated using a particle swarm optimization training algorithm; results are also compared with the conventional back propagation training algorithm. EEG motor imagery recorded from two subjects is used in the offline analysis. From overall classification performance it is observed that the BP algorithm has higher average classification of 93.5%, while the PSO algorithm has better training time and maximum classification. The proposed methods promises to provide a useful alternative general procedure for motor imagery classification

Keywords: Motor Imagery, Brain Machine Interfaces, Neural Networks, Particle Swarm Optimization, EEG signal processing.

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595 Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Network Classifier with Binary Particle Swarm Optimization Based Feature Selection for Brain-Computer Interfaces

Authors: K. Akilandeswari, G. M. Nasira

Abstract:

Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) measure brain signals activity, intentionally and unintentionally induced by users, and provides a communication channel without depending on the brain’s normal peripheral nerves and muscles output pathway. Feature Selection (FS) is a global optimization machine learning problem that reduces features, removes irrelevant and noisy data resulting in acceptable recognition accuracy. It is a vital step affecting pattern recognition system performance. This study presents a new Binary Particle Swarm Optimization (BPSO) based feature selection algorithm. Multi-layer Perceptron Neural Network (MLPNN) classifier with backpropagation training algorithm and Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm classify selected features.

Keywords: Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI), Feature Selection (FS), Walsh–Hadamard Transform (WHT), Binary Particle Swarm Optimization (BPSO), Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP), Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm.

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594 Functional Near Infrared Spectroscope for Cognition Brain Tasks by Wavelets Analysis and Neural Networks

Authors: Truong Quang Dang Khoa, Masahiro Nakagawa

Abstract:

Brain Computer Interface (BCI) has been recently increased in research. Functional Near Infrared Spectroscope (fNIRs) is one the latest technologies which utilize light in the near-infrared range to determine brain activities. Because near infrared technology allows design of safe, portable, wearable, non-invasive and wireless qualities monitoring systems, fNIRs monitoring of brain hemodynamics can be value in helping to understand brain tasks. In this paper, we present results of fNIRs signal analysis indicating that there exist distinct patterns of hemodynamic responses which recognize brain tasks toward developing a BCI. We applied two different mathematics tools separately, Wavelets analysis for preprocessing as signal filters and feature extractions and Neural networks for cognition brain tasks as a classification module. We also discuss and compare with other methods while our proposals perform better with an average accuracy of 99.9% for classification.

Keywords: functional near infrared spectroscope (fNIRs), braincomputer interface (BCI), wavelets, neural networks, brain activity, neuroimaging.

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593 64 bit Computer Architectures for Space Applications – A study

Authors: Niveditha Domse, Kris Kumar, K. N. Balasubramanya Murthy

Abstract:

The more recent satellite projects/programs makes extensive usage of real – time embedded systems. 16 bit processors which meet the Mil-Std-1750 standard architecture have been used in on-board systems. Most of the Space Applications have been written in ADA. From a futuristic point of view, 32 bit/ 64 bit processors are needed in the area of spacecraft computing and therefore an effort is desirable in the study and survey of 64 bit architectures for space applications. This will also result in significant technology development in terms of VLSI and software tools for ADA (as the legacy code is in ADA). There are several basic requirements for a special processor for this purpose. They include Radiation Hardened (RadHard) devices, very low power dissipation, compatibility with existing operational systems, scalable architectures for higher computational needs, reliability, higher memory and I/O bandwidth, predictability, realtime operating system and manufacturability of such processors. Further on, these may include selection of FPGA devices, selection of EDA tool chains, design flow, partitioning of the design, pin count, performance evaluation, timing analysis etc. This project deals with a brief study of 32 and 64 bit processors readily available in the market and designing/ fabricating a 64 bit RISC processor named RISC MicroProcessor with added functionalities of an extended double precision floating point unit and a 32 bit signal processing unit acting as co-processors. In this paper, we emphasize the ease and importance of using Open Core (OpenSparc T1 Verilog RTL) and Open “Source" EDA tools such as Icarus to develop FPGA based prototypes quickly. Commercial tools such as Xilinx ISE for Synthesis are also used when appropriate.

Keywords: RISC MicroProcessor, RPC – RISC Processor Core, PBX – Processor to Block Interface part of the Interconnection Network, BPX – Block to Processor Interface part of the Interconnection Network, FPU – Floating Point Unit, SPU – Signal Processing Unit, WB – Wishbone Interface, CTU – Clock and Test Unit

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592 A Computer Model of Language Acquisition – Syllable Learning – Based on Hebbian Cell Assemblies and Reinforcement Learning

Authors: Sepideh Fazeli, Fariba Bahrami

Abstract:

Investigating language acquisition is one of the most challenging problems in the area of studying language. Syllable learning as a level of language acquisition has a considerable significance since it plays an important role in language acquisition. Because of impossibility of studying language acquisition directly with children, especially in its developmental phases, computer models will be useful in examining language acquisition. In this paper a computer model of early language learning for syllable learning is proposed. It is guided by a conceptual model of syllable learning which is named Directions Into Velocities of Articulators model (DIVA). The computer model uses simple associational and reinforcement learning rules within neural network architecture which are inspired by neuroscience. Our simulation results verify the ability of the proposed computer model in producing phonemes during babbling and early speech. Also, it provides a framework for examining the neural basis of language learning and communication disorders.

Keywords: Brain modeling, computer models, language acquisition, reinforcement learning.

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591 From Modeling of Data Structures towards Automatic Programs Generating

Authors: Valentin P. Velikov

Abstract:

Automatic program generation saves time, human resources, and allows receiving syntactically clear and logically correct modules. The 4-th generation programming languages are related to drawing the data and the processes of the subject area, as well as, to obtain a frame of the respective information system. The application can be separated in interface and business logic. That means, for an interactive generation of the needed system to be used an already existing toolkit or to be created a new one.

Keywords: Computer science, graphical user interface, user dialog interface, dialog frames, data modeling, subject area modeling.

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590 Vision Based Hand Gesture Recognition

Authors: Pragati Garg, Naveen Aggarwal, Sanjeev Sofat

Abstract:

With the development of ubiquitous computing, current user interaction approaches with keyboard, mouse and pen are not sufficient. Due to the limitation of these devices the useable command set is also limited. Direct use of hands as an input device is an attractive method for providing natural Human Computer Interaction which has evolved from text-based interfaces through 2D graphical-based interfaces, multimedia-supported interfaces, to fully fledged multi-participant Virtual Environment (VE) systems. Imagine the human-computer interaction of the future: A 3Dapplication where you can move and rotate objects simply by moving and rotating your hand - all without touching any input device. In this paper a review of vision based hand gesture recognition is presented. The existing approaches are categorized into 3D model based approaches and appearance based approaches, highlighting their advantages and shortcomings and identifying the open issues.

Keywords: Computer Vision, Hand Gesture, Hand Posture, Human Computer Interface.

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589 Riemannian Manifolds for Brain Extraction on Multi-modal Resonance Magnetic Images

Authors: Mohamed Gouskir, Belaid Bouikhalene, Hicham Aissaoui, Benachir Elhadadi

Abstract:

In this paper, we present an application of Riemannian geometry for processing non-Euclidean image data. We consider the image as residing in a Riemannian manifold, for developing a new method to brain edge detection and brain extraction. Automating this process is a challenge due to the high diversity in appearance brain tissue, among different patients and sequences. The main contribution, in this paper, is the use of an edge-based anisotropic diffusion tensor for the segmentation task by integrating both image edge geometry and Riemannian manifold (geodesic, metric tensor) to regularize the convergence contour and extract complex anatomical structures. We check the accuracy of the segmentation results on simulated brain MRI scans of single T1-weighted, T2-weighted and Proton Density sequences. We validate our approach using two different databases: BrainWeb database, and MRI Multiple sclerosis Database (MRI MS DB). We have compared, qualitatively and quantitatively, our approach with the well-known brain extraction algorithms. We show that using a Riemannian manifolds to medical image analysis improves the efficient results to brain extraction, in real time, outperforming the results of the standard techniques.

Keywords: Riemannian manifolds, Riemannian Tensor, Brain Segmentation, Non-Euclidean data, Brain Extraction.

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588 Issues in the User Interface Design of a Content Rich Vocational Training Application for Digitally Illiterate Users

Authors: Jamie Otelsberg, Nagarajan Akshay, Rao R. Bhavani

Abstract:

This paper discusses our preliminary experiences in the design of a user interface of a computerized content-rich vocational training courseware meant for users with little or no computer experience. In targeting a growing population with limited access to skills training of any sort, we faced numerous challenges, including language and cultural differences, resource limits, gender boundaries and, in many cases, the simple lack of trainee motivation. With the size of the unskilled population increasing much more rapidly than the numbers of sufficiently skilled teachers, there is little choice but to develop teaching techniques that will take advantage of emerging computer-based training technologies. However, in striving to serve populations with minimal computer literacy, one must carefully design the user interface to accommodate their cultural, social, educational, motivational and other differences. Our work, which uses computer based and haptic simulation technologies to deliver training to these populations, has provided some useful insights on potential user interface design approaches.

Keywords: User interface design, digitally illiterate, vocational training, navigation issues, computer human interaction, human factors.

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587 Audio User Interface for Visually Impaired Computer Users: in a Two Dimensional Audio Environment

Authors: Ravihansa Rajapakse, Malshika Dias, Kanishka Weerasekara, Anuja Dharmaratne, Prasad Wimalaratne

Abstract:

In this paper we discuss a set of guidelines which could be adapted when designing an audio user interface for the visually impaired. It is based on an audio environment that is focused on audio positioning. Unlike current applications which only interpret Graphical User Interface (GUI) for the visually impaired, this particular audio environment bypasses GUI to provide a direct auditory output. It presents the capability of two dimensional (2D) navigation on audio interfaces. This paper highlights the significance of a 2D audio environment with spatial information in the context of the visually impaired. A thorough usability study has been conducted to prove the applicability of proposed design guidelines for these auditory interfaces. While proving these guidelines, previously unearthed design aspects have been revealed in this study.

Keywords: Human Computer Interaction, Audio User Interfaces, 2D Audio Environment, Visually Impaired Users

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586 Dynamic Behavior of Brain Tissue under Transient Loading

Authors: Y. J. Zhou, G. Lu

Abstract:

In this paper, an analytical study is made for the dynamic behavior of human brain tissue under transient loading. In this analytical model the Mooney-Rivlin constitutive law is coupled with visco-elastic constitutive equations to take into account both the nonlinear and time-dependent mechanical behavior of brain tissue. Five ordinary differential equations representing the relationships of five main parameters (radial stress, circumferential stress, radial strain, circumferential strain, and particle velocity) are obtained by using the characteristic method to transform five partial differential equations (two continuity equations, one motion equation, and two constitutive equations). Analytical expressions of the attenuation properties for spherical wave in brain tissue are analytically derived. Numerical results are obtained based on the five ordinary differential equations. The mechanical responses (particle velocity and stress) of brain are compared at different radii including 5, 6, 10, 15 and 25 mm under four different input conditions. The results illustrate that loading curves types of the particle velocity significantly influences the stress in brain tissue. The understanding of the influence by the input loading cures can be used to reduce the potentially injury to brain under head impact by designing protective structures to control the loading curves types.

Keywords: Analytical method, mechanical responses, spherical wave propagation, traumatic brain injury.

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585 Viscoelastic Modeling of Brain MRE Data Using FE Method

Authors: H. Ajabi Naeeni, M. Haghpanahi

Abstract:

Dynamic shear test on simulated phantom can be used to validate magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) measurements. Phantom gel has been usually utilized for the cell culture of cartilage and soft tissue and also been used for mechanical property characterization using imaging systems. The viscoelastic property of the phantom would be important for dynamic experiments and analyses. In this study, An axisymmetric FE model is presented for determining the dynamic shear behaviour of brain simulated phantom using ABAQUS. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of excitation frequencies and boundary conditions on shear modulus and shear viscosity in viscoelastic media.

Keywords: Viscoelastic, MR Elastography, Finite Element, Brain.

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584 Can EEG Test Helps in Identifying Brain Tumor?

Authors: M. Sharanreddy, P. K. Kulkarni

Abstract:

Brain tumor is inherently serious and life-threatening disease. Brain tumor builds the intracranial pressure in the brain, by shifting the brain or pushing against the skull, and also damaging nerves and healthy brain tissues. This intracranial pressure affects and interferes with normal brain functionality, which results in generation of abnormal electrical activities from brain. With recent development in the medical engineering and instruments, EEG instruments are able to record the brain electric activities with high accuracy, which establishes EEG as a primary tool for diagnosing the brain abnormalities. Research scholars and general physicians, often face difficulty in understanding EEG patterns. This paper presents the EEG patterns associated with brain tumor by combing medicine theory and neurologist experience. Paper also explains the pros-cons of the EEG based brain tumor identification.

Keywords: Brain tumor, Electroencephalogram (EEG).

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